NASAMS (National/Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System) is a distributed and networked medium to long range air-defence system. NASAMS was the first surface-based application for the AIM-120 AMRAAM (Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile).
|National/Norwegian Advanced Surface to Air Missile System|
|Type||Surface-to-air missile system|
|Place of origin||Norway/United States|
|Used by||See operators|
|Designer||Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace|
|Manufacturer||Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace|
|Flight altitude||21 km (NASAMS 2)|
|Maximum depth||30 km (NASAMS 2)|
NASAMS 2 is an upgraded version of the NASAMS air-defence system and it has been operational since 2007.
The Norwegian company Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) teamed up with Raytheon and initiated the NASAMS programme as a cooperative effort for the Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF). The network-centric air defence system NASAMS was declared fully operational capable in 1998 but had an initial operational capability as early as in 1994/95.
Until the late 1990s the RNoAF ground-based air defence solution, also known as the Norwegian Solution (NORSOL), consisted of three different weapon systems; the 40mm Bofors L70 gun (controlled by the Oerlikon Contraves FCS2000 monopulse doppler tracking radar), the laser beam riding RBS 70 MANPADS system and the NASAMS. All three systems were integrated through the ARCS via field wires and radio.[clarification needed] The ARCS maintained connection to higher echelons and ensured protection of friendly aircraft while preventing over- and underkill for all subordinate weapon systems. NASAMS capabilities are enhanced by the system's networked and distributed nature.
The RNoAF together with KDA conducted a mid-life update of NASAMS, called NASAMS 2, and the upgraded version was first handed over to RNoAF in mid-2006. The major difference between the two versions is the use of Link 16 on NASAMS 2 as well as a better ground radar. Full operational capability (FOC) was expected for 2007.
A complete NASAMS (2) battery consists of 12 missile launchers (LCHR) (each one carrying six AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles), eight radars (AN/MPQ-64 Sentinel F1 Improved Sentinel X band 3D radar), one fire control centre (CTOC), one electro-optical camera vehicle (MSP500) and one Tactical Control Cell (TCC) vehicle.
The upgrades consist of:
- New radars, which can be mounted on a variety of vehicles. The radars have their own power supply and can process and distribute the data independently. The vehicles can be connected via radio links, cable, through Multi Rolle Radio, or through TADKOM.
- The radars have a broader frequency spectrum and variable rotation speeds, and also an increased capacity to spot and follow targets.
- Each module can automatically determine its position with its northfinder and GPS instruments.
- The control centre modules can be mounted on a large variety of vehicles
- The electro-optical MSP500 sensor is equipped with a laser rangefinder and a TV-camera, as well as an upgraded thermographic camera. These can be used to fire the missiles passively, which has been successfully tested.
The control system can detach itself from the sensors, in order to become less visible.
In April 2019 RNoAF upgraded to NASAMS 3, and in May 2019 the first live firing test were conducted.
The system integrates US-built MPQ-64 Sentinel air defense radar and AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles with an indigenously developed Battle management C4I system called FDC, short for Fire Distribution Center. The FDC connected to a MPQ-64 radar forms an "Acquisition Radar and Control System" (ARCS). The missile has a horizontal range of up to 25 km. Other sources cite a range of 'over 15 km' but this depends on the missile version used.
AMRAAM missile range:
• AIM-120A/B: 55–75 km
• AIM-120C-5: 105 km
• AIM-120C-7: 120 km
• AIM-120D: 180 km
Note that ranges for AAMs are estimated for head-on encounters for fast moving aircraft at an altitude, and the range is significantly shorter when the same missiles are launched from stationary ground platforms. Further dimensioning for a stationary ground-launched-missile system is its maximum altitude reach, which by rule of thumb is one third of its maximum horizontal range.
On 22 February 2015, Raytheon announced the development of the Extended Range upgrade to the NASAMS AMRAAM missile offering (AMRAAM-ER). Development work began in 2014, and the missile is actually an Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile using AMRAAM guidance. The first flight test took place in August 2016. Production was expected by 2019. Engagement envelope is expanded with a 50 percent increase in maximum range and 70 percent increase in maximum altitude; The missile is scheduled for testfiring at Andøya Space Center in the second quarter of 2021. 
NASAMS has been exported to the United States, with the NASAMS 2 upgrade having been exported to Finland, the Netherlands, Spain, Oman, and Chile. Chile is though not mentioned as an official user, as Kongsberg stated: "NASAMS is in operational use in Norway, Spain, USA, the Netherlands, Finland, and one undisclosed customer, and in production for Oman."
