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Paths of Glory is a 1957 American anti-war film[2] by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb.[3] Set during World War I, the film stars Kirk Douglas as Colonel Dax, the commanding officer of French soldiers who refuse to continue a suicidal attack, after which Dax attempts to defend them against a charge of cowardice in a court-martial.

Paths of Glory
Theatrical release poster
Directed byStanley Kubrick
Produced byJames B. Harris
Screenplay by
Based onPaths of Glory
by Humphrey Cobb
Music byGerald Fried
CinematographyGeorg Krause
Edited byEva Kroll
Distributed byUnited Artists
Release date
  • December 25, 1957 (1957-12-25)
Running time
88 minutes
CountryUnited States



The film begins with a voiceover describing the trench warfare situation of World War I up to 1916. In a château, General Georges Broulard, a member of the French General Staff, asks his subordinate, the ambitious General Mireau, to send his division on a suicide mission to take a well-defended German position called the "Anthill." Mireau initially refuses, citing the impossibility of success, but when Broulard mentions a potential promotion, Mireau quickly convinces himself the attack will succeed.

Mireau proceeds to walk through the trenches, asking several soldiers, "Ready to kill more Germans?" He throws a private out of the regiment for showing signs of shell shock. Mireau leaves the detailed planning of the attack to Colonel Dax of the 701st regiment, despite Dax's protests that the only result of the attack will be to weaken the French Army with heavy losses for no benefit.

Prior to the attack, a drunken lieutenant named Roget leading a night-time scouting mission sends one of his two men ahead. Overcome by fear while waiting for the man's return, Roget lobs a grenade and retreats. Corporal Paris, the other soldier on the mission, finds the body of the scout, who has been killed by the grenade, and confronts Roget. Roget denies any wrongdoing and falsifies his report to Colonel Dax.

The next morning, the attack on the Anthill is a failure. Dax leads the first wave of soldiers over the top into no man's land under heavy fire. None of the men reach the German trenches, and B Company refuse to leave their own trench after sustaining heavy casualties. Mireau, enraged, orders his artillery to open fire on them to force them onto the battlefield. The artillery commander refuses to fire on his own men without written confirmation of the order. Meanwhile, Dax returns to the trenches, and tries to rally B Company to join the battle, but as he climbs out of the trench, the body of a dead French soldier knocks him down.

To deflect blame for the attack's failure, Mireau decides to court martial one hundred of the soldiers for cowardice. Broulard convinces him to reduce the number to three, one from each company. Corporal Paris is chosen because his commanding officer, Roget, wishes to keep him from testifying about his actions in the scouting mission. Private Ferol is picked by his commanding officer because he is a "social undesirable." The last man, Private Arnaud, is chosen randomly by lot, despite having been cited for bravery twice previously.

Dax, who was a criminal defense lawyer in civilian life, volunteers to defend the men at their court-martial. The trial however, is a farce. There is no formal written indictment, a court stenographer is not present, and the court refuses to admit evidence that would support acquittal. In his closing statement, Dax denounces the proceedings: "Gentlemen of the court, to find these men guilty would be a crime to haunt each of you till the day you die." Nonetheless, the three men are sentenced to death.

The night before the scheduled execution, Dax confronts Broulard at a ball with sworn statements by witnesses attesting to Mireau's order to shell his own trenches, in an attempt to blackmail the General Staff into sparing the three men. Broulard takes the statements but brusquely dismisses Dax.

The next morning, the three men are taken out to be shot by firing squad. Dax, suspecting Roget for his nomination of Paris, forces Roget to lead the executions. While a sobbing Ferol is blindfolded, Paris refuses Roget's offer of a blindfold and reacts ambiguously to Roget's meek apology. Arnaud, meanwhile, was so badly injured after starting a fight in prison that he must be carried out in a stretcher and tied to the post. All three men are then executed.

Following the executions, Broulard breakfasts with the gloating Mireau. Broulard reveals he has invited Dax to attend and tells Mireau that he will be investigated for the order to fire on his own men. Mireau leaves angrily, protesting that he has been made a scapegoat. Broulard then blithely offers Mireau's command to Dax, assuming that Dax's attempts to stop the executions were a ploy to gain Mireau's job. Discovering that Dax was in fact sincere, Broulard angrily rebukes him for his idealism while a disgusted Dax calls Broulard a "degenerate, sadistic old man."

After the execution, some of Dax's soldiers are raucously partying at an inn. Their mood becomes more spiritual as they listen to a captive German girl sing a sentimental folk song. They are unaware that orders have come for them to return to the front. Dax lets the men enjoy a few more minutes while his face hardens as he returns to his quarters.


  • Kirk Douglas as Colonel Dax, commanding officer, 701st Infantry Regiment
  • Ralph Meeker as Corporal Philippe Paris, 701st Infantry Regiment
  • Adolphe Menjou as Major General Georges Broulard, corps commander
  • George Macready as Brigadier General Paul Mireau, divisional commander
  • Wayne Morris as Lieutenant Roget, company commander, 701st Infantry Regiment
  • Richard Anderson as Major Saint-Auban, Mireau's aide de camp
  • Joe Turkel as Private Pierre Arnaud, 701st Infantry Regiment (credited as Joseph Turkel)
  • Christiane Kubrick as German Singer (credited as Susanne Christian)
  • Jerry Hausner as Café Proprietor
  • Peter Capell as President of the Court Martial (and narrator)
  • Emile Meyer as Father Duprée
  • Bert Freed as Staff Sergeant Boulanger, 701st Infantry Regiment
  • Kem Dibbs as Private Lejeune, 701st Infantry Regiment
  • Timothy Carey as Private Maurice Ferol, 701st Infantry Regiment
  • Fred Bell as Shell-Shocked Soldier
  • John Stein as Captain Rousseau, artillery battery commander
  • Harold Benedict as Captain Nichols, artillery liaison officer
  • James B. Harris as Soldier in Attack (uncredited)



The title of Cobb's novel came from the ninth stanza of the Thomas Gray 1751 poem "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard".[4]

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of pow'r,
And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,
Awaits alike th'inevitable hour.
The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

The book was a minor success when published in 1935, retelling the true-life affair of four French soldiers who were executed to set an example to the rest of the troops. The novel was adapted to the stage the same year by World War I veteran Sidney Howard.[5] The play was a flop on Broadway because of its harsh anti-war scenes that alienated the audience. Nonetheless, Howard continued to believe in the relevance of the subject matter and thought it should be made into a film, writing, "It seems to me that our motion picture industry must feel something of a sacred obligation to make the picture."[5] Fulfilling Howard's "sacred obligation", Stanley Kubrick decided to adapt it to the screen after he remembered reading the book when he was younger. Kubrick and his partners purchased the film rights from Cobb's widow for $10,000. [6]

This stanza reflects Kubrick’s feelings about war as well, it is shown in the narrative of the film - a long battle for something with such an unimportant name as the ‘Ant Hill’. Some of Kubrick’s unrealised projects contained themes of war as well, his interest in it most likely stemming from his obsession with history. Kubrick once told a New York Times journalist: “Man isn’t a noble savage, he’s an ignoble savage. He is irrational, brutal, weak, silly, unable to be objective about anything where his own interests are involved - that about sums it up. I’m interested in the brutal and violent nature of man because it’s a true picture of him. And any attempt to create social institutions on a false view of the nature of man is probably doomed to failure.”[7] Kubrick’s filmography shares many visual elements but thematically speaking, the most frequent subject - even more than sexuality - is that of war. Dr Strangelove (1964) presents war as a farce, it’s absurdity and pointlessness shown through comedy. Full Metal Jacket (1987) gets into the mind of the soldier and tells the audience that they may not like what they hear. Spartacus (1960) certainly shows the horrors of war, much like Barry Lyndon (1975) and even in A Clockwork Orange (1971) with many references to WW2 and other conflicts.

Paths of Glory is based loosely on the true story of four French soldiers, executed in 1915 during World War I under General Géraud Réveilhac for failure to follow orders. The soldiers were exonerated in 1934.[8] The novel is about the French execution of innocent men to strengthen others' resolve to fight. The French Army did carry out military executions for cowardice, as did most of the other major participants, excluding the United States of America and Australia.[9]The United States sentenced 24 soldiers to death for cowardice, but the sentences were never carried out.[10] However, a significant point in the film is the practice of selecting individuals at random and executing them as a punishment for the sins of the whole group. This is similar to the Roman practice of decimation, which was rarely used by the French Army in World War I. A little known exception is the French decimation (the shooting of every tenth person in a unit) of the 10e Compagnie of 8 Battalion of the Régiment Mixte de Tirailleurs Algériens. During the retreat, at the beginning of the war, these French-African soldiers refused an order to attack. They were shot on December 15, 1914, near Zillebeke in Flanders.[10] Paths of Glory takes place in France, but Kubrick’s feelings on the topic stems more from his American upbringing. Patriotism in the military is fetishised in America and critiquing this aspect of American culture is seen as a 'taboo'. When General Mireau says “show me a patriot, and I’ll show you an honest man”, Colonel Dax remarks that Samuel Johnson once said: “patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel”. The context in which Johnson said this has been lost to time.[11][12]


Kubrick once said of his decision to make a war film: "One of the attractions of a war or crime story is that it provides an almost unique opportunity to contrast an individual or our contemporary society with a solid framework of accepted value, which the audience becomes fully aware of, and which can be used as a counterpoint to a human, individual, emotional situation. Further, war acts as a kind of hothouse for forced, quick breeding of attitudes and feelings. Attitudes crystallise and come out into the open. Conflict is natural, when it would in a less critical situation have to be introduced almost as a contrivance, and would thus appear forced or, even worse, false."[13]

Although Kubrick's previous film The Killing had failed at the box office, it had managed to land on several critical Top-Ten lists for the year. Dore Schary, then head of production at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, liked the film and hired Kubrick and Harris to develop film stories from MGM's slush pile of scripts and purchased novels. Finding nothing they liked, Kubrick remembered reading Cobb's book at the age of fourteen and the 'great impact' it had upon him and suggested it as their next project.[14] Schary strongly doubted the commercial success of the story, which had already been turned down by every other major studio.

After Schary was fired by MGM in a major shake-up, Kubrick and Harris managed to interest Kirk Douglas in a script version that Kubrick had done with Calder Willingham. After reading the script, Kirk Douglas was impressed and managed to get an advance for a $1 million budget from United Artists to help produce the film.[15]  Of the roughly $1 million budget, more than a third was allocated to Kirk Douglas' salary.[16]  Prior to the involvement of Douglas and his Bryna Production Company, no studio had showed interest in the seemingly noncommercial subject matter and filming in black and white.[17]  MGM rejected the idea of the film based on fears that the film would be unfavourable to European distributors and audiences.[18] United Artists agreed to back it with Douglas as the star.[19]


Kubrick eventually hired Calder Willingham to work on the script of Paths of Glory (1957), of which Jim Thompson had written earlier drafts. The specific contributions by Kubrick, Thompson, and Willingham to the final script were disputed, and the matter went to arbitration with the Writers' Guild.[20][21][22] Willingham claimed that Thompson had minimal involvement in the final script of the film, claiming responsibility for 99 percent of Paths of Glory for himself and that Thompson had not written any of the dialogue. When Thompson's draft screenplay was compared to the final film, it was concluded that Thompson wrote seven scenes, including the reconnaissance mission and the soldiers the night before their death by court martial. In the end, the Writers Guild attributed the script in the order of Kubrick, Willingham and then Thompson.[23]

Parts of the screenplay were taken from Cobb's work verbatim, however Kubrick made several changes to the narrative of the novel in his adaptation, most notably his shift of focus to Colonel Dax, as opposed to Paris, Ferol and Arnaud as in the novel.[24]

Primarily, Kubrick and Thompson had added a happy ending to the film to make the film more commercial to the general public, where the men's lives are saved from execution at the last minute by the general. However, these changes were reversed back to closer to the original novel at the demand of Kirk Douglas.[25] [26] On the Criterion Collection Blu-ray, James B. Harris claims to have got this ending past distributors by sending the entire script, instead of just the reversed ending, in the knowledge that they would not read through the whole script again. After viewing the film, United Artists were happy with the changes and left the ending as it is.


Production took place entirely in Bavaria, Germany, especially at the Schleissheim Palace near Munich.[27] Timothy Carey was fired during production.He was reportedly extremely difficult to work with during filming, even to the extent of faking his own kidnapping, holding up the whole production.[28] He was replaced in the scenes remaining to be shot with a double.[29] The film cost slightly less than $1 million and just about broke even.[30]

Due to having three years military training, around 600 German police officers were used as extras for soldiers. The last scenes filmed were those that take place on the battlefield. For the construction of the battlefield, Kubrick hired 5,000 square yards of land from a local farmer.[31] It took Kubrick a month to set-up the filming of the assault, arranging props and tearing up the field to look like a war zone. For the filming of the battle sequence, the battlefield was divided into five regions where explosive charges were specifically placed. This made it easier for Kubrick to film the dying of extras as he split the extras into five groups, one for each of the regions, and each man would die in his own zone by an explosion that was near him.[32]

An early critical test of Kubrick's obsession with control on the set came during the making of Paths of Glory. As recalled by Kirk Douglas:

He made the veteran actor Adolphe Menjou do the same scene 17 times. "That was my best reading." Menjou announced. "I think we can break for lunch now." It was well past the usual lunch time but Kubrick said he wanted another take. Menjou went into an absolute fury. In front of Douglas and the entire crew he blasted off on what he claimed was Kubrick's dubious parentage, and made several other unprintable references to Kubrick's relative greenness in the art of directing actors. Kubrick merely listened calmly, and, after Menjou had spluttered to an uncomplimentary conclusion, said quietly: "All right, let's try the scene once more." With utter docility, Menjou went back to work. "Stanley instinctively knew what to do," Douglas says.[19]

The only female character in the film, the woman who sings "The Faithful Hussar", was portrayed by German actress Christiane Harlan (credited in the film as Susanne Christian). An effective scene towards the end of the film shows actress Harlan briefly appearing to sing a German song timidly evoking emotion in both the audience and the soldiers. She and Kubrick later married; the couple remained together until his death in 1999[33], it was on set that they originally had met.[34]

Kubrick's use of visual imagery and mise-en-scene:

Paths of Glory employs a lot of camera-work and audio cues to create a sense of realism, thus making the audience better sympathise with the plight of the accused soldiers. In the beginning of the film a snare drum plays, the music is reminiscent of war era newsreels. During the battle sequences, the camera keeps pace with the soldiers but in other ways, the shots looks like old trench warfare footage from WW1. The film’s choice of black and white further emphasises the newsreel footage look of the film. Colour film and war effects were in vogue by the time of Paths of Glory’s release, like The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957) (released in the same year and won the BAFTA award for Best Film).

Kubrick’s vision of war was far bleaker hence the use of black and white. He once said “One of the attractions of a war or crime story is that it provides an almost unique opportunity to contrast an individual or our contemporary society with a solid framework of accepted value, which the audience becomes fully aware of, and which can be used as a counterpoint to a human, individual, emotional situation. Further, war acts as a kind of hothouse for forced, quick breeding of attitudes and feelings. Attitudes crystallise and come out into the open.”[35] The visuals also allow the audience to see the difference between life in the trenches and life in the command. From the opulent mansion of the high ranking officers, the audience notices wide shots from the exterior and the interior. The viewer misses nothing, every decadent piece of furniture, bauble and jewellery that the high officers have, in sharp contrast to the trenches where the shots are much tighter. Close ups and point-of-view shots (e.g. from Colonel Dax’s perspective) are cramped and tight, suffocating for the audience. Switching to a shot in front of Dax's person, e.g. a walking shot, the audience becomes much like the other soldiers accompanying him in the trenches, feeling stuck and trapped in the confined and dangerous space.[36] The audience never sees the German soldiers, only the French. Due to the way warfare is waged, soldiers do not always see who they are killing. The Germans are purposefully left out of visual range throughout the film.

