New Zealand Shipping Company

The New Zealand Shipping Company (NZSC) was a shipping company whose ships ran passenger and cargo services between Great Britain and New Zealand between 1873 and 1973.

New Zealand Shipping Company
IndustryTransport
Founded1873
Defunct1973
SuccessorP&O
Headquarters,
United Kingdom Edit this on Wikidata
ProductsPassenger and Cargo Shipping
Tongariro in 1883

A group of Christchurch businessmen[1] founded the company in 1873, similar groups formed in the other main centres, to counter the dominance of the Shaw Savill line controlled from London and the (Scotland-Dunedin) Albion line. There were seven initial directors: John Coster, chairman, George Gould Snr., (father of George Gould), John Thomas Peacock, William Reeves, Robert Heaton Rhodes, John Anderson, and Reginald Cobb (died 1873[2]) representing the New Zealand Loan & Mercantile Agency.[3]

The similar groups of businessmen in Dunedin and Wellington soon joined this Christchurch company followed by the Auckland group. They completed the four-main-centre link in July 1873.[4][5] Hon. John Johnston Wellington, John Logan Campbell Auckland, and Evan Prosser of Dunedin were elected to the main board.[6] A Captain Ashby opened an office off New Broad Street London and chartered two ships carrying 500 government emigrants: Punjaub 883 tons and Adamant 815 tons set to sail for Canterbury on 31 May and 20 June respectively with full cargo.[7] By November 1873 they had purchased two vessels, Hindostan and Dilfillan and chartered eighteen. Two 1,000 ton ships were scheduled to be launched the same month and named Waikato and Waitangi.[6]

The company gradually established a fleet of vessels, using Māori names for each. From 1875 the livery consisted of black hulls, white superstructure and yellow funnels.[8]

In 1882, the company's ships were equipped with refrigeration.[8] and a frozen meat service began from New Zealand to England.

Company policy dictated a stop at Pitcairn Islands, in the Pacific, to break the monotony of the ocean crossing.

Federal Steam Navigation CompanyEdit

 
Former New Zealand Shipping Company Building in Napier, still displaying the NZSC logo

On 3 January 1912 an agreement was reached whereby the New Zealand Shipping Company absorbed the Federal Steam Navigation Company, which at the time owned ten steamships trading between Australia, New Zealand and the UK.[9] Federal Steam ships retained their house flag, and continued to be named after English counties, thereby retaining their Federal Steam identity. Federal Steam was registered in England for tax purposes, whereas the New Zealand Shipping Company continued to be registered in New Zealand.

World warsEdit

In the First World War the NZSC lost nine ships from a fleet of 32.[10] In the Second World War it lost 19 ships from a fleet of 36.[citation needed]

ClosureEdit

The services of both companies were absorbed into the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) in 1973 after exactly 100 years of service.[8]

ShipsEdit

NZSC operated numerous ships, some purpose built, others acquired from other operators by purchase, lease or charter.

