Outline of ethics
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to ethics:
Ethics – major branch of philosophy, encompassing right conduct and good life. It is significantly broader than the common conception of analyzing right and wrong. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is simply satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than moral conduct.
What type of thing is ethics?Edit
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology.
The following examples of questions that might be considered in each field illustrate the differences between the fields:
- Descriptive ethics: What do people think is right?
- Normative ethics (prescriptive): How should people act?
- Applied ethics: How do we take moral knowledge and put it into practice?
- Meta-ethics: What does "right" even mean?
Applied ethics – using philosophical methods, attempts to identify the morally correct course of action in various fields of human life.
- Economics and business
- Business ethics – concerns questions such as the limits on managers in the pursuit of profit, or the duty of 'whistleblowers' to the general public as opposed to their employers.
- Development ethics (economic development)
- Ethics in management
- Ethics in pharmaceutical sales
- Lifeboat ethics (economic metaphor)
- Bioethics – concerned with identifying the correct approach to matters such as euthanasia, or the allocation of scarce health resources, or the use of human embryos in research.
- Organizational ethics – ethics among organizations.
- Professional ethics
- Accounting ethics – study of moral values and judgments as they apply to accountancy.
- Archaeological ethics –
- Computer ethics – deals with how computing professionals should make decisions regarding professional and social conduct.
- Engineering ethics
- Journalism ethics and standards
- Research ethics
- Legal ethics
- Marketing ethics
- Media ethics
- Medical ethics (aka clinical ethics)
- Nursing ethics
- Ethics of technology
- Technoethics – the ethics of technology in society
- Ethics of terraforming
- Ethics of artificial intelligence
- Internet ethics
- Information ethics
- Social ethics – ethics among nations and as one global unit.
- Bridge ethics – codes of ethics applied during play of the card game known as contact bridge.
- Environmental ethics – concerned with issues such as the duties of humans towards landscapes and species.
- Animal rights – also known as animal liberation, is the idea that the most basic interests of non-human animals should be afforded the same consideration as the similar interests of human beings.
- Climate ethics – concerned with the ethical dimensions of climate change, and concepts such as climate justice.
- Environmental virtue ethics
- Trail ethics
- Ethics of eating meat
- Public sector ethics
- Meta-ethics or moral epistemology– concerns the nature of moral statements, that is, it studies what ethical terms and theories actually refer to.
- Moral nihilism – the meta-ethical view that nothing is intrinsically moral or immoral (see also nihilism)
- Moral syncretism – the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory moral beliefs, often while melding the ethical
practices of various schools of thought.
- Moral relativism and relativism
- Fallibilism – the philosophical principle that human beings could be wrong about their beliefs, expectations, or their understanding of the world
- Moral skepticism – a class of metaethical theories all members of which entail that no one has any moral knowledge
- Formal ethics
- Discourse ethics – discovering ethical values through argument
- Ethics of justice
- Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development
- Evolutionary ethics
- Neuroethics – ethics in neuroscience, but also the neuroscience of ethics
- Situated ethics – a view of applied ethics in which abstract standards from a culture or theory are considered to be far less important than the ongoing processes in which one is personally and physically involved
Normative ethics – concerns what people should believe to be right and wrong.
- Consequentialism – moral theories that hold that the consequences of one's conduct are the true basis for any judgement about the morality of that conduct. Thus, a morally right act (or omission) is one that will produce a good outcome (the end justifies the means).
- Deontological ethics – approach that judges the morality of an action based on the action's adherence to a rule or rules.
- Moral absolutism – view that certain actions are absolutely right or wrong, regardless of their circumstances such as their consequences or the intentions behind them. Thus stealing, for instance, might be considered to be always immoral, even if done to promote some other good (e.g., stealing food to feed a starving family), and even if it does in the end promote such a good.
- Graded absolutism
- Pragmatic ethics
- Virtue ethics – describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior.
- Aristotelian ethics – the beginning of ethics as a subject, in the form of a systematic study of how individuals should best live. Aristotle believed one's goal should be living well and "eudaimonia", a Greek word often translated as "well-being" or "happiness". This could be achieved by the acquisition of a virtuous character, or in other words having well-chosen excellent habits.
- Eudaimonism – system of ethics that measures happiness in relation to morality.
- Ethics of care – a normative ethical theory
- Ethical egoism – the normative ethical position that moral agents ought to do what is in their own self-interest
- Living Ethics
- Religious ethics
- Divine command theory – claims that ethical sentences express the attitudes of God. Thus, the sentence "charity is good" means "God commands charity".
- Ethics in the Bible
- Ayyavazhi ethics
- Buddhist ethics
- Christian ethics
- Situational ethics, a Christian ethical theory
- Islamic ethics
- Jain ethics
- Jewish ethics
- Religious values
- Playing God (ethics)
- Spalding Professor of Eastern Religion and Ethics
- Ethics and religious culture – a course taught in all elementary and high schools in Quebec
- Religious views on business ethics
- Ethics (Scientology)
- Ethics of circumcision
- Secular ethics
- Biocentrism (ethics) – an ethical point of view which extends inherent value to non-human species, ecosystems, and processes in nature
- Altruism (ethics) – an ethical doctrine that holds that individuals have a moral obligation to help, serve, or benefit others, if necessary at the sacrifice of self-interest
- Rights ethics (thought in the American and French Revolutions)
- Feminist ethics
is based on facts of the Honorable Keesy Josephat of Tanzania who was the first professor in Tanzania at the lait of 1860
- Golden Rule
- Harm principle
- Non-aggression principle
- Silver Rule
Rights and legal conceptsEdit
- Human rights
- Just War
- Natural and legal rights
- Political freedom
- Rule according to higher law
Guidelines and basic conceptsEdit
- Good and evil
- Commensurability (ethics)
- Ideal (ethics)
- Moral responsibility
- Norm (philosophy)
- Universal code (ethics)
- Value (ethics)
- Canadian House of Commons Standing Committee on Access to Information, Privacy and Ethics
- Commission on Federal Ethics Law Reform
- Committee on Publication Ethics
- District of Columbia Board of Elections and Ethics
- Ethics & Religious Liberty Commission
- Ethics Commission
- Ethics Commissioner (Canada)
- Ethics Committee (European Union)
- Ethics committee (disambiguation)
- Federal Ethics Committee on Non-Human Biotechnology
- International Bioethics Committee
- International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants
- Jeffersonville Ethics Commission
- Nevada Commission on Ethics
- Office of Congressional Ethics
- Oklahoma Ethics Commission
- Pennsylvania State Ethics Commission
- San Francisco Ethics Commission
- Texas Ethics Commission
- The President's Council on Bioethics
- Toi Te Taiao: The Bioethics Council – New Zealand council on bioethnics, 2002-9
- United States House Committee on Ethics
- United States Office of Government Ethics
- United States Senate Select Committee on Ethics
- Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs
- Center for Ethics at Yeshiva University
- Center for International Media Ethics
- Center for Religion, Ethics and Social Policy
- Center for bioethics and medical humanities
- Centre for Applied Ethics
- Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics
- Centre for Human Bioethics
- Centre for Values, Ethics and the Law in Medicine
- Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington
- Computer Ethics Institute
- Cumberland School of Law's Center for Biotechnology, Law, and Ethics
- Ethics AdviceLine for Journalists
- Ethics Resource Center
- Ethics and Democracy Network
- Ethics and Excellence in Journalism Foundation
- Ethics and Public Policy Center
- Feminist Approaches to Bioethics
- Foundation for Thought and Ethics
- Institute for Business and Professional Ethics
- Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies
- Institute for Global Ethics
- Institute for Science, Ethics and Innovation
- Institute of Business Ethics
- International Neuroethics Society
- International Society for Environmental Ethics
- Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics
- Kenan Institute for Ethics
- Kennedy Institute of Ethics
- Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
- Kirby Laing Institute for Christian Ethics
- Maguire Center for Ethics
- Markkula Center for Applied Ethics
- National Catholic Bioethics Center
- National Core for Neuroethics
- National Tribunal of Journalistic Ethics
- Nihon Ethics of Video Association
- Nuffield Council on Bioethics
- School for Ethics and Global Leadership
- Society for Business Ethics
- Society of Corporate Compliance and Ethics
- Society of Jewish Ethics
- St James Ethics Centre
- Standard Ethics Aei – sustainability rating agency based in Brussels
- The Soderquist Center for Leadership and Ethics
- Sydney Bioethics Program
- University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics
Persons influential in the field of ethicsEdit
- Confucius (551–479 BCE)
- Socrates (469–399 BCE)
- Plato (424/423–348/347 BCE)
- Aristippus (c. 435–356 BCE)
- Aristotle (384–322 BCE)
- Mencius (c. 372–289 BCE)
- Epicurus (341–270 BCE)
- Jesus (7–2 BCE – 30–36 CE)
- Epictetus (55–135 CE)
- Augustine of Hippo (354–430)
- Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274)
- Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677)
- David Hume (1711–1776)
- Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)
- Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832)
- Georg W. F. Hegel (1770–1831)
- Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860)
- John Stuart Mill (1806–1873)
- Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855)
- Henry Sidgwick (1838–1900)
- William James (1842–1910)
- Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)
- John Dewey (1859–1952)
- Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869–1948)
- G. E. Moore (1873–1958)
- Paul Tillich (1886–1965)
- Karl Barth (1886–1968)
- J. L. Mackie (1917–1981)
- G.E.M. Anscombe (1919–2001)
- Philippa Foot (1920–2010)
- John Rawls (1921–2002)
- Bernard Williams (1929–2003)
- Alasdair MacIntyre (1929– )
- Thomas Nagel (1937– )
- Derek Parfit (1942– )
- Peter Singer (1946– )
- Jonathan Dancy (1946– )
- Ethics in America – television series, 1988-9
- Lindner Ethics Complaint of the 83rd Minnesota Legislative Session
- Nicomachean Ethics – most popular ethics treatise by Aristotle
- Eudemian Ethics
- Magna Moralia
- Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics
- Encyclopedia of Ethics
- Ethics, Institutions, and the Right to Philosophy
- Ethics (book)
- Life sciences, ethics and democracy
- How to Observe Morals and Manners
- Search for Destiny or the Twenty Seventh Theorem of Ethics – science fiction novel
- The Ethics of Ambiguity
- The Ethics of Liberty
- The Methods of Ethics
- Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice
- Genethics: The Clash between the New Genetics and Human Values
- Practical Ethics
- American Journal of Bioethics
- Business Ethics Quarterly
- Business and Professional Ethics Journal
- Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
- Environmental Ethics
- Ethics & International Affairs
- Ethics (journal)
- Ethics and Language
- Experiments in Ethics
- IRB: Ethics & Human Research
- Journal of Business Ethics
- Journal of Business Ethics Education
- Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
- Journal of Ethics & Social Philosophy
- Journal of Information Ethics
- Journal of Medical Ethics
- Legal Trends in Bioethics
- Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
- Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy
- Professional Ethics
- Religion & Ethics Newsweekly
- Teaching Ethics
- The Economics and Ethics of Private Property
- The Freedom Paradox: Towards a Post-Secular Ethics
- The Journal of Ethics
- Singer, P. (1993) Practical Ethics, 2nd edition (p.10), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
- Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy "Ethics"
- Random House Unabridged Dictionary: Entry on Axiology.
- Bynum, Terrell Ward. "A Very Short History of Computer Ethics". Southern Connecticut State University. Archived from the original on 2008-04-18. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- An Introduction to Ethics by Paul Newall, aimed at beginners.
- Ethics, 2d ed., 1973. by William Frankena
- Ethics Bites Open University podcast series podcast exploring ethical dilemmas in everyday life.
- University of San Diego – Ethics glossary Useful terms in ethics discussions
- National Reference Center for Bioethics Literature World's largest library for ethical issues in medicine and biomedical research
- Ethics entry in Encyclopædia Britannica by Peter Singer
- The Philosophy of Ethics on Philosophy Archive
- Ethics updates Provides resources and updates on current literature, both popular and professional, that relate to ethics.
- Kirby Laing Institute for Christian Ethics Resources, events, and research on a range of ethical subjects from a Christian perspective.