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The Pacific Games (formerly known as the South Pacific Games) is a multi-sport event, much like the Olympic Games (albeit on a smaller scale), with participation exclusively from countries around the South Pacific Ocean. It is held every four years and began in 1963. The sixteenth edition of the Pacific Games will be held in Apia, Samoa during July 2019.

Pacific Games
Pacific Games Council.png
AbbreviationPAG
First event1963
Occur every4 years
HeadquartersSuva, Fiji
PresidentVidhya Lakhan
WebsiteOfficial website

Nine different cities in six countries and territories have hosted the Pacific Games. Three countries have hosted the games three times: Fiji (1963, 1979, 2003), New Caledonia (1966, 1987, 2011) and Papua New Guinea (1969, 1991, 2015). Samoa have hosted the games twice (1983, 2007) and will host for the third time in 2019. Two territories have hosted the Pacific Games twice: French Polynesia (1971, 1995) and Guam (1975, 1999).

Only six countries have attended every edition of the Pacific Games: Fiji, French Polynesia (Tahiti), New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, and Vanuatu. New Caledonia have dominated twelve out of the fifteen Pacific Games, Papua New Guinea with two, and Fiji with one.

Contents

HistoryEdit

ConceptEdit

The idea of holding the South Pacific Games originated with Dr A.H. Sahu Khan who was one of Fiji's representatives at a meeting of the South Pacific Commission held at Rabaul during 1959. The idea was adopted and led to a meeting of nine Territories, held in Nouméa during March 1961, which awarded Fiji the honour of hosting the very first Games.[1]

CreationEdit

During 1962, the South Pacific Commission founded the South Pacific Games Council, with the first ever Games being held at Suva, Fiji. In the 40 years since, Games have been held in 12 countries and territories within the region. Initially the Games were held at three-year intervals although this was subsequently expanded to four following the Tumon Games in Guam.

As a residual consequence of the European colonisation of the Pacific from the early part of the 18th Century onwards, many nations who participated in the first Games (of 1963) were under predominantly British or French territorial rule. Understandably this generated a certain amount of confusion as both British and French flags and national anthems dominated proceedings and were occasionally used together for winning countries.
Western Samoa (now Samoa) was the only country with a flag and anthem of its sovereignty as it was the only participating independent island nation at that time. As time went on, fledgling nations gradually achieving sovereignty of their own sought to extricate themselves from their colonial past and new national anthems and flags emerged. Nevertheless, English and French remain the official languages of the Games.[2]

Like other sporting events, the South Pacific Games has experienced slight controversies. A minor dispute that still continues today is the scheduling of events landing on a Sunday. Throughout the Pacific, the Christian Sabbath remains very important (sporting events or similar activity are illegal in Tonga for example) and scheduling at such a time would be frowned upon. The events themselves have also been affected by religious sensitivities, notably beach volleyball where the official uniform of bikinis for women has been forced to give way to more conservative attire.[3] However other larger nations within the region or those loosely associated with more secular states (e.g. Cook Islands (New Zealand), American Samoa (United States), and French Polynesia (France)) are more moderate in this regard.

Other global and regional events have also influenced and shaped the Games' history. In 1995, the year Papeete, Tahiti hosted the Games, many countries took the decision to boycott as a direct protest at French nuclear testing in the Pacific.[4] The Games, however, returned to near full regional participation in the following event in 1999, held on Guam.

The first objective of the Pacific Games Council, according to its Charter,[5] is

"To create bonds of kindred friendship and brotherhood amongst people of the countries of the Pacific region through sporting exchange without any distinctions as to race, religion or politics."

The Games were initiated to promote and develop sport amongst the nations and peoples of the South Pacific.[1] After fifty years in existence, The South Pacific Commission changed its name to the Pacific Community.[1]

Modern day gamesEdit

The XII South Pacific Games held in Suva, Fiji saw for the first time the introduction of a full program of 32 sports.[6] That program included sports that are synonymous with the Pacific region as well as sports that have a limited participation and are generally not well established.

A strong corporate sponsorship package a first for the games enabled the organizers to work with a free hand towards their aims of making the games a success. A colorful and effective media and publicity campaign generated much interest and enthusiasm among the public in Fiji. Schools and youth groups were involved in interactive programs such as the adopt-a-country program also a first for the games.[7]

The XIII Pacific Games were hosted in Apia, Samoa. They were the 13th to have been held since 1963. In contrast to the Olympic Games which are expected to generate income for the host nation,[8] the 2007 Pacific Games were expected to leave Samoa US$92million in debt, predominantly as a result of expenditure on large-scale infrastructure projects such as bridges and roads.[9]

Potential debt positions notwithstanding, five nations (Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Tonga and American Samoa) bid for the 2015 Pacific Games. The Games were ultimately awarded to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea and follow the 2011 Pacific Games held in Nouméa, New Caledonia. However the rising cost (purportedly in excess of $1 billion) and the logistical burden of putting on the games continue to threaten countries' abilities to host the event.[10]

Pacific Games CouncilEdit

The games governing body is the Pacific Games Council. The Games council flag is presented to the host nation of the next games at the end of every games. With expansion and economic growth in the Pacific and Oceania countries of the Pacific Islands it was now appropriate for the South Pacific Games Council to modernise and revise its charter in light of these changes in the region and the changing place of Sport in our society, thus the council adapted a new charter in 2007.

The current President of the Council is Vidhya Lakhan from Fiji.

Member associationsEdit

Membership of the Council includes internationally recognised National Multisport Organisations within countries and territories who are members of the Pacific Community.[5] There are currently 22 members.[11] Pitcairn Island is the only Pacific Community member that is not member of the Pacific Council, whereas Norfolk Island was admitted as a member of the Pacific Games Council although not a member of the Pacific Community.

15 members are also member associations of the Oceania National Olympic Committees (ONOC).[11] Since the 2015 games Australia and New Zealand participate in the Pacific Games.

In July 2014, the Oceania National Olympic Committees announced their members had voted to allow Australia and New Zealand to participate in four sports, on a provisional basis, in the 2015 Pacific Games. The risk of seeing the two wealthy, developed nations dominate the competition had previously prevented their inclusion. They would be allowed to send participants only in rugby sevens, sailing, taekwondo and weightlifting - sports where other Pacific countries had proved sufficiently competitive against them in the past.[12]

Nation Organisation Website
  American Samoa American Samoa National Olympic Committee (ASNOC) oceaniasport.com/amsam
  Cook Islands Cook Islands Sports and National Olympic Committee (CISNOC) oceaniasport.com/cookis
  Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia National Olympic Committee (FSMNOC) oceaniasport.com/fsm
  Fiji Fiji Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (FASANOC) fijiolympiccommittee.com
  Guam Guam National Olympic Committee (GNOC) oceaniasport.com/guam
  Kiribati Kiribati National Olympic Committee (KNOC) oceaniasport.com/kiribati
  Marshall Islands Marshall Islands National Olympic Committee (MINOC) oceaniasport.com/marshalls
  Nauru Nauru Olympic Committee oceaniasport.com/nauru
  New Caledonia Le Comité Territorial Olympique et Sportif de Nouvelle-Calédonie (CTOS) www.ctos.nc
  Niue Niue Island Sports and Commonwealth Games Association (NISCGA) oceaniasport.com/niue
  Norfolk Island Norfolk Island Amateur Sports & Commonwealth Games Association sportingpulse.com/assoc_page.cgi?assoc=3852
  Northern Mariana Islands Northern Marianas Amateur Sports Association sportingpulse.com/assoc_page.cgi?assoc=3859
  Palau Palau National Olympic Committee (PNOC) oceaniasport.com/palau
  Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Sports Federation & National Olympic Committee (PNGSFOC) oceaniasport.com/png
  Samoa Samoa Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (SASNOC) oceaniasport.com/samoa
  Solomon Islands Solomon Islands National Olympic Committee (NOCSI) oceaniasport.com/solomon
  Tahiti Comité Olympique de Tahiti Nui (COPF) www.copf.pf
  Tokelau Tokelau Sports Federation sportingpulse.com/assoc_page.cgi?assoc=3861
  Tonga Tonga Sports Association and National Olympic Committee (TASANOC) oceaniasport.com/tonga
  Tuvalu Tuvalu Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (TASNOC) oceaniasport.com/tuvalu
  Vanuatu Vanuatu Association of Sports and National Olympic Committee (VASANOC) oceaniasport.com/vanuatu
  Wallis and Futuna Comité Territorial Olympique et Sportif des Iles Wallis et Futuna (CTOSWF) wallisetfutuna.franceolympique.com

Pacific Games locationsEdit

Year Games Host Dates Athletes Nations Sports Top nation
1963 I  Suva,Fiji 29 August – 8 September 646 13 10   Fiji
1966 II  Nouméa,New Caledonia 8–18 December 1200 14 12   New​ Caledonia
1969 III   Port Moresby,Papua New Guinea 13–23 August 1150 12 15   New​ Caledonia
1971 IV   Papeete,Tahiti 25 August – 5 September 2000 14 17   New​ Caledonia
1975 V  Tumon,Guam 1–10 August 1205 13 16   New​ Caledonia
1979 VI  Suva,Fiji 28 August – 8 September 2672 19 18   New​ Caledonia
1983 VII  Apia,Western Samoa 5–16 September 2500 15 13   New​ Caledonia
1987 VIII  Nouméa,New Caledonia 8–20 December 1650 12 18   New​ Caledonia
1991 IX  Port Moresby,Papua New Guinea 7–21 September 2000 16 17   PapuaNew Guinea
1995 X  Papeete,Tahiti 25 August – 5 September 2000 12 25   New​ Caledonia
1999 XI  Santa Rita,Guam 29 May – 12 June  3000+ 21 22   New​ Caledonia
2003 XII  Suva,Fiji 28 June – 12 July 5000 22 32   New​ Caledonia
2007 XIII  Apia,Samoa 25 August – 8 September 5000 22 33   New​ Caledonia
2011 XIV  Nouméa,New Caledonia 27 August – 10 September 4300 22 27   New​ Caledonia
2015 XV  Port Moresby,Papua New Guinea 4–18 July 3700 24 28   PapuaNew Guinea
2019 XVI  Apia,Samoa[13] 8–20 July 3500 24 26
2023 XVII  Honiara,Solomon Islands[14] TBD TBD 24 24

SportsEdit

There are 37 sports approved by the Pacific Games Council, as at December 2017.[15] The 2019 Pacific Games shall consist of a maximum 26 sports, but a reduction to a maximum of 24 sports will be made for 2023.[16]

Core sportsEdit

The number of Pacific Games core sports was increased from 14 to 16,[16] effective for the 2023 Games. This change was made in 2016, with Sailing and Triathlon being made core sports.[16] The core sports are required to be included at every edition of the games.

Details for each core sport, up to and including the 2019 games, are presented in the table below:

Sport Contested Years
Athletics All 1963–present
Basketball All 1963–present
Boxing All 1963–present
Football All 1963–present
Golf 14 times 1969–present
Judo 11 times 1969–1979, 1987, 1995–2011, 2019–present
Outrigger canoeing (Va'a) 7 times 1995–present
Rugby 7s 6 times 1999–present
Sailing 13 times 1969–1979, 1987–present
Swimming 15 times 1963–1979, 1987–present
Table tennis All 1963–present
Taekwondo 7 times 1995–present
Tennis All 1963–present
Triathlon 7 times 1995–present
Volleyball &

Beach volleyball §

All (indoor) 1963–present (indoor)
6 times (beach) 1999–present (beach)
Weightlifting 15 times 1966–present

Optional sportsEdit

There are 21 sports optional for inclusion at a games, as selected by the host nation's organising committee. Details for each optional sport, up to and including the 2019 games, are presented in the table below:

Sport Contested Years
Archery 7 times 1971–1975, 1995, 2003–2011, 2019
Badminton 4 times 2003–2011, 2019
Baseball 4 times 1999–2011
Billiards   Never N/A
Bodybuilding 5 times 1995, 2003–2015
Cricket 8 times 1979, 1987–1991, 2003–present
Cycling 5 times 1966, 1971–1975, 1987, 1995
Field hockey 4 times 1979, 2003–2007, 2015
Handball Never N/A
Karate 5 times 1995–2003, 2011–2015
Lawn bowls 6 times 1979, 1991, 2003–2007, 2015–present
Netball   12 times 1963–1969, 1979–1983, 1991–2007, 2015–present
Powerlifting 6 times 1995, 2003–present
Rugby league 9s 4 times 2007, 2015–present
Shooting 7 times 1987, 1995, 2003–present
Snooker   Never N/A
Softball 6 times 1969–1975, 1991, 2007, 2015
Squash 9 times 1979–1991, 2003–present
Surfing 4 times 1995, 2003–2011
Touch rugby 4 times 2003–2007, 2015–present
Wrestling 2 times 1999, 2007

Former sportsEdit

Former sports include rugby 15s (replaced by rugby 7s) and underwater fishing (last contested in 1999).

Sport Contested Years
Rugby 15s 9 times 1963–1971, 1979–1995
Underwater fishing 4 times 1971–1975, 1995–1999

Also included at the 2009 Pacific Mini Games was rugby league 7s (now replaced by rugby league 9s).

Notes:

^† Football for men was a compulsory inclusion for many years but, as of the Charter revised in December 2017, it was made a core sport for both men's and women's teams.[15] For the first time in 2007, the Pacific Games formed part of the qualification for the FIFA World Cup.[17]

^‡ Touch rugby is an optional sport but men's, women's and mixed tournaments must be included if touch rugby is selected.

Volleyball and beach volleyball disciplines have been listed as one sport for the purposes of the Games programme, since some time after the bids for the XV Games (in conjunction with the maximum number of sports being reduced from 28 to 26 for the XVI Games).[18][19]

   Open competition; non-gender specific.

  Women's competition only.

All-time medal tableEdit

Officially the final medal tally of the Games does not recognize a winner, regarding competition and fair play more highly.[7]

Australia and New Zealand were included in the all-time medal count for the first time after the 2015 Pacific Games in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. The table below includes all Games from 1963 to 2015.

Nation(s) in italics are defunct PGAs.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  New Caledonia8356725802087
2  French Polynesia4824114341327
3  Papua New Guinea4323944011227
4  Fiji3874474551289
5  Samoa (includes Western Samoa)194151156501
6  Nauru896145195
7  Guam6298128288
8  Tonga496191201
9  American Samoa444374161
10  Cook Islands264962137
11  Wallis and Futuna223683141
12  Vanuatu (includes New Hebrides)215888167
13  Solomon Islands195292163
14  F.S. Micronesia19141043
15  Australia17191147
16  Palau9141336
17  Kiribati6162446
18  Norfolk Island5131533
19  Northern Mariana Islands5111228
20  Tokelau3216
21  New Zealand191020
22  Tuvalu1359
23  Niue051015
24  Marshall Islands031114
25  Gilbert and Ellice Islands0112
Totals (25 nations)2728264328128183

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "History". Pacific Games Council Official Website. 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  2. ^ Charter 2007, p. 6.
  3. ^ Bikinis out, Shorts in at Beach Volleyball Pacific Radio News - Niue FM, 29 August 2007
  4. ^ French tests: Opposition grows, article summarising the response to French nuclear testing in the Pacific from World Information Service on Energy retrieved 19 February 2007
  5. ^ a b Charter 2007, p. 4.
  6. ^ Sidsnet.org Archived 4 May 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ a b 2003 Twelfth South Pacific Games, Suva, Fiji
  8. ^ Article by CBRE regarding increase to gross domestic product and real estate values as a result of the 2004 Athens Olympics
  9. ^ "Games puts Samoa in debt". ABC Radio Australia. 3 September 2007. Retrieved 3 September 2007.
  10. ^ Paligaru, Clement. "PNG risks losing right to host 2015 Pacific Games". ABC Radio Australia. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  11. ^ a b "Pacific Games Council - DIRECTORY 2013" (PDF 0.4 MB). Pacific Games Council. 2013. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  12. ^ "Vanuatu committed to 2017 Pacific Mini Games". Cook Islands News. 11 May 2017. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  13. ^ "Samoa Set To Host Pacific Games In 2019". Pacific Islands Report. 1 September 2017. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Solomon Islands awarded 2023 Pacific Games", Inside the Games, 11 May 2016
  15. ^ a b Charter 2018, p. 14–15.
  16. ^ a b c "Pacific Games: Sports Program Review". Pacific Games Council. 27 May 2016. Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
  17. ^ "OFC 2010 FIFA World Cup route via Asia". Oceania Football Confederation. 7 December 2006. Archived from the original on 28 April 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
  18. ^ Charter 2010, pp. 15–16.
  19. ^ Charter 2012, pp. 15–16.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit