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Paskhas (Indonesian: Korps Pasukan Khas) is the special forces and infantry corps of the Indonesian Air Force ("TNI-AU"). The corps is also known as the Orange Berets (Baret Jingga in Indonesian) because of their distinctive colour of their service headgear. Paskhas is trained to seize and defend airfields from enemy forces known as Operasi Pembentukan dan Pengoperasian Pangkalan Udara Depan (OP 3 UD) (Frontline Air Base Establishment and Management Operation), airborne operations, and other specific military operations within the scope of the Indonesian Air Force.

Korps Pasukan Khas
Korps PASKHAS
(Indonesian Air Force Special Forces Corps)
Lambang Korpaskhas.png
Paskhas Corps Insignia
Active 17 October 1947 – present
Country  Indonesia
Branch TNI-AU (Indonesian Air Force)
Type Air Force Special Forces
Role
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI)
Garrison/HQ Margahayu, Bandung
Nickname(s) Baret Jingga (Orange Berets), Hantu Udara (Ghost of the Skies), Komando
Motto(s) Karmaye Vadikaraste Mafalesu Kadacana
("Working without counting gains and losses"), Bhagavad Gita 2:47
Beret colour   Orange
Engagements Indonesian National Revolution
Republic of South Maluku rebellion
Darul Islam Rebellion
PRRI and Permesta rebellion
Operation Trikora
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
Operation Seroja
Commanders
Current commander Air Vice Marshal Theodorus Seto Purnomo
Vice Commander Air Commodore Yudi Bustami
Insignia
Right Shoulder Patch Paskhas Shoulder Badge.jpg
Left Shoulder Corps Patch Paskhas identification badge.jpg

Korpaskhas is tasked with fostering the strength and ability of being as an air force unit to be ready for operations in carrying out the objectives and defense of strategic objects of the Air Force, air defense, special operations and other typical military operations under the policy of the TNI chief Commander. Paskhas has many air-oriented combat abilities, such as combat-control team, airfields control, combat search and rescue, Jumpmaster, airborne, and ground-forward air control. They also can operate as Air Traffic Controllers (ATC).

Paskhas is a terrestrial combat unit of the Indonesian Air Force which is capable of three dimensions, namely air, sea and land. Each Paskhas soldier is required to have at least a Para-Commando qualification (which is a unification of Paratrooper and Commando skills developed by the TNI) in order to perform combat tasks professionally, and then added special abilities to the Fraternity in accordance with his or her individual specialties while serving in the force.

Paskhas has an internal formed elite unit tasked for conducting special operations such as responding to Aircraft hijacking , and other specific missions tasked to the corps. The unit is known as the Bravo Detachment 90 (Satbravo 90).

Contents

HistoryEdit

The history of Paskhas as the first airborne troops is almost as old as the Republic of Indonesia. An airborne-infiltration operation by 14 paratroopers on 17 October 1947, in Kotawaringin, Kalimantan, is marked as the birthdate of Paskhas. In the early years of the TNI-AU (established on 9 April 1946), these airborne units were called Pasukan Pertahanan Pangkalan (PPP) (Air Field Defence Troops). In April 1952, the Pasukan Gerak Tjepat (PGT) (Quick Reaction Force) was also established to strengthen the TNI-AU. In 1952, the TNI-AU ground units consisted of PPP, PGT, and PSU (Air Defence Unit). On 15 October 1962, PPP and PGT were organised into Komando Pertahanan Pangkalan Udara (Koppau) (Air Fields Defence Command). Later on 17 May 1966, Koppau was renamed to Komando Pasukan Gerak Cepat (Kopasgat) (Quick-Reaction Troops Command). There were three Kopasgat regiments, each located in Bandung, Jakarta and Surabaya. Kopasgat was transformed into the Special Forces Center in 1985, before it became Paskhas on 7 July 1997, based on the official decision of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Commander.

First Airborne OperationEdit

The then Governor of Kalimantan Ir. Prince Muhammad Noor made a request to the Indonesian Air Force to send paratroopers to Kalimantan for the task of forming and organizing guerrillas, helping the people's struggle in Borneo, opening a parent radio station to allow connections between Yogyakarta and Kalimantan, and cultivating and perfecting dropping zones for future airborne operations. At the initiative of Commodore (U) Suryadi Suryadarma, he then selected 12 indigenous sons of Kalimantan and 2 regular Air Force personnel to do the jump.[1]

On 17 October 1947, thirteen members were successfully deployed in Sambi, West Kotawaringin, Central Kalimantan. They were Hari Hadi Sumantri (Semarang Radio Air Force mechanic), FM Soejoto (An Air Force Radio interpreter from Ponorogo), Iskandar (troop leader), Ahmad Kosasih, Bachri, J. Bitak, C. Williem, Imanuel, Amirudin, Ali Akbar, M Dahlan, JH. Darius, and Marawi. All of these brave men were never taught and trained formal airborne exercises except of theoretical and simple ground training. One more man named Jamhani was failed to jump because was scared.

They were deployed from the C-47 Dakota RI-002 aircraft flown by an American named Bob Freeberg as well as the owner of the aircraft, co-pilot Officer (U) III Suhodo, and junior officer Jumpmaster Amir Hamzah. Acting as the pointer to the parapet was Major (U) Cilik Riwut who was a native son of Borneo. This is the first airborne operation in Indonesian history.

The troops would initially be deployed in Sepanbiha, South Kalimantan, but due to bad weather and the contours of the heavily forested areas of Borneo, Major (U) Cilik Riwut was confused when predicting the jumping ground. After doing guerrilla in the forest on 23 November 1947, this troops were ambushed by the Dutch army due to the betrayal of a local village chief, resulting in the death of Hari Hadi Sumantri, Iskandar and Ahmad Kosasih. While the others managed to escape, but eventually after a few months they were unfortunately captured by the Dutch.

In court, the Dutch could not prove that they were paratroopers and eventually they were punished as an ordinary criminal. They were released after serving a 1-year sentence and immediately appointed to the Air Force by Commodore (U) Suryadi Suryadarma.

The airborne operation carried out by the thirteen Indonesian Air Force warriors was an event that marked the birth of a unit of combat troops typical of the Air Force. on 17 October 1947, it was then designated as the anniversary of the Komando Pasukan Gerak Cepat (Rapid Response Troop Commandos) then known as "Kopasgat", today known as Paskhas.[2]

Air Base Defense Troop (ABDT)Edit

Furthermore, since 1950, the paratrooper troops which was then called PPP centered in Jakarta was still known as the title of "Air Base Defense Troops (ABDT)". Troops oversee 8 companies and led by Captain (U) RHA Wiriadinata with his deputy 1st Lieutenant (U) R Soeprantijo. Then in the mid-1950s, the Inspectorate of Defense Force Base (IPP) was based in Sabang, Jakarta, which in April 1952 was transferred to Cililitan Air Base, East Jakarta.

In 1950, a parachuting school (School of Para) was also held to train the soldiers in to forming the paratrooper force of the Air Force. The Para School was opened at Andir Airbase Bandung, as a continuation of the Para School embryo in Maguwo. The result of this School of Para is subsequently compiled in Kompi-kompi Pasukan Gerak Tjepat-PGT (Quick Reaction Troop Companies) which was formed in February 1952, with Captain (U) RHA Wiriadinata as the commanding officer and concurrently as Commander of Andir Airbase in Bandung.

In the 1950s, the Indonesian Air Force consisted of PPP, PGT and PSU (Air Force Deterrent) whose powers consisted of 11 Stand Alone Companies (BS), 8 BS Fielders and 1 Battery PSU.

PGT Combat Team Regiment (RTP-PGT)Edit

Subsequently, in the 1960s, PGT (Pasukan Gerak Tjepat: Quick Reaction Troops) was also assigned to the operation of West Irian (Papua) liberation under the command of Air Force commander, which at that time the PGT Battle Team Regiment (RTP PGT) was based in Bandung and Captain (U) Sugiri Sukani as commander. RTP PGT oversees 2 Battalions of PGT namely Battalion A PGT led by Captain (U) Z. Rachiman and B Battalion PGT led by Captain (U) JO. Palendeng.

Commodore (U) RHA Wiriadinata was the first PGT commander (1952) which brought much progress to paratroopers in Indonesia, especially in the Air Force. The concept of PGT since its inception was focused on the ability of Commando and Para combined. He has also been the Commander of the Paratroops Education Association ("KOGABDIK PARA").

During the reign of the Old Order, PGT AURI with the KKO (Marines) was known to be loyal President Sukarno. Both elite troops are even considered to be the golden son of President Sukarno. Until the moment of the fall of President Sukarno, these two troops still showed their loyalty to the national independence Proclaimer (Soekarno).[3]

Air Force Base Defense Command (KOPPAU)Edit

On 15 October 1962, based on the Decree of the Air Force commander Number: 195, the Air Force Defense Command (KOPPAU) was established. KOPPAU Commander was combined by the Minister of Defense and his deputy which was designated to Commodore (U) RHA Wiriadinata. KOPPAU consists of Command Headquarters (Mako) based in Bandung, PPP (Air Base Defence troops) Regiment in Jakarta and PGT Regiment in Bandung. The PPP Regiment oversees 5 Battalions based in Jakarta, Banjarmasin, Makassar, Biak and Palembang (then moved to Medan). The PGT regiment consisted of 3 Battalions, namely Battalion I PGT (Battalion III honour escort Regiment Cakra Bhirawa) based in Bogor, Battalion II PGT in Jakarta and Battalion III PGT in Bandung.