Score, Kubrick's use of sound and their connotationsEdit

The music score, by Gerald Fried, heavily uses percussion instruments, specifically military drums.[37]

The use of the snare drum as the title card rolls gives the audience knowledge of what to expect from the plot content; this sound creates ideas of a war film or military style performance. Many anti-war propaganda films - which Paths of Glory was - usually employ this tactic, with other pro-propaganda war films using similar sounds. Kubrick used sound, or lack-thereof, to build tension and suspense in the film, particularly towards the beginning when the three soldiers are given orders to check on the Ant Hill. This scene is in silence, with no use of diegetic/non-diegetic sound, working well to add depth and rawness. Much of what the viewer can hear throughout the film is the sound of explosions in the distance and the sound of a whistle being blown, the death and lack of humanity further adding to the overall documentary style of the film.

There is almost no music in the film, only the snare drum. During the battle itself, the sounds that can be heard are gunfire and explosions. Removing any sentimentality to Paths of Glory, the lack of a big bold score gives no heroic credence to what is happening in the film, only sounds of people dying and the cold lack of humanity, a common trope associated with Stanley Kubrick’s films. The song towards the ending happens within the narrative, it is diegetic.[38]

Another sequence worth noting is the aforementioned end scene in the tavern with the soldiers and the German woman as she sings the traditional German folk song of that era, ‘La Troeyer Hussar’. With Kubrick’s use of mise-en-scene, the audience is able to see the German woman’s performance brought the men to tears through various close-ups and angles. They begin to hum along to the tune thus representing their side of humanity in a film depicting war and bloodshed, furthermore showing that in the end, everyone is equal. Paths of Glory later ends in the same way it began with the familiar snare/drum roll sound used in the opening, indicative of a lack of change throughout the film. Kubrick used sounds and song as narration for the audience, linking each sound to a later or earlier scene in the film.[39]


The film premiered in Munich on Nov 1, 1957[40] (the AFI incorrectly lists it as September 18). It was released in the United States in December 1957.[41] It was considered a modest box office success and earned Kubrick critical acclaim.[42]


On its release, the film's anti-military tone was subject to criticism and censorship.

  • In France, both active and retired personnel from the French military vehemently criticized the film—and its portrayal of the French Army—after it was released in Belgium. The French government placed enormous pressure on United Artists, (the European distributor) not to release the film in France. The film was eventually shown in France in 1975 when social attitudes had changed.[43]
  • In Germany, the film was withdrawn from the Berlin Film Festival to avoid straining relations with France;[44] it was not shown until two years after its US release.
  • In Spain, the right-wing government of Francisco Franco objected to the film. It was first shown in 1986, 11 years after Franco's death.[45]
  • The film was banned by Switzerland as “incontestably offensive” to France, her judicial system and her army, until 1970. [46]
  • The film was banned in all United States military establishments, both at home and overseas, due to its content. [47]

Reception and influenceEdit

The film was nominated and managed to gain several international awards and accolades as it favoured many positive reviews thus helping to establish Kubrick’s already growing reputation. The film was nominated for a BAFTA Award under the category Best Film but lost to The Bridge on the River Kwai. The film also won a Jussi Awards' Diploma of merit. In 1959 the film was nominated for a Writers' Guild of America Award but ultimately lost.[48] It won the prestigious Grand Prix of the Belgian Film Critics Association.

The film holds a 95% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 55 reviews and an average rating of 8.9/10. The site's critical consensus reads: "Paths of Glory is a transcendentally humane war movie from Stanley Kubrick, with impressive, protracted battle sequences and a knock-out ending".[49] Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert added this film to his "Great Movies" list on February 25, 2005.[50] Gene Siskel, on a section of Siskel and Ebert's at the Movies show regarding Stanley Kubrick films, declared Paths of Glory to be one of the all-time great films and "almost" as good as Kubrick's Dr. Strangelove.

