North American Leaders' Summit
The North American Leaders' Summit (NALS), sometimes called the Three Amigos Summit in the popular press, is the trilateral summit between the Prime Minister of Canada, the President of Mexico, and the President of the United States. The summits were initially held as part of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP), a continent-level dialogue between the three countries established in 2005, and continued after SPP became inactive in 2009.
|North American Leaders' Summit|
The most recent North American Leaders' Summit was hosted by Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on June 29, 2016 at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Trudeau hosted US President Barack Obama and Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto. The three leaders discussed a shared commitment to LGBT rights (with Trudeau highlighting their importance after the recent attack on a gay nightclub in Orlando), renewable energy development, and free trade. The leaders also announced the creation of a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership and associated action plan.
Since Donald Trump's inauguration as President of the United States in 2017, no official summits have been held. However, the three leaders have met at other events, such as the signing of the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement at the 2018 G20 Buenos Aires summit.
Until 2009, the summits were held as part of the wider Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America. There are no fixed dates for the summits and in some years a summit has not been held for varying reasons.
|Year||Location||Dates||Host leader||Guest leaders|
|2005||Waco, Texas||March 23||George W. Bush|| Vicente Fox|
|2006||Cancún, Quintana Roo||March 31||Vicente Fox|| George W. Bush|
|2007||Montebello, Quebec||August 20–21||Stephen Harper|| George W. Bush|
|2008||New Orleans, Louisiana||April 21–22||George W. Bush|| Felipe Calderón|
|2009||Guadalajara, Jalisco||August 8–11||Felipe Calderón|| Stephen Harper|
|2010||No meeting held[notes 1]|
|2011||No meeting held[notes 2]|
|2012||Washington, D.C.||April 2||Barack Obama|| Felipe Calderón|
|2013||No meeting held|
|2014||Toluca, State of Mexico||February 19||Enrique Peña Nieto|| Stephen Harper|
|2015||No meeting held[notes 3]|
|2016||Ottawa, Ontario||June 29||Justin Trudeau|| Barack Obama|
Enrique Peña Nieto
|2017||No meeting held|
|2018||No meeting held|
- Bilateral relations
- Trilateral relations
- North American Free Trade Agreement
- United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement
- Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America, predecessor to NALS
- North American Union, a theoretical economic and political union of the three countries
- A planned 2010 summit in Wakefield, Quebec was postponed and later cancelled by Stephen Harper.
- The planned November 13, 2011 summit in Honolulu, Hawaii was cancelled by Barack Obama after the death of Mexican Foreign Minister Francisco Blake Mora and several other Mexican government officials in a helicopter crash
- The planned 2015 summit in Canada was postponed and later cancelled by Stephen Harper over tensions with the administration of Barack Obama over the Keystone XL oil pipeline
- Cheadle, Bruce (April 3, 2012). "Three Amigos summit not so chummy". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Potter, Mitch (April 2, 2012). "Analysis: Stephen Harper faces tricky terrain during 'Three Amigos' summit". Toronto Star.
- Horsley, Scott (June 29, 2016). "Obama To Meet Mexican-Canadian Counterparts In Ottawa". Morning Edition. NPR. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "North American Leaders' Summit (NALS)". North American Commercial Platform. International Trade Administration, US Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "President Bush to Attend North American Leaders' Summit in Canada". News Archive. Office of the White House Press Secretary. June 15, 2007. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Baril, Sophie-Anne; Cicchitelli, Ernesto (July 1, 2016). "Three Amigos Convene Again: The 2016 North American Leaders' Summit". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Canada hosts North American Leaders' Summit". News Releases. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. June 29, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Reilly, Katie (June 29, 2016). "Read the Remarks From the 'Three Amigos' Summit Press Conference". Time. New York, NY.
- "Leaders' Statement on a North American Climate, Clean Energy, and Environment Partnership". News Releases. Office of the Prime Minister of Canada. June 29, 2016. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- "Stephen Harper postpones North American Leaders' Summit to late 2015". CBC News. January 15, 2015. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
"There is no fixed time of year for the three leaders to meet. Dates for the summit have been prone to change. The three countries rotated hosting duties between 2005 and 2009, but in 2010, Canada postponed a meeting that had been scheduled to be held in Wakefield, Que., and then did not host it at all... There was no summit in 2013.
- Fekete, Jason (November 12, 2011). "Tragic deaths force cancellation of Three Amigos summit in Hawaii". Ottawa Citizen. Postmedia News. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
- Proudfoot, Shannon (June 28, 2016). "A cheat sheet for the Three Amigos summit". Maclean's. Retrieved January 27, 2017.
Harper cancelled the 2015 summit amid mounting tension with the U.S. over the Keystone XL pipeline, which Obama ultimately rejected