Based on the Decree of the Air force commander Number III / PERS / MKS / 1963 dated May 22, 1963, on April 9, 1963 Commodore (U) RHA Wiriadinata was confirmed as Commander of KOPPAU and served for 1 year. Then in 1964 was replaced by Commodore (U) Ramli Sumardi until 1966.[4]

KOPASGATEdit

 
Historical Paskhas camouflage uniforms worn during operations

Kopasgat was formed based on the troops seminar in Bandung dated 11–16 April 1966. KOPPAU was then transformed to KOPASGAT (Komando Pasukan Gerak Tjepat) with the strength of 3 Regiments, which their garrisons were based in Bandung, Jakarta, and Surabaya. Furthermore, based on the Air Force chief of Staff Decision No. 57 On 1 July 1970, the term "Regiment" was changed into "Wing" for distinguishing their unit names from the Army. Kopasgat was then famous for its Leopard camouflage pattern uniform which was worn during the Operation Seroja.

When the operation of the release of hostage of Garuda Indonesia's WTOla DC-9 plane at Thailand's Don Muang Airport in 1981 it was actually Kopasgat who was prepared to act but due to the political pressure of the New Order at that time finally Kopassus who was sent to Bangkok.

PUSPASKHASAUEdit

Puspaskhasau which was an abbreviation for Pusat Pasukan Khas Angkatan Udara meaning "Air Force Special Force Center" was then used as the name to replace Kopasgat. It was based on the dynamics of organizational improvement and consolidation of TNI units, then based on Air Force Chief of staff Decision No. Kep / 22 / III / 1985 dated March 11, 1985.

KORPASKHASAUEdit

Along with the improvements of the TNI and Air Force organization, on 17 July 1997 according to the TNI chief decree no. SKEP / 09 / VII / 1997, the status of Paskhas is improved from the Central Implementing Agency to the Main Development Command (Kotamabin) so that the term PUSPASKHAS is transformed into "KORPASKHASAU" until now which is regularly called simply as Korps Paskhas or just PASKHAS.

Bravo Detachment 90Edit

The Bravo Detachment 90 (formerly called Satbravo-90) previously named Denbravo 90 is a special operations unit under the command of the Paskhas commander. The Paskhas Bravo Detachment 90 unit is tasked with carrying out intelligence operations, crippling enemy weaponry and installations in support of air operations, air piracy terror assault, and other operations in accordance with the policy of the TNI chief Commander. This unit is known as the youngest-formed Indonesian special operations unit within the Armed Forces (TNI). Newly formed in a limited setting within the Indonesian Air Force Military Forces Corps in 1990, Bravo was chosen as the name because of the meaning which is the best. The concept of formation refers to General Guilio Douchet's thought; "It is easier and more effective to destroy the opponent's air forces by destroying its base and its equipment on the ground rather than fighting in the air". Sat Bravo 90 is incorporated in the national Crisis Control Center ("Pusdalsis") BNPT consisting of a combination of special units, such as the Special Detachment 81 (Counter Terror) of the Army, Denjaka of the Navy, and Regiment I Gegana Brimob Corps from the National Police. Pusdalsis consisting of a combination of elite units of the joint forces of TNI and National Police (POLRI) is assigned as a troop handling terror to be sent when the activities of terrorism is happening such as aircraft hijacking.[5]

The motto of this Unit is in Sanskrit which is: Catya Wihikan Awacyama Kapala, that literally means: Faithful, Skilled and Successful.

StrengthEdit

 
Paskhas troops during parade
 
Paskhas commandos in Para-commando operational uniform before deployment for Airborne missions

Recently, Paskhas has had a strength of around 7,300 personnel. Every Paskhas member must have para-commando qualification, plus special air aspects qualification based on his specialization. Every Paskhas member is also equipped with a white Commando dagger made in Germany. The orange beret and Commando dagger have become trademarks of this special force. Paskhas is also known for its light-green camouflage uniform called Commando Stripe, with a stretch-out straight motif like moss-covered wood, that was very famous during the Operation Seroja in East Timor. Previously the concept of Paskhas duty was as air force base defense troops (Defensive) only, but then now the concept was developed by the TNI to be converted into more combined offensive and defensive troops force as the main Air Force infantry corps that can be deployed for assault and airborne operations.