Director Robert Zemeckis paid homage to Paths of Glory with the 1991 Tales from the Crypt episode "Yellow".[51] The episode was an adaptation of the 1952 Shock SuspenStories story, "Yellow!", about a WWII U.S. Army colonel whose son, a lieutenant, exhibits cowardice and is sentenced to face the firing squad. The father makes the son falsely believe that the firing squad will be firing blanks, so that the son will not exhibit cowardice before his execution.[52] Zemeckis changed the setting to World War I, and cast Kirk Douglas and his son Eric Douglas in the father and son roles.[53]

David Simon, creator of critically acclaimed series The Wire (2002–08), has said that Paths of Glory was a key influence on the HBO crime drama. The influence of the film comes in its depiction of the tribulations of "middle management", in the form of Dax's unsuccessful attempt to protect his troops against the inhumane ambitions of his superiors, which in turn influenced The Wire 's depiction of various institutions acting against individuals.[54]

Preservation and restorationEdit

In 1992, the film was deemed "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.[55] In October and November 2004 the film was shown at the London Film Festival by the British Film Institute.[56] It was carefully remastered over a period of several years; the original film elements were found to be damaged. However, with the aid of several modern digital studios in Los Angeles the film was completely restored and remastered for modern cinema. In addition, Stanley Kubrick's widow Christiane (who also appears in the closing scene as the German singer) made a guest appearance at the start of the performance.[57]