There are 12 official operators as of 2020, Kongsberg stated: "NASAMS is in operational use in Norway, Spain, USA, the Netherlands, Finland and one undisclosed customer. The system is in production for Oman, Lithuania, Australia, Hungary and Qatar. NASAMS is in use with both Armies and Air Forces around the world. In addition Poland, Greece, Sweden and Turkey operate the KONGSBERG Command and Control solution for various weapon systems."
- Chile – Ordered in 2011.
- Finland - Selected in 2009.
- Lithuania – Received the first NASAMS 3 battery on June 2020, the second one on October.
- Netherlands - 2 batteries, each consisting of 1 fire-control center, 1 radar and 3 launchers.
- Norway 
- Spain - Four fire units acquired in 2003.
- United States – Used to protect high-value targets and Washington D.C.
- Indonesia – 2 NASAMS battery delivered and in service as of 2020.
- Australia – The Australian defence minister Marise Payne announced first pass approval for the project on 10 April 2017. The Australian NASAMS will feature locally made components and be mounted on Hawkei vehicles.In March 2019, a joint statement by Defence Minister Christopher Pyne and Defence Industry Minister Linda Reynolds revealed Australia would proceed with the purchase.
- Oman – Ordered in January 2014, for a sum of $1.28 billion.
- Qatar – Ordered in July 2019. Qatar is the first country to procure AMRAAM-ER, the surface-to-air extended-range variant.
- Hungary – Ordered AMRAAM-ER in May 2020, which followed an earlier order of AMRAAM C-7 missiles, which will be used with the NASAMS system (ordered officially in November 2020). Planned delivery in 2023.
- India – The Defence acquisitions council (DAC), chaired by the then defence minister Nirmala Sitharaman, has approved the acceptance of necessity (AON) for the acquisition of NASAMS-II worth around $1 billion from the US.
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- "Front page - Mil.no". Archived from the original on 27 September 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
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- Defense Update. "Finland Selects Nowregian/U.S. NASAMS for SA-11 Replacement". Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2014.
- Raytheon.com - Goes long, flies high - Raytheon’s new extended-range, surface-to-air missile will enhance proven air defense system (2016-10-06)
- Extended range air defence fires up - Shephardmedia.com, 23 February 2015
- Raytheon completes first AMRAAM-ER missile flight tests from NASAMS air defense system - Armyrecognition.com, 5 October 2016
- Surface-Launched AMRAAM (SL-AMRAAM / CLAWS), United States of America - Army-Technology.com
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- "Rapid Fire: 2010-06-22". Defense Industry Daily. 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-25.
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- NASAMS September 2015 : "Washington DC has since 2005 been protected 24/7 by NASAMS."
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- kongsberg.com NASAMS AIR DEFENCE SYSTEM (19-08-2019)
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- Marc Ambinder (2015-04-16). "The futuristic air defense system of Washington, D.C. was defeated by a postman". The Week. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
- "Indonesia receives, deploys first NASAMS 2 air defense system". asiapacificdefensejournal.com. 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
- "NASAMS selected for Australian Army GBAD system". IHS Jane's 360. 11 April 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- LaPorta, James (8 November 2017). "Raytheon, Australia ink first deal for ground-based air defense system". UPI. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- Kerr, Julian (25 March 2019). "Australian NASAMS to integrate locally designed active phased-array radars". Jane's 360. Sydney. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- "Oman to spend more". janes.com. IHS Janes. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
- "RAYTHEON RECEIVES CONTRACT FOR GROUND BASED AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM FOR OMAN". investor.raytheon.com. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
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- "Controversial agreement in box: Replaces Soviet Kub air defense with Norwegian-developed Nasams". tu.no (in Norwegian). 2020-11-23. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
- "Like Washington and Moscow, Delhi too to get missile shield". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 29 July 2018. Retrieved 29 July 2018.
- "Not Keen On NASAMS-II, IAF Wants Indian Missile Defence". livefistdefence.com. 2020-07-20. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to NASAMS.|
- Official Norwegian Defence Force website NASAMS page
- Royal Norwegian Air Force Air and Missile Defence Team Page 1
- Royal Norwegian Air Force Air and Missile Defence Team Page 2
- Royal Norwegian Air Force Home Page
- NASAMS II (fact sheet in (in Norwegian)
- Finland acquire NASAMS and radar system for 500 million eur April 28, 2009