Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. It is distinguished from other ways of addressing fundamental questions (such as mysticism, myth, or religion) by being critical and generally systematic and by its reliance on rational argument. It involves logical analysis of language and clarification of the meaning of words and concepts.
The word "philosophy" comes from the Greek philosophia (φιλοσοφία), which literally means "love of wisdom".
Branches of philosophyEdit
The branches of philosophy and their sub-branches that are used in contemporary philosophy are as follows.
Aesthetics is study of the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and the creation of personal kinds of truth.
- Applied aesthetics – application of the philosophy of aesthetics to art and culture.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that studies the source, nature and validity of knowledge.
- Social epistemology – inquiry into the social aspects of knowledge.
- Formal epistemology – the application of formal models to study knowledge.
- Metaepistemology – studying the foundations of epistemology itself.
Ethics – study of value and morality.
- Applied ethics – philosophical examination, from a moral standpoint, of particular issues in private and public life that are matters of moral judgment. It is thus the attempts to use philosophical methods to identify the morally correct course of action in various fields of human life.
- Bioethics – analysis of controversial ethical issues emerging from advances in medicine.
- Environmental ethics – studies ethical issues concerning the non-human world. It exerts influence on a large range of disciplines including environmental law, environmental sociology, ecotheology, ecological economics, ecology and environmental geography.
- Medical ethics – studies ethical issues concerning medicine and medical research
- Professional ethics – ethics to improve professionalism
- Descriptive ethics – study of people's beliefs about morality
- Discourse ethics – discovery of ethical principles through the study of language
- Formal ethics – discovery of ethical principles through the application of logic
- Normative ethics – study of ethical theories that prescribe how people ought to act
- Metaethics – branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments
Logic – the systematic study of the form of valid inference and reasoning.
- Classical logic
- Non-classical logic
Metaphysics – concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it.
- Cosmology – the study of the nature and origins of the universe.
- Ontology – philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
- Meta-ontology – study of the ontological foundations of ontology itself.
- Philosophy of space and time – branch of philosophy concerned with the issues surrounding the ontology, epistemology, and character of space and time.
Philosophy of mindEdit
Philosophy of mind – studies the nature of the mind, mental properties, consciousness, and their relationship to the physical body, particularly the brain.
- Philosophy of action – theories about the processes causing willful human bodily movements of a more or less complex kind. This area of thought has attracted the strong interest of philosophers ever since Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Third Book).
- Philosophy of self – The philosophy of self is the study of the many conditions of identity that make one subject of experience distinct from other experiences
Philosophy of scienceEdit
Philosophy of science – the branch of philosophy dealing with the epistemology, methodology and foundations of science
- Philosophy of anthropology
- Philosophy of biology
- Philosophy of chemistry
- Philosophy of computer science
- Philosophy of geography
- Philosophy of medicine
- Philosophy of physics
- Philosophy of social science
Philosophic traditions by regionEdit
Regional variations of philosophy.
- Chinese philosophy
- Indian philosophy
- Indonesian philosophy
- Japanese philosophy
- Korean philosophy
- Vietnamese philosophy
Middle Eastern PhilosophyEdit
Indigenous American philosophyEdit
- American philosophy
- Australian philosophy
- British philosophy
- Canadian philosophy
- Czech philosophy
- Danish philosophy
- Dutch philosophy
- French philosophy
- Greek philosophy
- German philosophy
- Italian philosophy
- Maltese philosophy
- Polish philosophy
- Romanian philosophy
- Russian philosophy
- Scottish philosophy
- Slovene philosophy
- Spanish philosophy
- Yugoslav philosophy
History of philosophyEdit
The history of philosophy in specific contexts of time and space.
Timeline of philosophyEdit
- 11th century in philosophy
- 12th century in philosophy
- 13th century in philosophy
- 14th century in philosophy
- 15th century in philosophy
- 16th century in philosophy
- 17th century in philosophy
- 18th century in philosophy
- 19th-century philosophy
- 20th-century philosophy
Ancient and classical philosophyEdit
Philosophies during ancient history.
Ancient Greek and Roman philosophyEdit
- Pre-Socratic philosophy
- Classical Greek philosophy
- Hellenistic philosophy
- Ancient Roman philosophy
Classical Chinese philosophyEdit
- Hundred Schools of Thought
Classical Indian philosophyEdit
- Orthodox schools
- Heterodox schools
Medieval and post-classical philosophyEdit
Philosophies during post-classical history.
Post-classical Chinese philosophyEdit
Modern and contemporary philosophyEdit
Philosophies during the modern era.
- Renaissance humanism
- Renaissance Jewish philosophy
- School of Salamanca
Early modern philosophyEdit
Philosophical schools of thoughtEdit
Philosophical schools of thought not tied to particular historic contexts.