Ship Type Date launched Date acquired Date disposed Fate/ next assignment
Aorangi refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1883 1914 Scrapped 1925
British King cargo and passenger ship 1881 chartered 1882[11] 1884 Scuttled at Port Arthur 1904
Coptic cargo and passenger steamship 1881 chartered 1883 1884 Scrapped 1926
Doric cargo and passenger steamship 1883 chartered 1883 1884 Wrecked 1911
Fenstanton steamship 1882 chartered 1883 1884 Grounded and wrecked
Hurunui (1) cargo and passenger sailing ship 1875 1883 Collided and sank Waitara, 22 June 1883[12]
Hurunui (2) refrigerated cargo steamship 1911 1918 Sunk by torpedo off The Lizard by U-94, 18 May 1918[13]
Hurunui (3) refrigerated cargo steamship 1921 1940 Sunk by torpedo on 15 October 1940 by U-93[14]
Ionic cargo and passenger ship 1883 chartered 1883 1884 Scrapped 1908
Kaikoura (1) cargo and passenger steamship 1884 1899 Sold to British India SN Co
Kaikoura (2)[15] refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1903 1926 Sold
Kaipara[15] refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1903 1914 Stopped and sunk by SMS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse, 16 August 1914[16]
Mataura (1) barque 1868 1874 (former Dunfinnan) 1894 Sold and renamed Alida. Wrecked 1900[15]
Mataura (2)[15] refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1896 1898 Wrecked in the Strait of Magellan 12 January 1898[17]
Opawa refrigerated cargo motor ship 1931 1942 Sunk by U-106, 6 February 1942[18]
Orari refrigerated cargo motor ship 1931 1958 Sold to Italy and renamed Capo Bianco[19]
Otaio refrigerated cargo motor ship 1930 1941 Sunk by U-558, 28 August 1941[20]
Otaki (1) sailing ship 1875 1896 Sold and renamed Dr. Siegert
Otaki (2) refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1908 1917 Sunk by the German raider SMS Möwe 10 March 1917
Otaki (3) refrigerated cargo steamship 1919 1934 Sold to Clan Line and renamed Clan Robertson
Otaki (4) refrigerated cargo motor ship 1953 1967 Transferred to Federal Steam Navigation Co
Otorama[15] steamship 1890 former Sea King 1902 Sold
Papanui[15] steamship 1898 1909 Sold
Paparoa[15] refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1899 17 March 1926 caught fire in the South Atlantic, scuttled by HMS Birmingham[21]
Piako (1) clipper 1877 Sold, lost 1900[15]
Piako (2) refrigerated cargo steamship 1920 1920 (former War Orestes) 1941 Sunk by torpedo on 18 May 1941 by U-107
Piako (3) refrigerated cargo and passenger ship 1961 1962 1979 Sold to Blue Ocean Compania Maritima SA. Scrapped 1984
Rakaia cargo and passenger motor ship 1944 1946 (former Empire Abercorn) 1971 Scrapped
Rakanoa[citation needed]
Rangitane (1) passenger motor ship 1929 1929 1940 Sunk by shellfire by the German raiders Orion and Komet, 26 November 1940[22]
Rangitane (2) passenger motor ship 1949 1949 May 1968 Sold to CY Tung, Scrapped Taiwan, 1976
RMS Rangitata passenger motor ship 26 March 1929 1929 1962 Scrapped
RMS Rangitiki passenger motor ship 1929 1929 1962 Scrapped
Rangitoto passenger motor ship 1949 1949 1969 Sold to CY Tung, Scrapped Hong Kong, 1976
Remuera (1) passenger steamship 1911 1940 Sunk by aerial torpedo 26 August 1940
Remuera (2) steam cargo and passenger steamship 1947 1961 (former Parthia) 1964 Sold to Eastern & Australia Steamship Company.[23]
Rimutaka (1)[15] steamship 1884 1900 Sold to British India SN Co
Rimutaka (2) refrigerated cargo and passenger ship 1901 1930 Scrapped
Rimutaka (3) refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1922 1938 (former Mongolia) 1950 Sold to Incres Shipping Company
Rotorua (1) refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1910 1917 Sunk by torpedo on 22 March 1917 by SM UC-17
Rotorua (2) refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1910 1936 (former Shropshire) 1940 Sunk by torpedo on 11 December 1940 by U-96[24]
Ruahine (1) steamship 1891 1900 Sold
Ruahine (2) refrigerated cargo steamship 1909 1949 Sold to Italian owners; scrapped 1957
Ruahine (3) passenger motor ship 1951 1968 re-registered in Hong Kong; scrapped 1974
Ruapehu (10) efrigerated cargo and passenger ship 1901 1931 Sold for scrap 5 August 1931
Stad Haarlem cargo and passenger ship 1875 leased 1879
Tekoa[15] steamship 1890 1902 Sold
Tongariro passenger and cargo steamship 1883 1883 1899 Sold to British India SN Co
Tongariro 1901 1916 Wrecked on Bull Rock, 30 August 1916[25]
Tongariro 1925 1960 Scrapped
Turakina (1)[15] refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1902 1917 Sunk by torpedo in the Western Approaches by U-86, 13 August 1917[26]
Turakina (2) steamship 1923 1923 1940 Sunk by shellfire in the Tasman Sea by the German raider Orion, 20 August 1940[27]
Waikato[15] sailing ship 1874 1898 Sold
Waimate[15] refrigerated cargo and passenger ship 1896 1925 Scrapped
Waitara cargo and passenger sailing ship 1863 1873 (former Hindustan) 1883 Wrecked following a collision with Hurunui[12]
Wakanui[15] refrigerated cargo and passenger steamship 1899 1913 Sold
Warrimoo passenger steamship 1892 1899 1901 Sold to Union Steam Ship Co
Whakatane[15] refrigerated cargo steamship 1900 1924 Sold

House flagsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ News of the Day The Press, 21 November 1872 Page 3
  2. ^ News of the Day. The Press, 4 September 1873 Page 2
  3. ^ "Commercial". Lyttelton Times. Vol. XXXIX, no. 3748. 25 January 1873. p. 2. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  4. ^ New Zealand Freight Company Limited Auckland Star 4 July 1873 Page 2
  5. ^ The South New Zealand Herald 12 August 1873 Page 3
  6. ^ a b The Press 11 November 1873 Page 2
  7. ^ Shipping New Zealand Herald, 14 July 1873 Page 2
  8. ^ a b c "M V Rangitata". Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  9. ^ Waters 1939, p. 59.
  10. ^ Waters 1939, p. 68.
  11. ^ "'". Otago Daily Times. No. 6577. 14 March 1883. p. 4.
  12. ^ a b "Collision And Loss Of 27 Lives". The Cornishman. No. 258. 28 June 1883.
  13. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Hurunui". Uboat.net. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  14. ^ "Hurunui". uboat.net. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Cyclopaedia of New Zealand. 1906.
  16. ^ "British Merchant Ships Lost to Enemy Action: Part 1 of 3 – Years 1914, 1915, 1916 in date order". World War 1 at Sea. Naval History. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  17. ^ "'". The Press. Canterbury, NZ. 29 January 1898.
  18. ^ "Opawa". uboat.net. Retrieved 28 November 2021.
  19. ^ "Orari". uboat.net. Retrieved 29 March 2021.
  20. ^ "Otaio". uboat.net. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  21. ^ Chipchase, Nick; Allen, Tony (5 February 2020). "SS Paparoa (+1926)". Wrecksite. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  22. ^ Allen, Tony; Vleggeert, Nico (28 October 2015). "MV Rangitane (+1940)". Wrecksite. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  23. ^ Mills, Elspeth (2004). The Fleet 1840–2010. ISBN 978-0-9542451-8-4.[page needed]
  24. ^ Green, Roger M (15 October 2014). "Loss of the SS Rotorua – 11 Dec 1940". WW2 People's War.
  25. ^ "New Zealand liner wrecked". The Times. No. 41260. London. 31 August 1916. col D, p. 3.
  26. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Turakina". Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  27. ^ Allen, Tony (20 August 2017). "SS Turakina (+1940)". Wrecksite. Retrieved 7 April 2021.
  28. ^ "House flag, New Zealand Shipping Co. Ltd | Royal Museums Greenwich".
  29. ^ "British shipping companies (N)".

BibliographyEdit

  • Waters, Sydney D (1939). Clipper Ship to Motor Liner; the story of the New Zealand Shipping Company 1873–1939. London: The New Zealand Shipping Company Ltd.

External linksEdit