Operation Astute was an Australian-led military deployment to East Timor to quell unrest and return stability in the 2006 East Timor crisis. It was headed by Brigadier Bill Sowry, and commenced on 25 May 2006 under the command of Brigadier Michael Slater. The operation was established at the request of East Timor's government, and continues under an understanding reached between Australia, East Timor, and the United Nations, with the United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor supporting and helping to develop East Timor's police force. Other countries deploying soldiers to East Timor include Malaysia, New Zealand and East Timor's former colonial power Portugal, operating under independent command.
Australian soldiers supporting the Dili Fire Service in June 2006
East Timor (government troops)
United Nations soldiers
|Renegade elements of the FDTL|
|Commanders and leaders|
Ismeth Nayan Ismail
Taur Matan Ruak
Alfredo Reinado †
|Casualties and losses|
The initial tasks of the operation were to:
- Allow for the evacuation of foreigners.
- Restore stability and confine conflict to secured areas.
- Assess and locate the weapons possessed by conflicting groups.
- Establish a safe environment for dialogue to resolve the crisis.
The full deployment consisted of a battalion group of about 1,800 personnel drawn from the 3rd Battalion of the Royal Australian Regiment and other Australian and New Zealand Army units. Evacuations were carried out by C-130 Hercules aircraft from the Royal Australian Air Force, using RAAF Base Darwin as a Forward Operating Base.
Initial assets deployed included the guided-missile frigate HMAS Adelaide, the replenishment vessel HMAS Success and the amphibious landing/hospital ship HMAS Kanimbla. Landing ships HMAS Tobruk and HMAS Manoora were also sent to East Timor with follow-on forces.
Operation Astute was established at the request of East Timor's government. Troops from former INTERFET nations including mostly from Malaysia, New Zealand and Portugal have augmented the Australian force. Prior to sending troops, each participating government negotiated a Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) with the government of East Timor.
- 24 May
- 21:59 (Canberra) Acting Prime Minister of Australia, Peter Costello, announced in a press conference that East Timor had requested Australia "send defence forces to East Timor to help in maintaining and re-establishing public order". Australia would send an advance party including the Vice Chief of Defence force to negotiate conditions of the deployment the following morning.
- 25 May
- 07:00 (Canberra) Prime Minister of Australia John Howard arrives back in Canberra from Dublin early, though not officially because of the East Timor crisis.
- 12:30 (Darwin) A RAAF 34SQN Challenger 604 (VIP jet) was tasked to fly the Australian Vice Chief of Defence Force from Canberra to Dili via Darwin, to negotiate the rules of engagement of the Australian operation, and other conditions of deployment. However, on arrival in Darwin the Chief of the Defence Force ordered the aircraft to remain in Darwin, due to a dramatic increase in violence in Dili.
- (Dili) RAAF 37SQN C130J Hercules aircraft arrive at Dili from Darwin with 130 commandos on board, together with 4 Australian Army Black Hawk helicopters. The Vice Chief of Defence Force was also on board the C130, after being unable to fly to Dili on the RAAF VIP jet. Dili Airport is now under Australian military control. However the VCDF is unable to leave the airport due to security concerns.
- (Dili) HMAS Adelaide arrives in Dili Harbour.
- 18:43 (Canberra) Prime Minister John Howard announces in a press conference that the deployment will "go ahead without any conditionality" and that 1300 troops would be in place "in a very short order", despite a failure to negotiate conditions of the deployment with the East Timorese Government. He explains waiting for signatures could lead to significant further bloodshed and the East Timorese Government is desperate for Australian troops to arrive.
- (Darwin) The Royal Australian Air Force commence transporting troops to Dili. A 33SQN Boeing 707 ferries troops between Townsville and Darwin, whilst 36SQN C-130Hs and 37SQN C-130Js transport troops and supplies between Darwin and Dili. The flights also commence evacuations of civilians on the return legs. The flights continue throughout the night and the following day to form an air bridge between Darwin and Dili.
- 26 May
- (Dili) Malaysian Army soldiers begin arrive in Dili. RAAF aircraft continue to transport troops and equipment.
- United States Fleet Antiterrorism Security Team platoon arrives in Dili to protect the US Embassy.
- 27 May
- 13:30 (Darwin) A Royal New Zealand Air Force C-130H arrives in Darwin from Townsville, ready to deploy New Zealand soldiers to East Timor.
- 29 May
- The initial deployment of Australian soldiers is completed.
- A platoon of 42 New Zealand soldiers arrives in Dili to secure the New Zealand embassy.
- 31 May
- Delta Company, 2/1 Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment of 123 New Zealand soldiers arrives in Dili.
- 2 June
- 8 New Zealand military police arrive in Dili.
- 3 June
- USAF C-17 Globemaster III aircraft complete their task of ferrying Australian troops and equipment between Townsville and Darwin.
- 7 June
- Australian Defence Minister Brendan Nelson and New Zealand Defence Minister Phil Goff and Defence Secretary Graham Fortune visit Dili.
- 16 June
- Rebel Timorese soldiers begin handing their weapons over to Australian troops.
- 27 June
- It is announced that a New Zealand soldier fired a warning shot during the week of 18–24 June. This is apparently the first shot fired during the intervention.
- 1 July
- 50 soldiers from 2/1 RNZIR and other units fly to Timor Leste to replace members of the initial New Zealand force.
- 18 July
- Australian Prime Minister John Howard visits Timor Leste. During his visit he announced that the Australian force in the country will be gradually reduced.
- 19 July
- HMAS Kanimbla departs Timor Leste for Australia carrying 250 soldiers and four S-70A Blackhawk helicopters.
- 3 August
- The Australian Government announces that the ADF has commenced a gradual drawdown of forces in Timor Leste due to the improving security situation. An infantry company, 23 armoured personnel carriers and support personnel are scheduled to depart Timor Leste over the next few weeks.
- 7 August
- A Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment returns to Townsville after 71 days in Timor Leste as part of Battle Group Faithful.
- 14 August
- G Company, 4th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery returns to Townsville after being deployed since 26 May 2006.
- 27 August
- D Company, 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment returns to Townsville after being deployed to Timor Leste. Further soldiers from the 3rd Combat Signal Regiment are scheduled to return later in the week.
- 28 August
- It is announced that 44 New Zealand military personnel will return home from Timor Leste on 31 August.
- 7 September
- It is announced that a rifle company from 1 RAR will be deployed to Timor Leste by 9 September to reinforce the Australian-led force following Alfredo Reinado's escape from prison on 30 August.
- 19 September
- The final elements of the Australian Army Battle Group Faithful return to Australia having been replaced by the ANZAC Battle Group led by the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment.
- 26 October
- Brigadier Mal Rerden takes command of Joint Task Force 631, replacing Brigadier Mick Slater.
- 17 December
- Protests against UN troops intensify after they are accused of being responsible for the killing of a rebel gang member during factional clashes.
- 26 January
- Australia, East Timor, and the United Nations sign a memorandum of understanding under which Operation Astute continues and the United Nations Integrated Mission in East Timor supports and helps to develop East Timor's police force.
- 4 March
- After cornering Reinado at a compound in Same, Australian Special Forces enter the town and conduct an assault. Reinado evades capture but five of his men are killed in the Battle of Same. The Timor Leste government subsequently called off the manhunt, preferring to pursue a dialogue with the rebels instead.
- 9 May
- Australian forces successfully supervise round two elections, with no reports of violence.
- 10 May
- An unmanned Australian spy plane on operations over East Timor crashes into a house in the densely populated eastern suburb of Becora in Dili. Military helicopters were quickly sent to locate the wreckage, and an investigation was scheduled to begin the next day into whether the crash was due to technical failure or operator error.
- 2 August
- Brigadier John Hutcheson takes over command from Brigadier Mal Rerden.
- 31 January
- Brigadier James Baker takes over command from Brigadier John Hutcheson.
- 31 July
- Brigadier Mark Holmes takes over command.
- 16 January
- Brigadier Bill Sowry takes over command from Brigadier Mark Holmes.
Military units involvedEdit
Operation Astute is an Australian military operation. While the Malaysian and New Zealand contingents operate under overall Australian command, the Portuguese contingent operates under Portuguese national command. The initial Australian units deployed as part of the operation fell under the operational command of Brigadier Michael Slater, the commander of the Australian 3rd Brigade. The major unit involved in land operations was the 3rd Battalion under its commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Mick Mumford. This force was replaced in early September 2006 by a battalion group based around the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment designated the ANZAC Battle Group.
Australia currently has approximately 404 personnel deployed to Timor-Leste, the majority of whom are formed into the ANZAC Battle Group, named due to the presence of a rifle company from the New Zealand Army integrated in its structure.
- Headquarters Joint Task Force 631
- Elements, 1st Military Police Battalion
- ANZAC Battle Group: This battle group includes elements of other units:
- Headquarters, 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment
- B Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment
- C Company, 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment
- Victor Company, 1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment
- Battery, 16th Air Defence Regiment (operating as infantry)
- Elements, 4th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery
- Elements, 17 Construction Squadron, Royal Australian Engineers
- Elements, B Squadron, 3rd/4th Cavalry Regiment
- Elements, B Squadron, 5th Aviation Regiment
- Troop, 1st Aviation Regiment
The initial Australian Army force consisted of:
- Headquarters elements, 3rd Brigade
- 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR) battle group ('Battle Group Faithful'). This battle group included the following elements of other units:
- Airborne Combat Team Bravo, 3 RAR
- A Company, 1 RAR
- C and D Companies, 2 RAR
- G (108 Field Battery) Company, 4th Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery (operating as infantry)
- B Squadron, 3rd/4th Cavalry Regiment (originally equipped with 33 x M113 armoured personnel carriers)
- 16 Combat Engineer Squadron, 3rd Combat Engineer Regiment
- Commando Company Group, 4th Battalion (Commando), Royal Australian Regiment
- Troop, Australian Special Air Service Regiment
- 3rd Combat Service Support Group (based around the 3rd Combat Service Support Battalion)
- Aviation element ('Combat Team Vigilance')
- Eight S-70A Blackhawk transport helicopters, drawn from B Squadron, 5th Aviation Regiment and the 171st Aviation Squadron (four helicopters since 19 July)
- Four Kiowa light observation helicopters, 1st Aviation Regiment
- Detachment, Emergency Response Squadron, Incident Response Regiment
- Detachment, 9th Petroleum Platoon, [providing bulk fuel support to aircraft and land vehicles to ensure the mission was achieved.]
- HMAS Adelaide (until 28 May)
- HMAS Kanimbla
- HMAS Manoora
- HMAS Tobruk (until approximately 8 June)
- HMAS Balikpapan
- HMAS Tarakan
- HMAS Success (until 28 May)
- Two Sea King helicopters, 817 Squadron RAN
Royal Australian Air ForceEdit
- Elements, No. 33 Squadron RAAF (Boeing 707) – Domestic support only
- Elements, No. 36 Squadron RAAF (C-130H)
- Elements, No. 37 Squadron RAAF (C-130J)
- AP-3C Orion aircraft, No. 92 Wing RAAF
- Detachment, No. 2 Airfield Defence Squadron RAAF at Dili airport.
- No. 382 Expeditionary Combat Support Squadron
- RAAF Airload Team at Dili airport.
- 209 parachute special force soldiers from the 10th Paratrooper Brigade
- Transport aircraft
- Elements, 19th Battalion, Royal Malay Regt (Mechanised)
- Elements from Grup Gerak Khas (Army Special Forces)
Royal Malaysia PoliceEdit
The Malaysian Government currently anticipates replacing the Malaysian military force with Pasukan Gerakan Khas and General Operations Force operators of the Royal Malaysia Police at the end of July.
New Zealand ArmyEdit
- Delta Company (reinforced), 2/1st Battalion, Royal New Zealand Infantry Regiment (Integrated into ANZAC Battle Group)
- Military police section, 2nd Military Police Platoon
Royal New Zealand Air ForceEdit
While the Portuguese forces deployed to East Timor are not operating under Australian command, they are acting in co-operation with the Australian, Malaysian and New Zealand forces which are under Australian command.
- Bravo Detachment of the Republican National Guard (GNR), initially with 120 soldiers and now with about 200
- 16 officers from the Special Operations Group (GOE) of the Public Security Police
- Two C-17 Globemaster III transport aircraft from the 15th Airlift Wing
- 6 person Combat Mobility Element from the 15th Logistics Readiness Squadron
The two United States aircraft flew transport flights between Australian air bases (mainly RAAF Base Townsville and RAAF Base Darwin) and were not deployed to East Timor. The aircraft did, however, visit the Solomon Islands in order pick up Australian equipment and personnel. The USAF force completed its mission on 3 June.
In addition, a platoon of the United States Marine Corps Fleet Antiterrorism Security Team was flown into Dili by a United States Navy C-40 Clipper on 26 May to secure the US embassy in Dili. This platoon does not appear to have fallen under Australian command as part of Operation Astute.
The cost of Operation Astute has represented the third largest operation expenditure between 2006 and 2008, and the second largest from 2009. Below is the yearly expenditure on Operation Astue of the Australian Defence Force.
|Cost (AUD$ million)||$107.7||$169.1||$213.8||$151.1||$170||$160.2||$89|
- Troops pour into Dili, ABC News Online, 26 May 2006
- Dili calmer but still dangerous, Houston says, ABC News Online 26 May 2006
- Status of Forces Agreements: May 2006, La'o Hamutuk, 1 September 2006
- East Timor – Press Conference, Parliament House, The Commonwealth Treasurer, 24 May 2006
- John Howard holds press conference on East Timor engagement, ABC News Online, 25 May 2006
- E Timorese rebels surrender weapons ABC News Online. 16 June 2006.
- Warning Shot Fired in Timor-Leste New Zealand Minister for Defence press release. 27 June 2006.
- More New Zealand Troops for Timor' New Zealand Defence Force press release. 29 June 2006.
- Troops not leaving Dili yet, says Howard Archived 21 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ABC News Online. 18 July 2006.
- Peacekeepers to check weapons in E Timor. The Sydney Morning Herald. 19 July 2006.
- Drawdown of Timor Deployment Starts. Australian Department of Defence media release. 3 August 2006.
- Returning troops praised. Townsville Bulletin. 8 August 2006
- Emotional welcome for troops. Townsville Bulletin. 28 August 2006
- NZDF Troops to Return from Timor. New Zealand Defence Force press release. 28 August 2006
- Deployment of Troops to Timor Leste. Australian Department of Defence media release. 7 September 2006.
- Battle Group Faithful Returns from Timor-Leste. Australian Department of Defence media release. 19 September 2006.
- Memorandum of Understanding between the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, the United Nations, and Australia on the provision of assistance to the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, 26 January 2007.
- "All quiet in Timor-Leste presidential vote", United Press International, 9 May 2007
- "Australian spy plane crashes into Timorese home", News.com.au, 10 May 2007.
- "New commander takes over in East Timor", The West, 2 August 2007.
- Change of command in Timor-Leste, Hon. Joel Fitzgibbon MP, Australian Minister for Defence, 29 January 2008.
- Operation ASTUTE: Brigadier Mark Holmes, MVO: Commander International Stabilisation Force (CISF), East Timor, Australian Government Department of Defence.
- Change of command in Australian East Timor mission, media release, Australian Government Department of Defence, 19 January 2009.
- Portuguese military land in East Timor. Wikinews. 4 June 2006.
- Cpl Mike McSweeney 6 RAR off to Timor. Army News. 7 September 2006.
- Australian Department of Defence Operation Astute. Retrieved 31 March 2007 and Capt Al Green '1RAR spread far and wide' in Army News Edition 1162, 22 March 2007
- John Hunter Farrell, 'Dili Madness. The ANZAC Intervention in Timor Leste' in Australian and NZ Defender. No. 55 Spring 2006. Page 34.
- Delivering the goods. Army. 13 July 2006.
- Making Most of Flying Time. Army News. 27 July 2006.
- Restoring calm and stability. Defence Magazine. June 2006.
- Troubled Waters. Navy News. 1 June 2006.
- John Hunter Farrell, 'Dili Madness. The ANZAC Intervention in Timor Leste' in Australian and NZ Defender No. 55 Spring 2006. Page 38.
- Malaysia Sends 209 Soldiers To Help Quell Unrest In Timor Leste Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Bernama. 26 May 2006.
- Malcon bantu perdamaian Timor Leste Utusan Online.
- M'sian Police To Take Over From M'sian Troops In Timor Leste Bernama. 30 June 2006
- Timor-Leste. New Zealand Defence Force. 29 May 2006.
- Loadmasters help reposition Australian Defense Forces. Air Force Print News. 30 May 2006.
- Isle jets move aid for E. Timor. Star Bulletin. 8 June 2006.
- FAST Platoon to Provide Security at U.S. Embassy Dili. United States Pacific Command. 26 May 2006.
- http://www.defence.gov.au/budget/07-08/pbs/2007-2008_Defence_PBS_03_s1_ch2.pdf Page 23
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
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