Home mediaEdit

On June 29, 1999, MGM Home Entertainment released the film on DVD; later that year, on September 22, the film was also released in the VHS format.[58] The film was released on DVD and Blu-ray by The Criterion Collection with a high-definition digital transfer on October 26, 2010.[59]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ McGee, Scott; Steffen, James. "Paths of Glory (1958) - Articles". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Paths of Glory, Film Reviews, Variety, Accessed November 2007.
  4. ^ Dirks, Tim. "Paths of Glory (1957)". AMC Filmsite. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  5. ^ a b Phil McArdle. "Sidney Howard: From Berkeley to Broadway and Hollywood", The Berkeley Daily Planet, December 18, 2007
  6. ^ "'Paths of Glory': Stanley Kubrick's First Step Towards Cinema Immortality". cinephiliabeyond. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  7. ^ "Nice Boy From the Bronx?". Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  8. ^ Huneman, Philippe (November 2003). "Les Sentiers de la gloire". Archived from the original on 2007-12-03.
  9. ^ "Desertion and the death penalty". Australian War Memorial. 23 October 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  10. ^ a b Rob Ruggenberg. "The Heritage of the Great War / First World War 1914 - 1918". Retrieved 2014-03-17.
  11. ^ Fraley, Jason. "Paths of Glory (1957) | The Film Spectrum". Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  12. ^ "American Film". Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  13. ^ Duncan 2003, p. 11.
  14. ^ Kelly, A. (2011). Cinema and the Great War. London: Routledge, p.129. ISBN 0826404227
  15. ^ Kagan, Norman (2000). "The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick". doi:10.5040/9781501340277.
  16. ^ Naremore, James. "Paths of Glory: "We Have Met the Enemy . . ."". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  17. ^ Kelly, Andrew (1993). "The brutality of military incompetence: 'Paths of Glory' (1957)". Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television. 13 (2): 215–227. doi:10.1080/01439689300260221. ISSN 0143-9685.
  18. ^ Naremore, James. "Paths of Glory: "We Have Met the Enemy . . ."". The Criterion Collection. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  19. ^ a b Alpert, Hollis (January 16, 1966). "'2001': Offbeat Director In Outer Space". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  20. ^ Polito, Robert (1996). Savage Art: A Biography of Jim Thompson. New York: Vintage. pp. 403–409. ISBN 0679733523.
  21. ^ Baxter, John (1997). Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. New York: Basic Books. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0786704853. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  22. ^ LoBrutto, Vincent (1999). Stanley Kubrick: A Biography. Da Capo Press. pp. 88–89, 91, 94–95. ISBN 0306809060.
  23. ^ Miller, Cynthia J. (2006). "Depth of Field: Stanley Kubrick, Film, and the Uses of History". History: Reviews of New Books. 35 (1): 24–25. doi:10.1080/03612759.2006.10526982. ISSN 0361-2759.
  24. ^ Kagan, N. (2003). The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick. New York: Continuum, p.63. ISBN 0415514827
  25. ^ Kelly, Andrew (1993). "The brutality of military incompetence: 'Paths of Glory' (1957)". Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television. 13 (2): 215–227. doi:10.1080/01439689300260221. ISSN 0143-9685.
  26. ^ "'Paths of Glory': Stanley Kubrick's First Step Towards Cinema Immortality • Cinephilia & Beyond". Cinephilia & Beyond. 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  27. ^ "THE BRUTALITY OF MILITARY INCOMPETENCE: PATHS OF GLORY AND KING AND COUNTRY". scrapsfromtheloft. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  28. ^ "Uno Mas "The Wonderful Horrible Life Of Timothy Carey"". Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  29. ^ Beyl, Cameron. "STANLEY KUBRICK'S PATHS OF GLORY (1957)". directorsseries. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  30. ^ Gritten, David. "Paths of Glory: Stanley Kubrick's greatest war film?". telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  31. ^ Kelly, A. (2011). Cinema and the Great War. London: Routledge, p.129. ISBN 0826404227
  32. ^ Kagan, Norman (2000). "The Cinema of Stanley Kubrick". doi:10.5040/9781501340277.
  33. ^ "Falling In Love With A Story: Christiane Kubrick on the Legacy of Stanley Kubrick". kcet. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  34. ^ "'Paths of Glory': Stanley Kubrick's First Step Towards Cinema Immortality • Cinephilia & Beyond". Cinephilia & Beyond. 2017-03-25. Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  35. ^ "Archivio Kubrick: Words - Interviews - The Hollywood War of Independence". Retrieved 2019-02-17.
  36. ^ Indie Film Hustle (2018-01-16), Stanley Kubrick: Paths of Glory & Kirk Douglas Years (The Directors Series) - Indie Film Hustle, retrieved 2019-02-17
  37. ^ Hischak, Thomas S. (2015), The Encyclopedia of Film Composers. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, Pg. 242
  38. ^ Hischak, Thomas S. (2015-04-16). The Encyclopedia of Film Composers (in Arabic). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442245501.
  39. ^ Haft, Nima. "Similarities and differences on Paths of Glory and Full Metal Jacket".
  40. ^ Motion Picture Daily October 31, 1957
  41. ^ New York Times Review of Paths of Glory, December 26, 1957, retrieved November 2015.
  42. ^ Kubrick remembered as filmmaker who transcended the medium, CNN News, Accessed November 2007.
  43. ^ Robertson, Nan (15 March 1975). "French Delay Showing Films on Touchy Topics". New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2019.
  44. ^ Duncan, Paul (2003). Stanley Kubrick: Visual Poet 1928-1999. Taschen. p. 50. ISBN 9783822815922.
  45. ^ "Movie you should have seen: Paths of Glory". thefulcrum. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  46. ^ Robertson, Nan (15 March 1975). "French Delay Showing Films on Touchy Topics". New York Times.
  47. ^ Kelly, A. (2011). Cinema and the Great War. London: Routledge, p.129. ISBN 0826404227
  48. ^ The Gods of Filmmaking, Paths of Glory Archived November 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Accessed November 2007.
  49. ^ "Paths of Glory". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  50. ^ Ebert, Roger (25 February 2005). "Paths of Glory". Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  51. ^ Rhodes, Joe (25 August 1991). "Tales From the Douglas' 'Crypt'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 July 2017. Kirk Douglas is 75 years old and "Yellow" marks the first time he's shared a stage with either of his acting sons... . .."There are really only two movies I wanted to make--one with Michael and one with Eric. I just didn't think I'd be working with Eric first." He might not have gotten the chance if Robert Zemeckis, best known for directing the "Back to the Future" films, hadn't come across "Yellow" in the 1950s E.C. Comics from which all "Tales From the Crypt" stories are drawn. Zemeckis immediately saw the story--with its World War I setting and a plot line involving cowardice, betrayal and firing squads--as a chance to pay homage to Stanley Kubrick's "Paths of Glory," the 1957 anti-war film that featured one of Kirk Douglas' most compelling performances.
  52. ^ "Shock SuspenStories #1 (February-March 1952)". Grand Comics Database. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
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