No Sell Out

"No Sell Out" is a hip hop piece composed by American drummer Keith LeBlanc under the moniker Malcolm X, released in November 1983 on Tommy Boy Records.[2][3] It marked the one of the earliest usages of sample-based composition in popular music as well as being the first hip hop song to use Malcolm X's voice for artistic and political reasons.[1][4]

"No Sell Out"
Malcolm X - No Sell Out.jpg
Single by Malcolm X
B-side"No Sell Out" (instrumental ver.)
ReleasedNovember 1983 (1983-11)
RecordedSweet Mountain Studio, Englewood, NJ
GenreHip hop, electro
Length5:44
LabelTommy Boy
Songwriter(s)Keith LeBlanc and Malcolm X[1]
Producer(s)Keith LeBlanc
Keith LeBlanc singles chronology
"No Sell Out"
(1983)
"'Support the Miners'"
(1984)

BackgroundEdit

The idea for the piece was originally conceived when LeBlanc heard Grandmaster Flash playing a record in conjunction with the sample "Do you feel lucky, punk?" taken from the 1971 action film Dirty Harry. In an interview with The Quietus, Leblanc recalled: "I just thought the combination of a beat and music and spoken word over the top of it was pretty magical to me." Leblanc began listening to Malcolm X's spoken word recordings while experimenting with different drum beats.[4]

The recording marked LeBlanc's first time working extensively with drum machines and as a producer, with the project being financed by Marshall Chess. LeBlanc opted to use the newest gear affordable, using an Oberheim DMX and E-mu Drumulator to create and program the music.[4] The spoken word passages were used with the permission of Betty Shabazz, with a percentage of the proceeds going to the family of Malcolm X. Previous to contacting Tommy Boy Records, LeBlanc wanted Sugar Hill Records to issue the recording, but was discouraged by their unwillingness to provide royalties to Malcolm's family.[1][5]

CompositionEdit

The composition makes use of several samplings of Malcolm X's voice which are placed over a syncopated beat-box driven electro beat.[6] The audio clips are primarily taken from the speech he gave after the firebombing of his house.[1][7] The song is punctuated by the spoken chorus "Malcolm X - no sell out", which is repeated several times in the duration of the track.[8]

Release and receptionEdit

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
Allmusic     [9]

Some were initially perturbed by the idea of a white musician using the words of an African-American activist in a popular music song.[10] LeBlanc, who hadn't considered the response his music would generate, said, "I got press calling me from all over the world, all pissed off, I thought 'OK, maybe this was a little bit cutting edge!"[4] However, some realized the musical and political importance of LeBlanc's composition and the song received acclaim in underground circles. Betty Shabazz, an American civil rights advocate and Malcolm X's widow, was aware of her husband's rising influence on members of the hip hop community and sanctioned the use of Malcolm's speech.[6][11] Her preface to the piece, which appears the vinyl's jacket:

This recording documents Malcolm's voice at a time and space in history some nineteen or more years ago. Its meaning is just as relevant today as it was then. His belief is that people must constantly monitor behavior, refine goals, and direct their objectives to insure that the right to life and work is a reality. Ultimately, our goals should be peace and brotherhood. After all, the universe belongs to all its inhabitants.

After the single's release, Sugar Hill Records took Tommy Boy Records to court for infringement, claiming the record company profited from voice samples that belonged to them.[10] It was re-issued a year later as a tribute to the UK miners' strike of 1984 and 1985.[5][12]

The single was a hit in the club scene and received airplay in the UK. People magazine described the piece as "nothing if not provocative" that "succeed[s] in reminding the listener of the challenging directness of Malcolm's rhetoric."[7] British music magazines Sounds, Melody Maker and the New Musical Express made "No Sell Out" their "Single of the Week" and ran terse summaries of Malcolm X's political career alongside their review. Jon Savage of New Society commented that "rarely has a record so united the pop press", further commenting that "this extraordinary record has redefined dance forms in the way that Grandmaster Flash's Wheels of Steel did two years ago, taking the cut-ups of current New York styles to one logical conclusion"[13]

AccoladesEdit

Publication Country Accolade Year Rank
The Face United Kingdom Singles of the Year[14] 1984 4
NME United Kingdom Singles of the Year[15] 1984 12
Dave Marsh United States 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made[16] 1989 994
ego trip United States Singles of the Year (1983)[17] 1999 28
Robert Dimery United States 1,001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die, and 10,001 You Must Download[18] 2010 *

(*) designates unordered lists.

InfluenceEdit

The song "No Sell Out" represented a shift toward more politically conscious topics in the hip hop community. It was released on the heels of the single "How We Gonna Make the Black Nation Rise?" by Brother D (Daryl Aamaa Nubyahn), a song that took a nationalist stance.[19][20] "No Sell Out" was the beginning of a movement in which hip hop artists motivated by political ideology, including Public Enemy, would utilize samples of Malcolm X's voice in their compositions.[1] However, in contrast to other artists who used his voice, the single is unique in that Malcolm X receives compositional credit in the LP's liner notes and that his family received royalties generated by the single's success.[1] It was also the first instance of a hip hop artist using a deceased individual's voice for artistic purposes.[21]

The track was sampled by Tragedy Khadafi on his song "Black & Proud" from the 1990 album Intelligent Hoodlum, which also sampled Malcolm X.[22]

Formats and track listingEdit

All songs written by Keith LeBlanc and Malcolm X[1]

US 12" single (TB 840)
  1. "No Sell Out" – 5:44
  2. "No Sell Out" (instrumental version) – 7:09

PersonnelEdit

Adapted from the No Sell Out liner notes.[23]

ChartsEdit

Chart (1984) Peak
position
UK Singles (OCC)[24] 60

Release historyEdit

Region Date Label Format Catalog
United States 1983 Tommy Boy LP TB 840
United Kingdom 1984 Island IS 165
United States 1993 Tommy Boy CD TBCD 840

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Interview with Zaheer Ali" (PDF). columbia.edu. August 27, 2001. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  2. ^ "Keith LeBlanc: Biography". tackhead.com. 2004. Archived from the original on September 19, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  3. ^ Parker, David (2001). "Singles: Malcolm X (Music by Keith LeBlanc) - 'No Sell Out'". skysaw.org. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d Finlayson, Angus (July 2010). "The History Of Sugar Hill Records: Keith Leblanc Interviewed". The Quietus. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  5. ^ a b Larkin, Colin (1994). The Guinness Who's Who of Rap, Dance & Techno. Guinness Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 9780851127880. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  6. ^ a b Hebdige, Dick (1987). Cut 'n' Mix: Culture, Identity and Caribbean Music. Routledge. p. 131. ISBN 9781134931040. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Levin, Eric (February 20, 1984). "Song". People. Sonic Options Network. 21 (7). Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  8. ^ Storey, John (2006). Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader. University of Georgia Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780820328492. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  9. ^ Dougan, John. "No Sell Out". Allmusic. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  10. ^ a b Costello, Mark; Wallace, David Foster (July 23, 2013). Signifying Rappers. Little, Brown. ISBN 9780316401111. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  11. ^ Potter, Russell A. (January 1, 1995). Spectacular Vernaculars: Hip-Hop and the Politics of Postmodernism. SUNY Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780791426258. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  12. ^ Fletcher, Tony; Frampton, Megan (2007). "Tackhead". Trouser Press. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  13. ^ Savage, Jon (February 20, 1984). "Radical Chic". New Society. New Society Limited. 67–68: 186. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  14. ^ "The Face Recordings of the Year - 1984 Singles". The Face. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  15. ^ "NME Singles - 1984". NME. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  16. ^ "The Heart of Rock and Soul". Dave Marsh. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  17. ^ "Hip Hop's Greatest Singles by Year - 1983". ego trip. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  18. ^ Dimery, Robert; Visconti, Tony (January 1, 1995). 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die. Universe. p. 43. ISBN 9780789320896. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  19. ^ Alim, H. Samy (September 27, 2006). Roc the Mic Right: The Language of Hip Hop Culture. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 9781134243648. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  20. ^ Cheney, Charise L. (2005). Brothers Gonna Work it Out: Sexual Politics in the Golden Age of Rap Nationalism. NYU Press. pp. 71–72. ISBN 9780814716137. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  21. ^ Eddy, Chuck (1997). The Accidental Evolution of Rock'n'roll: A Misguided Tour Through Popular Music. Da Capo Press. p. 73. ISBN 9780306807411. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  22. ^ Daulatzai, Sohail (2012). Black Star, Crescent Moon: The Muslim International and Black Freedom Beyond America. U of Minnesota Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780816675869. Retrieved September 30, 2014.
  23. ^ No Sell Out (sleeve). Malcolm X. New York, New York: Tommy Boy. 1983.CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  24. ^ "Malcolm X and Keith Le Blanc: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved February 5, 2016.

External linksEdit