Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, antiquarian and Tory politician. He held political office under Sir Robert Peel in the 1830s and 1840s but is best remembered for his contributions to cultural causes and for his historical writings.(30 January 1805 – 24 December 1875), styled Viscount Mahon between 1816 and 1855, was an English
The Earl Stanhope
Philip Henry Stanhope
30 January 1805
|Died||24 December 1875 (aged 70)|
|Other names||Viscount Mahon (1816–1855)|
|Alma mater||Christ Church, Oxford|
|Known for||Contributions to cultural causes and for his historical writings|
(m. 1834; died 1873)
|Children||5; including Arthur, Edward and Philip|
|Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs|
17 December 1834 – 8 April 1835
|Prime Minister||Sir Robert Peel|
|Preceded by||Viscount Fordwich|
|Succeeded by||William Fox-Strangways|
Background and educationEdit
Born at Walmer, Kent, Stanhope was the son of Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl Stanhope, and the Hon. Catherine Stanhope, daughter of Robert Smith, 1st Baron Carrington. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, graduating in 1827.
Stanhope entered Parliament in 1830, representing the rotten borough of Wootton Basset in Wiltshire until the seat was disenfranchised in 1832. He was then re-elected to Parliament representing Hertford. He served under Sir Robert Peel as Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs between December 1834 and April 1835, and Secretary to the Board of Control in 1845, but though he remained in the House of Commons till 1852, he made no special mark in politics.
Contributions to cultureEdit
Stanhope's chief achievements were in the fields of literature and antiquities. In 1842 took a prominent part in passing the Literary Copyright Act 1842. From the House of Lords he was mainly responsible for proposing and organising the foundation of the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1856. A sculpted bust of Stanhope holds the central place over the entrance of the building, flanked by fellow historians and supporters Thomas Carlyle and Lord Macaulay. It was mainly due to him that in 1869 the Historical Manuscripts Commission was started. As president of the Society of Antiquaries (from 1846 onwards), he called attention in England to the need of supporting the excavations at Troy. He was also president of the Royal Literary Fund from 1863 until his death, a trustee of the British Museum and founded the Stanhope essay prize at Oxford in 1855. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1827.
Of Lord Stanhope's own works, the most important were:
- Life of Belisarius (1829);
- History of the War of the Succession in Spain (1832), largely based on the James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope's papers;
- History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, 1713–1783 (7 vols.) (1836–1853);
- Life of the Right Honourable William Pitt (4 vols.) (1861–1862);
- The Reign of Queen Anne until the Peace of Utrecht, 1701–1713 (1870, reprinted 1908);
- Notes of Conversation with the Duke of Wellington, 1831–1851 (1886, reprinted 1998)
A further little work was The Forty-Five a narrative of the Jacobite rising of 1745 extracted from his "History of England." A new edition of this work was published in London by John Murray, Albemarle St., in 1869, which includes some letters of Prince Charles Edward Stuart.
The two histories and the Life of William Pitt were considered of great importance on account of Stanhope's unique access to manuscript authorities on Pitt the Elder's life. His records of the Duke of Wellington's remarks during his frequent visits were also considered of great use to the historian as a substitute for Wellington's never-written memoirs. They were secretly transcribed because of Wellington's famous antagonism to the "truth" of recollected history. He also edited the letters that his distant cousin, Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield, had written to his natural son, Philip. They were published between 1845 and 1853.
- Arthur Stanhope, 6th Earl Stanhope (1838–1905)
- Hon. Edward Stanhope (1840–1893), a well-known Conservative politician
- Lady Mary Catharine Stanhope (3 February 1844 – 30 June 1876), married Frederick Lygon, 6th Earl Beauchamp and had issue
- Hon. Henry Augustus Stanhope (4 December 1845 – 17 June 1933), married Hon. Mildred Vernon (died 1915) and had issue
- Philip Stanhope, 1st Baron Weardale (1847–1923)
- Burke, Bernard (1869), A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, London: Harrison, p. 636
- Lundy, Darryl (13 July 2011), Philip James Stanhope, 1st Baron and last Weardale of Stanhope, The Peerage, p. 22434 § 224331
- Lundy, Darryl (19 June 2015), Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl Stanhope, The Peerage, p. 1407 § 14069
- Pine, L. G. (1972), The New Extinct Peerage 1884–1971: Containing Extinct, Abeyant, Dormant and Suspended Peerages With Genealogies and Arms, London: Heraldry Today, p. 67
- Stanhope, Philip Henry (1829), The life of Belisarius, London: John Murray
- Stanhope, Philip Henry (1836), History of the War of the Succession in Spain, London: John Murray
- Stanhope, Philip Henry (1853), History of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, 1713–1783, vol. 1 (7 volumes ed.), London: John Murray
- Stanhope, Philip Henry (1861), Life of the Right Honourable William Pitt, vol. 4 (4 volumes ed.), London: John Murray
- Stanhope, Philip Henry (1908), The reign of Queen Anne until the peace of Utrecht (1701–1713) (5th edition reprint ed.), London: John Murray
- Stanhope, Philip Henry (2011), Notes of Conversations with the Duke of Wellington 1831–1851, Pickle Partners Publishing, ISBN 978-1-908692-35-1
- royalsociety.org Mahon; Philip Henry (1805–1875); 5th Earl Stanhope[dead link]
- Lundy 2015, p. 1407 § 14069 cites Pine 1972, p. 67
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" (part 5)
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "H" (part 3)
- Chisholm 1911, pp. 774–775.
- "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
- History of the National Portrait Gallery
- Stanhope 1829.
- Stanhope 1836.
- Stanhope 1853.
- Stanhope 1861.
- Stanhope 1908.
- Stanhope 2011.
- Burke 1869, p. 636.
- "Review of History of the War of the Succession in Spain by Lord Stanhope". The Quarterly Review: 519–537. July 1832.
- Pollard, Albert Frederick (1898). Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. 54. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 37–40. . In
- "Stanhope, Philip Henry, 5th Earl Stanhope", A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature, 1910 – via Wikisource
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Philip Stanhope, Viscount Mahon