There is a plan to expand the Paskhas into 10 or 11 battalions with twice as many personnel as what they had previously. Recently, the placement of Paskhas has still followed the organisation of TNI-AU weapon systems, in particular the combat and support-combat aeroplanes. In other words, wherever there is an Indonesian Air Force main airbase, ideally there is a Paskhas battalion as the airfield defence unit.

Commando BattalionsEdit

 
Paskhas commandos from the 469th Commando Battalion during hostage rescue operation in anti-terror gear

The Paskhas corps is divided into several branches which are:

  1. Special/Elite Troops, which are :
    1. Bravo Detachment 90
    2. 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Paskhas Matra Detachment
  2. Para-Commando Division consists of 9 Paskhas Commando Battalions which are under the structure of 3 Brigades. Which are:
    1. 1st Paskhas Para-Commando Brigade :
      1. 461st Paskhas Commando Battalion
      2. 462nd Paskhas Commando Battalion
      3. 463rd Paskhas Commando Battalion
    2. 2nd Paskhas Para-Commando Brigade :
      1. 464th Paskhas Commando Battalion
      2. 465th Paskhas Commando Battalion
      3. 466th Paskhas Commando Battalion
    3. 3rd Paskhas Para-Commando Brigade :
      1. 467 Paskhas Commando Battalion
      2. 468 Paskhas Commando Battalion
      3. 469 Paskhas Commando Battalion

Air Defense Artillery DivisionEdit

  1. 100th Paskhas Middle/Long Distance Missile Regiment/Wing :
    1. 101 Missile Launcher Battalion
    2. 102 Missile Launcher Battalion
    3. 103 Missile Launcher Battalion
    4. 104 Missile Launcher Battalion
  2. 400th Paskhas Short Distance Missile Regiment/Wing :
    1. 1st Mobile Air Defense Artillery Battalion, Division I Paskhas, Jakarta
    2. 2nd Mobile Air Defense Artillery Battalion, Division II Paskhas, Makassar
    3. 3rd Mobile Air Defense Artillery Battalion, Division III Paskhas, Medan
    4. 471 Air Defense Detachment, Halim Perdanakusuma Air Force Base, Jakarta
    5. 472 Air Defense Detachment, Hasanudin AFB, Makassar
    6. 473 Air Defense Detachment, Supadio AFB, Pontianak
    7. 474 Air Defense Detachment, Adisucipto AFB, Yogyakarta
    8. 475 Air Defense Detachment, Rusminnuryadin AFB, Pekanbaru
    9. 476 Air Defense Detachment, Suwondo AFB, Medan
    10. 477 Air Defense Detachment, Iswahyudi AFB, Madiun
    11. 478 Air Defense Detachment, Manuhua Husein Sastranegara AFB, Bandung
    12. 479 Air Defense Detachment, Manuhua AFB, Biak

Air Force Base Defense RegimentEdit

 
Paskhas Commandos during security operations for the President of Indonesia visit to Papua in Biak air base
  1. Paskhas A.F.B.D Regt. HQ in Bandung;
    1. 1st Battalion 1st Paskhas Division
    2. 2nd Battalion 2nd Paskhas Division
    3. 3rd Battalion 3rd Paskhas Division

Combat Assistance RegimentEdit

  1. Paskhas C.A.R Headquarters in Bandung;
    1. Cavalry Armored Personnel Carrier Battalion
    2. Artillery Batt.
    3. Engineers Batt.
    4. Electronics and Communication Batt.
    5. Medical Batt.
    6. Transportation and Ordnance Batt.

Korpaskhas Organization StructureEdit

  1. 'Bravo Detachment 90 / Anti Terror' - Bogor
    1. Detachment 901 / Intelligence-Bogor (Formed)
    2. Detachment 902 / Special Action-Bogor (Formed)
    3. Detachment 903 / Technical Assistance-Bogor (Formed)
  2. 'Escort and Protocol Unit / Satwalkol Paskhas' - Air Force Headquarters of Jakarta
    1. 1st Escort Protocol Detachment / Denwalkol 1 Paskhas - Air Force Headquarters of Jakarta (Formed)
    2. 2nd Escort Protocol Detachment / Denwalkol 2 - Surabaya AFB - Surabaya (Soon)
    3. 3rd Escort Protocol Detachment / Denwalkol 3 Paskhas - Ngurah Rai AFB - Bali (Soon)
  3. '100th Medium / Long Guided missile Regiment' - Bandung Paskhas Corps Command HQ
    1. Paskhas Special Detachment Missile (Missile Detachment) 'Air Shield' for the State Palace (Soon)
    2. 101st guided missile Battalion, National Air Defense Sector Command 1 (Soon)
    3. 102nd guided missile Battalion, National Air Defense Sector Command 2 (Soon)
    4. 103rd guided missile Battalion, National Air Defense Sector Command 3 (Soon)
    5. 104th guided missile Battalion, National Air Defense Sector Command 4 (Soon)
    6. 105th Maintenance Depo Battalion
  4. 'Combat Assistance Regiment' - Paskhas Corps Headquarters, Bandung
    1. Cavalry Battalion (Strength = Assistance Company and Headquarters Company)
      1. "A" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 1st Division (I) Paskhas Corps.
      2. "B" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 2nd Division (II) Paskhas Corps.
      3. "C" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 3rd Division (III) Paskhas Corps.
    2. Artillery Battalion (Strength = Assistance Company and Headquarters Company)
      1. "A" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 1st Division (I) Paskhas Corps.
      2. "B" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 2nd Division (II) Paskhas Corps.
      3. "C" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 3rd Division (III) Paskhas Corps.
    3. Engineers Battalion (Strength = Assistance Company and Headquarters Company)
      1. "A" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 1st Division (I) Paskhas Corps.
      2. "B" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 2nd Division (II) Paskhas Corps.
      3. "C" Company become the strength of the Combat Assistance Battalion, 3rd Division (III) Paskhas Corps.
  5. 'Administration Regiment' - Paskhas Corps HQ, Bandung
    1. Medical Battalion (Strength = Assistance Company and Headquarters Company)
      1. "A" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 1st Division (I) Paskhas Corps.
      2. "B" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 2nd Division (II) Paskhas Corps.
      3. "C" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 3rd Division (III) Paskhas Corps.
    2. Communications (Signals) and Electronics Battalion (Strength = Assistance Company and Headquarters Company)
      1. "A" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 1st Division (I) Paskhas Corps.
      2. "B" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 2nd Division (II) Paskhas Corps.
      3. "C" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 3rd Division (III) Paskhas Corps.
    3. Transportation Battalion (Strength = Assistance Company and Headquarters Company)
      1. "A" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 1st Division (I) Paskhas Corps.
      2. "B" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 2nd Division (II) Paskhas Corps.
      3. "C" Company become the strength of the Combat Admin Assistance Battalion, 3rd Division (III) Paskhas Corps.

Paskhas DivisionsEdit

  • 1st Paskhas Division; "Divisi I" (composite) - Jakarta

Consists of: 1st Matra (branch) Detachment, 1st Combat battalion with 6 companies, 1st base defence battalion with 7 companies (some still under formation), 1st Brigade/Wing with 3 battalions of commandos, and 1st Air Defense Artillery Regiment with 1 battalion and 3 detachments (some still under formation).

  • 2nd Paskhas Division; "Divisi II" (composite) - Makassar

Consists of: 2nd Matra (branch) Detachment, 2nd Combat battalion with 6 companies, 2nd base defense battalion with 7 companies (some still under formation), 2nd Brigade/Wing with 3 battalions of commandos, and 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment with 1 battalion and 3 detachments (some still under formation).

  • 3rd Paskhas Division; "Divisi III" (composite) - Medan

Consists of: 3rd Matra (branch) Detachment, 3rd Combat battalion with 6 companies, 3rd base defense battalion with 7 companies (some still under formation), 3rd Brigade/Wing with 3 battalions of commandos, and 3rd Air Defense Artillery Regiment with 3 detachments (some still under formation).

HierarchyEdit

 
Paskhas soldier during MFF (Military Free Fall)

The Paskhas corps is the only corps-shaped organization for special qualified troops within the Indonesian Air Force even within the TNI. Paskhas corps is side by side with the Kopassus is a Special Forces officially owned by the TNI. This is because these two special forces organizations are ("KOTAMA") STANDING OWN status with very personal training and lethal attack ability. Paskhas was born as a commando force from the time of its birth. They are deployed with a small unit to apprehend behind the opponent's defensive line and instantly pierce the enemy's heart defenses. That is the main cause that this corps is trained in the method adopted from British SAS (through education in RPKAD educational center). The method of command education "ala red berets" began in Paskhas education center since Paskhas is still named KOPPAU. Paskhas personnel is also allowed to continue wearing his prestigious orange beret in ceremonial or service uniforms during official ceremonies state or regional.

The devotion of Paskhas continues with the demanding tasks imposed on the Air Force in general and Korpaskhas in particular. The devotion of the Paskhas, can be seen from the share of Paskhas who has never been absent in various forms of operations, both military war operations (OMP) and non-war military operations (OMSP). Today, Korpaskhas has grown and developed into one of the mainstays and pride, which is believed to be the strength of the land forces of the Air Force. The organization of Korpaskhas is organized into two levels, namely the Operations Force Command of the Paskhas Corps of the Air Force abbreviated "Mako Korpaskhas" and the Implementing Level. At the Mako Korpaskhas Level consists of the leader echelon, the assistant echelon of staff, the service echelon, and the central executive echelon, underlying the other units below. While at the Executive Level oversees Wing I, Paskhas Wing II and Paskhas Wing III, Bravo Detachment 90, Branch (Matra) Detachment, Air Defense detachment and Paskhas training and education center.

Paskhas also intends to bring in another tactical vehicle like the "Dirgantara Military Vehicle" (DMV) made by PT DI which proved reliable and has now been used by the elite Paskhas Bravo Detachment 90.

The orange beret corps has been also reinforced with the arrival of 200 surface-to-air QW (QianWei) -3 surface missiles. Manpad QW-3 missiles (expected addition of about 300 units again for Pam Sat Radar) QW-3 missiles are equipped with semi-active laser guidance trackers, suitable for fighter and other missiles at low altitudes of up to 8 km. It has a weight of 13 kg and a maximum speed of 750 km / hour. This weapon is used to replace Triple gun made by Hispano Suiza (Switzerland) in the 1950s and DSHK 12.7 mm. Also a few moments ago Pindad tested the weapon to be rehabilitated to be used as heavy weapons for Paskhas ground forces units.

 
Oerlikon Contraves owned by the Paskhas Air Defense detachment. The corps currently owns several units of this system

Paskhas is also working on bringing in a short-range PSU battery of 35 mm caliber Oerlikon Contraves to Air defense composite model point that is integrated between missiles, cannons, radar and tactical command posts. This weapon has been using the most advanced technology and has been used by many European countries. According to the plan, this PSU weapon will be placed in the 10th Main Air Force Base. One of the other major advantages to this 35 mm 35mm Oerlikon PSU is its ability to be mobilized with Hercules aircraft. The Air Force also plans to purchase a medium-range missile / JSe substitute for the S-75 / SA-2 Missile guidelines. Going forward with the arrival of the 35mm aerophonic contraves gun, the addition of the number of QW-3 manpad missiles and some good triple gun cannon units. The Air defense command (Kohanudnas) also plan to revive the Medium-Sine Missile Unit are expected to be formed by several artillery battalions of air defense guns and some new missile bateray detachments to be placed in each Paskhas wings.

In the future development of Korpaskhas, the current PSU weaponry that has been owned are namely:

  • Oerlikon Contraves 35 mm (expected 55 units replacement Tripple Gun 1950)
  • Manpad QW-3 individual missiles (expected to add about 300 more units to Pam Sat Radar)
  • Medium Distance Missile / JSe Substitute Missile S-75 / SA-2 guidelines (expected 7 batteries)

Paskhas is now seeking to replace Pindad SS1 individual weapons to SiG-552 or SS-2. Especially to prepare command battalions such as the 461st commando battalion and 469th commando battalion as assault troops, then in each team in each postal battalion will be equipped with SS2-V1 with Pindad 40mm Grenade Launcher and Squad Automatic Weapon sub-machine guns such as FN Minimi (Automatic Weapon Team). While in the assistance company will be equipped with SMB (Heavy Machine Guns) DShk-38 which is designed as a weapon for short-range land and air objectives. SMB is commonly used by cavalry and infantry units. In the cavalry unit, DShK has become the standard placed on various turrets of the MBT (Main Battle Tank), even light tanks, APCs and Rantis pick ups. In the infantry units, it is natural that DShK is operated with a two-wheeled special case, similar to a cannon model. Thus the SMB is easily moved, carried or moved with the help of a hook on a military jeep or truck.

Combat qualificationsEdit

 
Paskhas soldiers during air base defense operations which are capable for conducting Air Traffic Control activities during air base lock-down status

Paskhas personnel are an integral part of the TNI-AU, having their own speciality. Paskhas personnel have the qualifications and special ability to protect, defend and operate airfield facilities. The TNI-AU has high-technology weapons systems are a vital object for enemy forces to destroy.

The basic qualification for all Paskhas personnel has been "para-commando". Other qualifications are added based on his speciality. As a Combat Control team (CCT), they have combat free-fall ability, scuba diving, and combat climber. CCT must be able to infiltrate from three media aspects (sea, air, land). Beside that, this team's personnel must have one of the air aspect specialisations, such as: Air Traffic Controller (PLLU), Meteorology (Meteo), Electronic-Communication (Komlek), Combat Field Engineer (Zeni), Intelligence, Fire Fighter (PK), Ground handling, Petroleum affairs (Permi), and Combat-Health affairs (Keslap). For free-fall qualification, they must be brave enough to jump from high altitude and open the parachute at minimum altitude. The airborne technique that used was HALO (High Altitude Low Opening) or HAHO (High Altitude High Opening), with jumps around 20,000 feet (6 km; 4 mi) above sea level.

CCT also has qualifications to direct fighter planes to bomb or shoot targets from the ground (Ground Forward Air Control/GFAC). This role is very important in battle because air support must be precisely on time and target. Paskhas personnel must be able to use IT and to communicate with multimedia tools. Besides that, they are also required to have combat-intelligence ability as a collection board (Bapul) for higher command, or any other side that is needed. For example, they inform about flight facilities before plane arrive, visibility, wind speed and direction, temperature and air humidity also height and cloud type. This has been a very important factor in bombing targets and for the airborne process. All the personnel also have training as a Combat-Field Engineer (include pioneer, rope, etc.), Air Field Control (Dallan) to operate flight in some aerodrome, or Air Traffic Control (PLLU), which can control flight traffic in their sector area. Petroleum Affairs (Permi) must know and test the oil standard that fulfill the conditions and the way to fill the oil into the aeroplane.

Because Paskhas operate as commando forces, they rarely involve many personnel in their operation. Paskhas have also used unusual calls when they were doing combat mission, such as detachment, team and unit to differentiate them from regular forces.[citation needed]

SpecializationEdit

 
Paskhas commandos in formation before parade in an Indonesian Air Force base for commemorating the Corp's anniversary

The Paskhas Corps is divided into several Specializations which are:

  1. Training and Education Center (Pusdiklat), is responsible for carrying out the training of Paskhas abilities through the implementation of Education, Exercise, Research, Testing and Development of Tactics and Procedures to carry out the task of seizing objectives and defense of Air Force Strategic Objects, Air Defense, Special Operations and Typical Air Force Military Operations.
  2. Anti Terror (Bravo Detachment 90), is responsible for carrying out Intelligence Operations, Airborne Aspects of Terror Countermeasures Operations and other Special Operations in Air Force Military Operations under the policy of the TNI chief Commander.
  3. Branch Detachment (Detasemen Matra), is in charge of carrying out combat control operations, base controls, combat Search and Rescue, and Jumpmaster trainings for Paskhas personnel.
  4. Air Defense Detachment (Detasemen Hanud), is part of the Paskhas air defense detachment which is in charge of carrying out air defense operations as part of the national air defense system and other military operations according to the policy of the TNI chief Commander within the Air Force organization.
  5. Para-Commandos (Parako), are Infantry Commandos in a Battalion size tasked with carrying out Paskhas main operational combat tasks such as target assault operations and defense operations of the Indonesian Air Force's strategic objects during combat and peace-time situations
  6. Combat Relief Regiment (Resimen Banpur), serves as an assistance force for combatants especially Commando troops who are usually deployed to the frontline of battle, either in the form of combat or administrative aid. This regiment consists of Cavalry Battalion, Engineers Battalion, Artillery Battalion, Medical Battalion, Electronical and Communication Battalion, and Transportation Battalion.

StructureEdit

 
The Paskhas Corps 3rd Wing (WING III) entrance gate of the Indonesian Air Force in which contains the Paskhas 465th Commando Battalion
  1. 1st Wing /Harda Marutha (composite) - Jakarta
    1. 461 Commando Battalion /Cakra Bhaskara - Jakarta
    2. 463 Commando Battalion /Trisula - Madiun
    3. 467 Commando Battalion /Hardha Dedali - Jakarta
    4. 1st Matra Detachment /Naga Pasa - Jakarta
    5. 471 Air Defence Detachment /Kunta Wijayandanu - Jakarta
    6. 474 Air Defence Detachment /Kunta Wijayandanu - Jogjakarta
    7. 461 C Rifles Company /Paskhas - Subang
    8. 467 C Rifles Company /Paskhas - Bogor
  2. 2nd Wing /Harda Marutha (composite) - Makassar
    1. 464 Commando Battalion /Nanggala - Malang
    2. 466 Commando Battalion /Pasopati - Makassar
    3. 468 Commando Battalion /Sarotama - Biak
    4. 2nd Matra Detachment /Naga Pasa - Malang
    5. 472 Air Defence Detachment /Kunta Wijayandanu - Makassar
    6. 466 C Rifles Company /Paskhas - Makassar
  3. 3rd Wing /Harda Marutha (composite) - Medan
    1. 462 Commando Battalion /Pulanggeni - Pekanbaru
    2. 465 Commando Battalion /Brajamusti - Pontianak
    3. 469 Commando Battalion /Pancawara - Medan
    4. 473 Air Defence Detachment /Kunta Wijayandanu - Pontianak
    5. 469 C Rifles Company /Paskhas - Banda Aceh
    6. 469 B Rifles Company /Paskhas - Lhoksumawe
  4. Paskhas Education and Training Center (composite) - Bandung
    1. Air Defence Education unit (Satdik Hanud)
    2. Special Education unit (Satdik Sus)
    3. Branch Education unit (Satdik Matra): tasked for implementing Jumpmaster courses, paratrooper courses, etc.
    4. Combat Assistance Education unit (Satdik Banpur)
    5. Land Warfare Education unit (Satdik Purrat)

