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Orders of magnitude (power)

This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various sources of energy. They are grouped by orders of magnitude, and each section covers three orders of magnitude, or a factor of one thousand.

Contents

Below 1 wattEdit

Below 1 yoctowattEdit

Yoctowatt (10−24 watt)Edit

Zeptowatt (10−21 watt)Edit

Attowatt (10−18 watt)Edit

Femtowatt (10−15 watt)Edit

  • 2.5 fW – tech: minimum discernible signal at the antenna terminal of a good FM radio receiver
  • 10 fW (−110 dBm) – tech: approximate lower limit of power reception on digital spread-spectrum cell phones

Picowatt (10−12 watt)Edit

Nanowatt (10−9 watt)Edit

Microwatt (10−6 watt)Edit

Milliwatt (10−3 watt)Edit

Centiwatt (10−2 watt)Edit

Deciwatt (10−1 watt)Edit

  • 500 mW - tech: maximum allowed carrier output power of an FRS radio

Between 1 and 1000 wattsEdit

WattEdit

Decawatt (101 watts)Edit

Hectowatt (102 watts)Edit

Above 1000 wattsEdit

Kilowatt (103 watts)Edit

Megawatt (106 watts)Edit

  • 1.3 MW – tech: power output of P-51 Mustang fighter aircraft
  • 2.0 MW – tech: peak power output of GE's standard wind turbine
  • 2.4 MW – tech: peak power output of a Princess Coronation class steam locomotive (approx 3.3K EDHP on test) (1937)
  • 2.5 MW – biomed: peak power output of a blue whale
  • 3 MW – tech: mechanical power output of a diesel locomotive
  • 7 MW - tech: mechanical power output of a Top Fuel dragster
  • 8 MW – tech: peak power output of the MHI Vestas V164, the world's largest offshore wind turbine
  • 10 MW – tech: highest ERP allowed for an UHF television station
  • 10.3 MW – geo: electrical power output of Togo
  • 12.2 MW – tech: approx power available to a Eurostar 20-carriage train
  • 16 MW – tech: rate at which a typical gasoline pump transfers chemical energy to a vehicle
  • 26 MW – tech: peak power output of the reactor of a Los Angeles-class nuclear submarine
  • 75 MW – tech: maximum power output of one GE90 jet engine as installed on the Boeing 777
  • 140 MW – tech: average power consumption of a Boeing 747 passenger aircraft
  • 190 MW – tech: peak power output of a Nimitz-class aircraft carrier
  • 500 MW - tech: typical power output of a Fossil fuel power station
  • 900 MW – tech: electric power output of a CANDU nuclear reactor
  • 959 MW – geo: average electrical power consumption of Zimbabwe in 1998

The productive capacity of electrical generators operated by utility companies is often measured in MW. Few things can sustain the transfer or consumption of energy on this scale; some of these events or entities include: lightning strikes, naval craft (such as aircraft carriers and submarines), engineering hardware, and some scientific research equipment (such as supercolliders and large lasers).

For reference, about 10,000 100-watt lightbulbs or 5,000 computer systems would be needed to draw 1 MW. Also, 1 MW is approximately 1360 horsepower. Modern high-power diesel-electric locomotives typically have a peak power of 3–5 MW, while a typical modern nuclear power plant produces on the order of 500–2000 MW peak output.

Gigawatt (109 watts)Edit

Terawatt (1012 watts)Edit

Petawatt (1015 watts)Edit

Exawatt (1018 watts)Edit

In a keynote presentation, NIF & Photon Science Chief Technology Officer Chris Barty described the "Nexawatt" Laser, an exawatt (1,000-petawatt) laser concept based on NIF technologies, on April 13 at the SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics 2015 Conference in Prague. Barty also gave an invited talk on "Laser-Based Nuclear Photonics" at the SPIE meeting.[31]

Zettawatt (1021 watts)Edit

Yottawatt (1024 watts)Edit

Greater than one thousand yottawattsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Nanoelectromechanical systems face the future". Physics World. February 1, 2001. 
  2. ^ Warner, Jon S; Johnston, Roger G (December 2003). "GPS Spoofing Countermeasures". Archived from the original on February 7, 2012.  (This article was originally published as Los Alamos research paper LAUR-03-6163)
  3. ^ a b CERN. Beam Parameters and Definitions". Table 2.2. Retrieved September 13, 2008
  4. ^ dtic.mil - harvesting energy with hand-crank generators to support dismounted soldier missions, 2004-12-xx
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  6. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20081217040211/http://www.gearypacific.com/ComfortZone/14%20The%20People%20Load.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 17, 2008. Retrieved March 17, 2008.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ alternative-energy-news.info - The Pedal-A-Watt Stationary Bicycle Generator, January 11, 2010
  8. ^ econvergence.net - The Pedal-A-Watt Bicycle Generator Stand Buy one or build with detailed plans., 2012
  9. ^ "GeForce GTX 480 Tortured by FurMark: 300W and Earplugs Required!". Geeks3D.com. March 28, 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2010. 
  10. ^ DOE Fundamentals Handbook, Classical Physics. USDOE. 1992. pp. CP–05, Page 9. OSTI 10170060. 
  11. ^ Ball, D; Burrows C; Sargeant AJ (March 1999). "Human power output during repeated sprint cycle exercise: the influence of thermal stress". Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 79 (4): 360–6. PMID 10090637. 
  12. ^ a b http://www.fao.org/docrep/w7241e/w7241e05.htm
  13. ^ http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/amclasses.html
  14. ^ http://www.fcc.gov/mb/audio/fmclasses.html
  15. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/nov/27/bitcoin-mining-consumes-electricity-ireland
  16. ^ http://www.controleng.com/blog/820000282/post/1100035510.html
  17. ^ http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Japan/Electricity.html
  18. ^ "Costa Rica has been running on 100% renewable energy for 2 months straight". 
  19. ^ http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2001/StaverieBoundouris.shtml
  20. ^ National Grid electricity consumption statistics
  21. ^ Turkish Electricity Transmission Company's Installed Capacity Statistics
  22. ^ Annamalai, Kalyan; Ishwar Kanwar Puri (2006). Combustion Science and Engineering. CRC Press. p. 851. ISBN 978-0-8493-2071-2. 
  23. ^ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Saturn_v_schematic.jpg
  24. ^ [1] (PDF).
  25. ^ [2] – Nasa: Listening to shortwave radio signals from Jupiter
  26. ^ U.S energy consumption by source, 1949–2005, Energy Information Administration accessed May 25, 2007
  27. ^ "International Energy Statistics". U.S. Energy Information Administration. 
  28. ^ Dumé, Belle (July 27, 2005). "Geoneutrinos make their debut". Physics World. Figure 1 Radiogenic heat in the Earth 
  29. ^ "Super Laser Sets Another Record For Peak Power". Shanghai Municipal Government. 2017-10-26. 
  30. ^ eli-beams.eu: Lasers Archived March 5, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
  31. ^ https://lasers.llnl.gov/news/papers-presentations#barty
  32. ^ van den Bergh, S. (1999). "The local group of galaxies". Astronomy and Astrophysics Review. 9 (3–4): 273–318. Bibcode:1999A&ARv...9..273V. doi:10.1007/s001590050019. 
  33. ^ https://arxiv.org/abs/0809.0754
  34. ^ https://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0311488
  35. ^ https://arxiv.org/abs/1311.5734
  36. ^ https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0707/0707.0058.pdf