- Constructivist epistemology
- Embodied cognition
- Internalism and externalism
- Logical positivism
- Naïve realism
- Naturalized epistemology
- Objectivist epistemology
- Representative realism
- Situated cognition
- Theory of Forms
- Transcendental idealism
- Virtue ethics
- Moral realism
- Moral relativism
- Error theory
- Ethical egoism
- Cultural relativism
- Evolutionary ethics
- Evolution of morality
- Classical logic
- Intermediate logic
- Intuitionistic logic
- Minimal logic
- Relevant logic
- Affine logic
- Linear logic
- Ordered logic
- Cartesian dualism
- Free will
- Meaning of life
- Platonic idealism
- Hindu idealism
- Scientific realism
- Substance theory
- Type theory
- Social democracy
Philosophy of language theories and stancesEdit
- Causal theory of reference
- Contrast theory of meaning
- Descriptivist theory of names
- Direct reference theory
- Linguistic determinism
- Logical atomism
- Mediated reference theory
- Relevance theory
- Semantic externalism
- Semantic holism
- Supposition theory
- Theological noncognitivism
- Theory of descriptions
- Verification theory
Philosophy of mind theories and stancesEdit
- Biological naturalism
- Eliminative materialism
- Emergent materialism
- Identity theory
- Neutral monism
- Property dualism
- Representational theory of mind
- Sense datum theory
- Substance dualism
- Qualia theory
Philosophy of religion stancesEdit
- Theories of religion
- Divine command theory
- Dualistic cosmology
- Feminist theology
- New Age
- Process theology
Philosophy of science theories and stancesEdit
- Confirmation holism
- Deductive-nomological model
- Hypothetico-deductive model
- Received view of theories
- Semantic view of theories
- Scientific realism
- Scientific anti-realism
- Blackwell Companion to Philosophy
- A History of Western Philosophy by Bertrand Russell
- A History of Philosophy by Frederick Copleston
- Encyclopedia of Philosophy – one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy. The second edition, edited by Donald M. Borchert, was published in ten volumes in 2006 by Thomson Gale. Volumes 1–9 contain alphabetically ordered articles.
- Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy – a free online encyclopedia on philosophical topics and philosophers founded by James Fieser in 1995. The current general editors are James Fieser (Professor of Philosophy at the University of Tennessee at Martin) and Bradley Dowden (Professor of Philosophy at California State University, Sacramento). The staff also includes numerous area editors as well as volunteers.
- Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy – encyclopedia of philosophy edited by Edward Craig that was first published by Routledge in 1998 (ISBN 978-0415073103). Originally published in both 10 volumes of print and as a CD-ROM, in 2002 it was made available online on a subscription basis. The online version is regularly updated with new articles and revisions to existing articles. It has 1,300 contributors providing over 2,000 scholarly articles.
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy – combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely-accessible to internet users. Each entry is written and maintained by an expert in the field, including professors from many academic institutions worldwide.
- ^ Jenny Teichmann and Katherine C. Evans, Philosophy: A Beginner's Guide (Blackwell Publishing, 1999), p. 1: "Philosophy is a study of problems which are ultimate, abstract and very general. These problems are concerned with the nature of existence, knowledge, morality, reason and human purpose."
- ^ A.C. Grayling, Philosophy 1: A Guide through the Subject (Oxford University Press, 1998), p. 1: "The aim of philosophical inquiry is to gain insight into questions about knowledge, truth, reason, reality, meaning, mind, and value."
- ^ Anthony Quinton, in T. Honderich (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 666: "Philosophy is rationally critical thinking, of a more or less systematic kind about the general nature of the world (metaphysics or theory of existence), the justification of belief (epistemology or theory of knowledge), and the conduct of life (ethics or theory of value). Each of the three elements in this list has a non-philosophical counterpart, from which it is distinguished by its explicitly rational and critical way of proceeding and by its systematic nature. Everyone has some general conception of the nature of the world in which they live and of their place in it. Metaphysics replaces the unargued assumptions embodied in such a conception with a rational and organized body of beliefs about the world as a whole. Everyone has occasion to doubt and question beliefs, their own or those of others, with more or less success and without any theory of what they are doing. Epistemology seeks by argument to make explicit the rules of correct belief formation. Everyone governs their conduct by directing it to desired or valued ends. Ethics, or moral philosophy, in its most inclusive sense, seeks to articulate, in rationally systematic form, the rules or principles involved."
- ^ Philosophia, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
- ^ Online Etymology Dictionary
- ^ The definition of philosophy is: "1.orig., love of, or the search for, wisdom or knowledge 2.theory or logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe". Webster's New World Dictionary (Second College ed.).
- Taxonomy of Philosophy – topic outline developed by David Chalmers as the category structure for the table of contents of the PhilPapers academic directory.
- PhilPapers – comprehensive directory of online philosophical articles and books.
- Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names
- Guide to Philosophy on the Internet
- The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- The Ism Book
- Introducing Philosophy Series. By Paul Newall (for beginners)
- Philosophical positions (philosophy, movement, school, theory, etc.)
- The Problems of Philosophy, by Bertrand Russell (links provided to full text)
- Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy