|Distribution of the Ocelot, 2016|
Felis pardalis was the scientific name proposed by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 who described the ocelot based on descriptions by earlier naturalists such as John Ray. Several more ocelot zoological specimens were described in the 19th and 20th centuries, including:
- Felis mitis by Frédéric Cuvier in 1824 was a specimen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
- Felis chibi-gouazou by Edward Griffith in 1827 was based on earlier descriptions and illustrations.
- Leopardus griseus by John Edward Gray in 1842 was a spotted cat skin from Central America in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London.
- Felis pseudopardalis by Pierre Boitard in 1845 was an ocelot kept in the Jardin des plantes.
- Felis melanura by Robert Ball in 1844 was a specimen from British Guiana.
- Felis albescens by Jacques Pucheran in 1855 was a specimen from Brownsville, Texas.
- Felis aequatorialis by Edgar Alexander Mearns in 1903 was a skin of an adult female ocelot from Talamanca canton in Costa Rica.
- Felis pardalis pusaea by Oldfield Thomas in 1914 was an ocelot skin and skull from Guayas Province in coastal Ecuador.
- Felis pardalis nelsoni by Edward Alphonso Goldman in 1925 was a specimen from Manzanillo in Mexico; and Felis pardalis sonoriensis also by Goldman was a specimen from the Mayo River region in Mexico.
- Leopardus pardalis steinbachi by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1941 was a specimen from Buena Vista, Ichilo in Bolivia.
- L. p. pardalis in Texas, Arizona and Central America
- L. p. mitis in South America
Results of a phylogenetic study of the Felidae indicate that the ocelot diverged between 2.41 and 1.01 million years ago. The relationship of the ocelot within the Felidae is considered as follows:
The ocelot's fur is extensively marked with solid black markings on a creamy, tawny, yellowish, reddish grey or grey background colour. The spots on head and limbs are small, but markings on the back, cheeks and flanks are open or closed bands and stripes. A few dark stripes run straight from the back of the neck up to the tip of the tail. Its neck and undersides are white, the insides of the legs are marked with a few horizontal streaks. Its round ears are marked with a bright white spot. Its fur is short, about 0.8 cm (0.31 in) long on the belly, but with longer, about 1 cm (0.39 in) long guard hairs on the back. It has 28 to 30 teeth, with the dental formula 3.1.2–3.1. Its eyes are brown but reflect golden when illuminated. It is a medium-sized cat with a head-and-body length of between 55 and 100 cm (22 and 39 in) and a 25.5 to 41 cm (10.0 to 16.1 in) long tail. Females weigh 6.6–11.3 kg (15–25 lb) and males 7–15.5 kg (15–34 lb). Its spoor measures nearly 2 cm × 2 cm (0.79 in × 0.79 in).
English naturalist Richard Lydekker commented that the ocelot is "one of the most difficult members of the feline family to describe". In 1929, wildlife author Ernest Thompson Seton described the ocelot's coat as "the most wonderful tangle of stripes, bars, chains, spots, dots and smudges ... which look as though they were put on as the animal ran by."
The ocelot can be easily confused with the margay, but differs in being twice as heavy, having a greater head-and-body length, a shorter tail, smaller eyes relative to the size of the head, and different cranial features. It is similar in size to the bobcat. Larger individuals have occasionally been recorded. The jaguar is notably larger and heavier, and has rosettes instead of spots and stripes.
Distribution and habitatEdit
The ocelot ranges from the southwestern United States via Mexico and Central America to South America as far south as Argentina up to an elevation of 3,000 m (9,800 ft). It inhabits tropical forest, thorn forest, mangrove swamps and savanna, and prefers areas with relatively dense vegetation cover, but occasionally hunts in more open areas at night.
In Texas, 20th century ocelot records are known from Big Thicket, Palo Pinto County, Texas, Pecos River and lower Rio Grande valleys. Two small populations live in southern Texas, one in Laguna Atascosa National Wildlife Refuge and the other on private ranchelands in Willacy County, Texas. In Arizona, three historical ocelot records are known from the 19th and 20th centuries. In 2009, one individual was recorded by a camera-trap in Cochise County, Arizona. In 2010, one was killed in a traffic accident in Gila County, Arizona. In the Whetstone Mountains, one ocelot was recorded during surveys carried out between 2007 and 2012.
In Mexico, ocelots were recorded in Tamaulipas, Sonora, Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Sierra Abra-Tanchipa Biosphere Reserve in eastern San Luis Potosí. In Sierra de Manantlán Biosphere Reserve, four ocelots were recorded at elevations of 1,934 to 2,059 m (6,345 to 6,755 ft) in cloud and pine forests, and also in a patch of wild perennial teosinte.
Ecology and behaviorEdit
The ocelot is usually solitary and crepuscular. It scent-marks its territory by spraying urine. The territories of males are 3.5–46 km2 (1.4–17.8 sq mi) large, while those of females cover 0.8–15 km2 (0.31–5.79 sq mi). Territories of females rarely overlap, whereas the territory of a male includes those of two to three females. Social interaction between sexes is minimal, though a few adults have been observed together even in non-mating periods, and some juveniles interact with their parents. In Peru's Cocha Cashu Biological Station, radio-collared individuals rested during the day in dens below large trees or other sheltered sites on the ground. They started to be active earliest in the late afternoon and moved between 3.2 and 17 hours until latest dawn, when they returned to their dens. Their usual pace of walking was about 300 m (980 ft) per hour when hunting. They moved up to 1.4 km (0.87 mi) per hour when heading to a known kill site or patrolling their territory.
Data from camera trapping studies confirm that several ocelot individuals deposit scat in one or several communal sites, called latrines, suggesting that these sites have a social function.
Ocelot densities vary between study sites, habitats and seasons from 2.3 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in Belize's Chiquibul National Park to 40 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) in Venezuelan Llanos. A density of 60 individuals per 100 km2 (39 sq mi) was recorded in a transitional chaco-Chiquitano forest in Bolivia's Kaa Iya National Park. It is thought that ocelot density is lower in areas with less rainfall. In Barro Colorado Island, 28 ocelots were identified during a camera trapping survey in 2012, and 55 individuals based on genetic analysis of scat collected in latrines. Results indicate that the island holds an ocelot density of 1.59–1.74/km2 (4.1–4.5/sq mi), the highest one recorded to date. This is probably an effect of high prey availability, few large predators, and increased protection from poaching.
Diet and huntingEdit
Ocelots are carnivores and prey on small mammals, such as armadillos, opossums and rabbits, rodents, small birds, fish, insects and reptiles. According to studies, primates prevail in the diet of ocelots in southeastern Brazil, and iguanas are the main prey of Mexican ocelots. An ocelot typically preys on animals that weigh less than 1 kilogram (2.2 lb). It rarely targets large animals such as deer and peccaries. An ocelot requires 600–800 grams (21–28 oz) of food every day to satisfy its energy requirements. The composition of the diet may vary by season; in Venezuela, ocelots were found to prefer iguanas and rodents in the dry season and then switch to land crabs in the wet season. A study showed that ocelots are similar to margays and oncillas in dietary preferences, but the oncilla focuses on tree-living marsupials and birds while the margay is not as selective.
Ocelots have been observed to follow scent trails to acquire prey. They walk at a speed of about 300 m/h (0.2 mph) on the lookout for prey; and at a speed of 800–1,400 m/h (0.5–0.9 mph) to a known kill site. Or they wait for 30 to 60 minutes at a certain place, and then move on to a different place when unsuccessful. They tend to eat the kill immediately, and remove feathers before eating birds.
Both male and female ocelots produce a long-range "yowl" in the mating season as well as short-range "meow". Ocelots mate at any time of the year. Peak mating season varies geographically. In Argentina and Paraguay, peaks have been observed in autumn; and in Mexico and Texas in autumn and winter. Oestrus lasts four to five days, and recurs every 25 days in a non-pregnant female. A study in southern Brazil showed that sperm production in ocelots, margays as well as oncillas peaks in summer. Captive ocelots spend more time together when mating; both scent-mark extensively and even eat less during this time.
A litter of one to three is born after a gestational period of 79 to 83 days. Females give birth in dens, usually located in dense vegetation. A newborn kitten weighs 200–340 g (7.1–12.0 oz). A study in southern Texas revealed that a mother keeps a litter in a den for 13 to 64 days, and shifts the young to two to three dens. The kitten's eyes open 15 to 18 days after birth. Kittens begin to leave the den at the age of three months. They remain with their mother for up to two years, and then start dispersing and establishing their own territory. In comparison to other felids, ocelots have a relatively longer duration between births and a narrow litter size. Captive ocelots live for up to 20 years.