OperationsEdit

Operation TrikoraEdit

During Operation Trikora, the Paskhas corps then named "PGT AURI" in Trikora operations took the largest portion of troops infiltrated into West Irian with a total of 532 people. The number of personnel from TNI, Police and volunteers infiltrated during Trikora was 1,154 personnel with 216 deaths / lost and 296 captured. On April 25, 1962, during the operation of Banteng Ketaton as many as 40 PGT troops under the leadership of Sgt. Maj. (U) J. Picaulima was deployed for the first time in West Irian in Fak-Fak area as well as the 39 PGT troops in Kaimana on 26 April 1962 did well. On May 11, 1962, PGT troops under the leadership of 1st Lieutenant (U) Manuhua conducted a jump in Sorong during Operation Serigala.

One of the heroic and historic stories is the event of the National flag hoisting for the first time on the earth of Cendrawasih, West Papua, conducted by Paskhas members at the initiative of Sergeant (U) M.F. Mengko. On May 19, 1962, a total of 81 Paskhas members departed from Pattimura Air Base, Ambon, by Hercules plane piloted by Major (U) T.Z Abidin towards the target of a parachuting area around Wersar Village, Teminabuan District. In the early morning they were deployed just above the headquarters of the Dutch army. Suddenly close combat was unavoidable. Dutch troops which were sleeping was in shock because there are troops of Paskhas deployed right in their bases, while Paskhas soldiers also did not expect to be deployed in the Dutch base, rather being deployed in tea plantations. This heroic story resulted in the death of 53 members of Paskhas commandos including the commander of team Lieutenant Two (U) Suhadi. To commemorate the historic event in the area Teminabuan, Sorong has now established a monument that is named Tugu Merah Putih (Red and White monument).[6]

Other operationsEdit

Peacekeeping MissionsEdit

WeaponryEdit

 
Indonesian air force ant-aircraft radar system exhibited during the Air force anniversary ceremony parade under the control of Paskhas corps

Handguns

Assault Rifles

Submachine guns

Shotguns

Grenade launcher

Machine gun and other heavy weapons

Air Defence SystemsEdit

Model Image Origin Type Quantity Notes
Surface-to-air missile (SAM)
NASAMS     Norway HIMAD Unknown 2 batteries equipped with AIM-120 AMRAAM missile are on order at a cost of approximately 101 million USD [7]
Chiron   South Korea SHORAD Integrated with Oerlikon 35mm anti-aircraft autocannon as part of Rheinmetall Skyshield Air Defence System.
QW-3   China SHORAD
Anti Aircraft Gun
Skyshield      Switzerland
  Germany
35mm anti anti-aircraft autocannon 6 (six) batteries of Oerlikon 35mm anti-aircraft autocannon equipped with fully automatic fire control system as part of Rheinmetall Skyshield Air Defence System have been acquired.[8][9]
Zastava M55 Triple Gun     Yugoslavia 20mm triple mounted anti-aircraft autocannon Mounted on Reo truck. Soon to be retired.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Sutrisno. “Marsekal TNI Suryadi Suryadarma” Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaaan, Jakarta, 1985.
  2. ^ Sesuai keputusan MEN/PANGAU No.54 Tahun 1967, tanggal 12 Oktober 1967.
  3. ^ http://weaponstechnology.blogspot.co.id/2011/06/
  4. ^ http://paskhas.mil.id/sat-paskhas-3
  5. ^ "Latih Kesiapan Antiteror di Gulkonsis VI", Remigius Septian, COMMANDO edisi 6 vol. XII 2016, p. 28, 2016 
  6. ^ http://weaponstechnology.blogspot.co.id/2011/06/
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ "Indonesia has ordered Rheinmetall-made Oerlikon Skyshield air defence system". 11 February 2014. 
  9. ^ "Skyshield 35 Mk-2 Tameng Denhannud Paskhas". 17 September 2014. 

External linksEdit