The destruction of habitat is the main threat to ocelot survival. In addition, it is sought by poachers for the illegal trade in body parts and skin, and killed in retaliation for hunting poultry. The remnant U.S. ocelot population in south Texas has declined from 80–120 individuals in 1995 to fewer than 50 by 2013, with about half of ocelot deaths resulting from automobile accidents. In Brazil ocelots are often killed by drivers or shot for pleasure.
The name "ocelot" comes from the Nahuatl word ōcēlōtl (pronounced [oːˈseːloːt͡ɬ]), which generally refers to the jaguar rather than the ocelot. Another possible origin for the name is the Latin cellatus ("having little eyes" or "marked with eye-like spots"), in reference to the cat's spotted coat. Other vernacular names for the ocelot include cunagaro (Venezuela), gato onza (Argentina), gato tigre (Panama), heitigrikati (Suriname), jaguatirica (Brazil), manigordo (Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela), maracaja (Brazil), mathuntori, ocelote, onsa, pumillo, tiger cat (Belize), tigrecillo (Bolivia) and tigrillo (Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru).
Ocelots have been kept as pets by:
- the painter Salvador Dalí who frequently traveled with his pet ocelot Babou, even bringing it aboard the luxury ocean liner SS France.
- opera singer Lily Pons who later donated it to a local zoo.
- musician Gram Parsons during his teenage years in the mid-1960s.
- Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). "Species Leopardus pardalis". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 539. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Paviolo, A.; Crawshaw, P.; Caso, A.; de Oliveira, T.; Lopez-Gonzalez, C.A.; Kelly, M.; De Angelo, C. & Payan, E. (2016). "Leopardus pardalis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T11509A97212355. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T11509A50653476.en.
- Murray, J. L.; Gardner, G. L. (1997). "Leopardus pardalis". Mammalian Species (548): 1–10. doi:10.2307/3504082. JSTOR 3504082.
- Sunquist, M.; Sunquist, F. (2002). "Ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758)". Wild Cats of the World. Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. pp. 120–129. ISBN 978-0-226-77999-7.
- Linnaeus, C. (1758). "Felis pardalis". Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. I (Tenth ed.). Holmiae: Laurentius Salvius. p. 42.
- Cuvier, F. G. (1824). "Le chati femelle". In Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, E.; Cuvier, F. G. (eds.). Histoire naturelle des mammifères : avec des figures originales, coloriées, dessinées d'aprèsdes animaux vivans. Tome 1. Paris: Chez A. Belin. pp. Pl. 54, 1−3.
- Griffith, E. (1827). "Middle-sized Cats, with tail rather long, and generally with Spots and Stripes". The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization. Volume 5. London: Geo. B. Whittaker. pp. 167–173.
- Gray, J. E. (1842). "Descriptions of some new genera and fifty unrecorded species of Mammalia". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 10 (65): 255−267. doi:10.1080/03745484209445232.
- Boitard, P. (1845). "Les chats". Le Jardin des Plantes. Description et moeurs des mammifères de la Ménagerie et du Muséum d'histoire naturelle. Paris: J.-J. Dubochet. pp. 234–269.
- Ball, R. (1844). "Description of the Felis melanura". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 12: 128−129.
- Pucheran, J. (1855). "Description du chat bai et du chat albescent; et remarques sur les caractères et sur la distribution géographique de plusieurs autre chats". In Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, I. (ed.). Voyage autour du monde sur la frégate la Vénus commandée par Abel du Petit-Thouars. Zoologie. Mammifères. Paris: G & J. Baudry. pp. 137−155.
- Mearns, A. (1903). "The ocelot cats". Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 25 (1286): 237−249. doi:10.5479/si.00963801.1286.237.
- Thomas, O. (1914). "On various South-American mammals". Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 8th. 13 (75): 345–363. doi:10.1080/00222931408693492.
- Goldman, E. A. (1925). "Two New Ocelots from Mexico". Journal of Mammalogy. 6 (2): 122–124. doi:10.2307/1373387. JSTOR 1373387.
- Pocock, R. I. (1941). "Some new geographical races of Leopardus, commonly known as ocelots and margays". Annals and Magazine of Natural History; Zoology, Botany, and Geology. 11th. 8: 234–239. doi:10.1080/03745481.1941.9727966.
- Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O'Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11): 47−48.
- Johnson, W. E.; Eizirik, E.; Pecon-Slattery, J.; Murphy, W. J.; Antunes, A.; Teeling, E. & O'Brien, S. J. (2006). "The Late Miocene radiation of modern Felidae: A genetic assessment". Science. 311 (5757): 73–77. doi:10.1126/science.1122277. PMID 16400146.
- Werdelin, L.; Yamaguchi, N.; Johnson, W. E.; O'Brien, S. J. (2010). "Phylogeny and evolution of cats (Felidae)". In Macdonald, D. W.; Loveridge, A. J. (eds.). Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids (Reprint ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 59–82. ISBN 978-0-19-923445-5.
- Cisin, C. (1967). Especially ocelots. Amagansett, New York: Harry G. Cisin.
- Nowak, R. M. (1999). "Felis pardalis (ocelot)". Walker's Mammals of the World (6th ed.). Baltimore, US: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 816–817. ISBN 978-0-8018-5789-8.
- Murie, O. J. (1998). A Field Guide to Animal Tracks (2nd ed.). New York, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-395-91094-8.
- Bowers, N.; Bowers, R.; Kaufman, K. (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Mammals of North America. New York, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-618-95188-8.
- Moreno, R. S.; Kays, R. W.; Samudio, R. (2006). "Competitive release in diets of ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and puma (Puma concolor) after jaguar (Panthera onca) decline" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy. 87 (4): 808–816. doi:10.1644/05-MAMM-A-360R2.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-03-04.
- Burt, W.H. (1976). A Field Guide to the Mammals: North America North of Mexico (3rd ed.). Boston, US: Houghton Mifflin Co. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-395-91098-6.
- Haines, A. M.; Janecka, J. E.; Tewes, M. E.; Grassman, Jr, L. I.; Morton, P. (2006). "The importance of private lands for ocelot Leopardus pardalis conservation in the United States". Oryx. 40 (1): 90−94. doi:10.1017/S0030605306000044.
- Stangl, Jr, F. B.; Young, J. H. (2011). "The ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in northern Texas, with comments on its northern biogeography". Western North American Naturalist. 71 (3): 412–417. doi:10.3398/064.071.0309.
- Janečka, J. E.; Tewes, M. E.; Laack, L. L.; Grassman, L. I.; Haines, A. M.; Honeycutt, R. L. (2008). "Small effective population sizes of two remnant ocelot populations (Leopardus pardalis albescens) in the United States". Conservation Genetics. 9 (4): 869. doi:10.1007/s10592-007-9412-1.
- Avila-Villegas, S.; Lamberton-Moreno, J. (2013). "Wildlife survey and monitoring in the Sky Island Region with an emphasis on Neotropical felids" (PDF). In Gottfried, G. J.; Ffolliott, P. F.; Gebow, B. S.; Eskew, L. G.; Collins, L. C. (eds.). Merging science and management in a rapidly changing world: Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago III. Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Research and Resource Management in the Southwestern Deserts, 1-5 May 2012 in Tucson, AZ. RMRS-P-67. Fort Collins, CO: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station. pp. 441−447.
- Meyer, E. M.; Gonzalez, C. A. L. (2002). "Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) food habits in a tropical deciduous forest of Jalisco, Mexico". The American Midland Naturalist. 148 (1): 146−155. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2002)148[0146:OLPFHI]2.0.CO;2.
- Bárcenas, H.; Medellín, R. A. (2010). "Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in Aguascalientes, Mexico". The Southwestern Naturalist. 55 (3): 447−449. doi:10.1894/CLG-28.1.
- Martínez-Hernández, A.; Rosas-Rosas, O. C.; Clemente-Sánchez, F.; Tarango-Arámbula, L. A.; Palacio-Nunez, J.; Bender, L. C.; Herrera-Haro, J. G. (2014). "Density of threatened ocelot Leopardus pardalis in the Sierra Abra-Tanchipa Biosphere Reserve, San Luis Potosí, Mexico". Oryx. 49 (4): 619−625. doi:10.1017/S0030605313001452.
- Arzate, E. M.; Dávalos, L. I. I.; González, C. A. L. (2011). "High elevation records of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Jalisco, Mexico". Mammalia. 75 (4): 387−388. doi:10.1515/MAMM.2011.046.
- Emmons, L.H. (1988). "A field study of ocelots Felis pardalis in Peru" (PDF). Revue d'Écologie. 43 (2): 133–157.
- Moreno, R. and Giacalone, J. (2006). "Ecological data obtained from latrine use by ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama". Tecnociencia. 8 (1): 7−21.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Rodgers, T.W., Giacalone, J., Heske, E.J., Pawlikowski, N.C. and Schooley, R.L. (2015). "Communal latrines act as potentially important communication centers in ocelots Leopardus pardalis". Mammalian Biology-Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 80 (5): 380−384. doi:10.1016/j.mambio.2015.05.004.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- King, T.W., Salom-Pérez, R., Shipley, L.A., Quigley, H.B. and Thornton, D.H. (2016). "Ocelot latrines: communication centers for Neotropical mammals". Journal of Mammalogy. 98 (1): 106−113.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Dillon, A. and Kelly, M.J. (2007). "Ocelot Leopardus pardalis in Belize: the impact of trap spacing and distance moved on density estimates". Oryx. 41 (4): 469–477. doi:10.1017/S0030605307000518.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Ludlow, M.E.; Sunquist, M. (1987). "Ecology and behavior of ocelots in Venezuela". National Geographic Research. 3 (4): 447–461.
- Maffei, L.; Noss, A.J.; Cuéllar, E.; Rumiz, D.I. (2005). "Ocelot (Felis pardalis) population densities, activity, and ranging behaviour in the dry forests of eastern Bolivia: data from camera trapping". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 21 (3): 349–353. doi:10.1017/S0266467405002397.
- Rodgers, T.W.; Giacalone, J.; Heske, E.J.; Janečka, J.E.; Phillips, C.A.; Schooley, R.L. (2014). "Comparison of noninvasive genetics and camera trapping for estimating population density of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama". Tropical Conservation Science. 7 (4): 690–705. doi:10.1177/194008291400700408.
- Hance, J. (2014). "Ocelots live in super densities on Barro Colorado Island". Mongabay.
- Bianchi, R.C.; Mendes, S.L. (2007). "Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, southeast Brazil". American Journal of Primatology. 69 (10): 1173–8. doi:10.1002/ajp.20415. PMID 17330310.
- Meza, A.V.; Meyer, E.M.; Gonzalez, C.A.L. (2002). "Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) food habits in a tropical deciduous forest of Jalisco, Mexico". The American Midland Naturalist. 148 (1): 146–54. doi:10.1674/0003-0031(2002)148[0146:OLPFHI]2.0.CO;2.
- Wang, E. (2002). "Diets of ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), margays (L. wiedii), and oncillas (L. tigrinus) in the Atlantic rainforest in southeast Brazil". Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment. 37 (3): 207–12. doi:10.1076/snfe.126.96.36.19964.
- Peters, G. (1984). "On the structure of friendly close range vocalizations in terrestrial carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora: Fissipedia)". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 49 (3): 157–182.
- Morais, R.N.; Mucciolo, R.G.; Gomes, M.L.F.; Lacerda, O.; Moraes, W.; Moreira, N.; Graham, L.H.; Swanson, W.F.; Brown, J.L. (2002). "Seasonal analysis of semen characteristics, serum testosterone and fecal androgens in the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), margay (L. wiedii) and tigrina (L. tigrinus)". Theriogenology. 57 (8): 2027–2041. doi:10.1016/S0093-691X(02)00707-0. PMID 12066863.
- Laack, L.L.; Tewes, M.E.; Haines, A.M.; Rappole, J.H. (2005). "Reproductive life history of ocelots Leopardus pardalis in southern Texas". Acta Theriologica. 50 (4): 505–514. doi:10.1007/BF03192643.
- Ocelot (PDF) (Report). Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
- Sinclair, S. (2013). "Current Sightings: Plight of the ocelot: Endangered cat's future uncertain". The Coastal Current. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
- In Brazil, animals cross a road of no return (Report). New York Times. Retrieved 2013-10-18.
- "ocelot, n.". Oxford English Dictionary. 2004.
- K., Frances (1983). An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. p. 176.
- L., James (2001). Nahuatl as Written: Lessons in Older Written Nahuatl, with Copious Examples and Texts. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 228.
- Ojasti, J. (1996). Wildlife Utilization in Latin America: Current Situation and Prospects for Sustainable Management. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 82–4. ISBN 978-92-5-103316-6.
- Dali with Capitain Moore and Ocelot – Vintage photo. Ecademy.com. Retrieved on 2011-09-15.
- Huggler, Justin. "Chic ship too toxic for scrapping". ssMaritime.com. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21.
- Twomey, B. (2015). "Met Opera's Lily Pons leaves pet at Bronx Zoo". Bronx Times Reporter. p. 48.
- "Return of the grievous angel: New bio of Gram Parsons offers tragic insights" (PDF). Austin American Statesman. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
- Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera (1997). Katherine Berrin (ed.). The Spirit of Ancient Peru: Treasures from the Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York City: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-01802-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikispecies has information related to Leopardus pardalis|
|Look up ocelot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|