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SM U-86 was a Type U 81 style submarine manufactured in the Germaniawerft, Kiel shipyard for the German Empire during World War I.[1]

SM U-86
SM U 86 at sea.jpg
History
German Empire
Name: U-86
Ordered: 23 June 1915
Builder: Germaniawerft, Kiel
Yard number: 256
Laid down: 5 November 1915
Launched: 7 November 1916
Commissioned: 30 November 1916
Fate: 20 November 1918 - Surrendered. Sank in the English Channel on the way to be broken up in 1921.[1]
General characteristics [2]
Displacement:
  • 808 t (795 long tons) surfaced
  • 946 t (931 long tons) submerged
Length:
Beam:
  • 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in) (oa)
  • 4.15 m (13 ft 7 in) (pressure hull)
Height: 8.00 m (26 ft 3 in)
Draught: 4.02 m (13 ft 2 in)
Installed power:
  • 2 × 2,400 PS (1,765 kW; 2,367 shp) surfaced
  • 2 × 1,200 PS (883 kW; 1,184 shp) submerged
Propulsion:
  • 2 shafts
  • 2 × 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in) propellers
Speed:
  • 16.8 knots (31.1 km/h; 19.3 mph) surfaced
  • 9.1 knots (16.9 km/h; 10.5 mph) submerged
Range:
  • 11,220 nmi (20,780 km; 12,910 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph) surfaced
  • 56 nmi (104 km; 64 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph) submerged
Test depth: 50 m (164 ft 1 in)
Complement: 4 officers, 31 enlisted
Armament:
Service record
Part of:
  • IV Flotilla
  • 21 February 1917 – 11 November 1918
Commanders:
  • Kptlt. Friedrich Crüsemann[3]
  • 30 November 1916 – 22 June 1917
  • Kptlt. Alfred Götze[4]
  • 23 June 1917 – 25 January 1918
  • Oblt.z.S. Helmut Patzig[5]
  • 26 January – 11 November 1918[1]
Operations: 12 patrols
Victories:
  • 33 merchant ships sunk (89,821 GRT)
  • 1 merchant ship damaged (163 GRT)
  • 1 warship sunk (16,339 tons)
  • 1 auxiliary warship sunk (11,423 GRT)

On 27 June 1918, under the command of Lieutenant Helmut Patzig, U-86 sank the Canadian hospital ship HMHS Llandovery Castle off the coast of Ireland, in violation of international law and standing orders of the Imperial German Navy. When the crew took to the lifeboats, U-86 surfaced, ran down all the lifeboats except one, and shot at the people in the water. Only the 24 people in the remaining lifeboat survived. They were rescued shortly afterwards and testified as to what had happened. The 234 others on board Llandovery Castle were lost, including fourteen nursing sisters.[6]

USS Covington,[7] the former Hamburg America ocean liner SS Cincinnati, was torpedoed by U-86 on 1 July 1918 and sank the next day.[8] Covington was the 17th largest ship sunk or damaged by U-boats during the war.[1]

A 1918 Canadian propaganda poster used U-86's sinking of Llandovery Castle as a focal point for selling Victory Bonds.

After the war, the captain of U-86 Helmut Patzig, and two of his lieutenants were arraigned for trial on war crimes, but Patzig fled to the Free City of Danzig, and his trial was stopped on 20 March 1931 by virtue of the Laws of Amnesty. Lieutenants Ludwig Dithmar and Johan Boldt were convicted and sentenced to four years in prison, but were released after only 4 months.

U-86 was surrendered after the war and sank in the English Channel on the way to be broken up in 1921.

Contents

DesignEdit

German Type U 81 submarines were preceded by the shorter Type UE I submarines. U-86 had a displacement of 808 tonnes (795 long tons) when at the surface and 946 tonnes (931 long tons) while submerged.[2] She had a total length of 70.06 m (229 ft 10 in), a pressure hull length of 55.55 m (182 ft 3 in), a beam of 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in), a height of 8 m (26 ft 3 in), and a draught of 4.02 m (13 ft 2 in). The submarine was powered by two 2,400 metric horsepower (1,800 kW; 2,400 shp) engines for use while surfaced, and two 1,200 metric horsepower (880 kW; 1,200 shp) engines for use while submerged. She had two propeller shafts. She was capable of operating at depths of up to 50 metres (160 ft).[2]

The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 16.8 knots (31.1 km/h; 19.3 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 9.1 knots (16.9 km/h; 10.5 mph).[2] When submerged, she could operate for 56 nautical miles (104 km; 64 mi) at 5 knots (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 11,220 nautical miles (20,780 km; 12,910 mi) at 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). U-86 was fitted with six 50 centimetres (20 in) torpedo tubes (four at the bow and two at the stern), twelve to sixteen torpedoes, and one 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/45 deck gun (from 1917). She had a complement of thirty-five (thirty-one crew members and four officers).[2]

Summary of raiding historyEdit

Date Name Nationality Tonnage[Note 1] Fate[9]
23 March 1917 Queenborough   United Kingdom 165 Sunk
5 April 1917 Dunkerquoise   France 127 Sunk
5 April 1917 Marie Celine   France 142 Sunk
5 April 1917 Siberier   Belgium 2,968 Sunk
6 April 1917 Rosalind   United Kingdom 6,535 Sunk
18 April 1917 Atalanta   Sweden 1,091 Sunk
28 May 1917 Antinoe   United Kingdom 2,396 Sunk
28 May 1917 Limerick   United Kingdom 6,827 Sunk
29 May 1917 Oswego   United Kingdom 5,793 Sunk
31 May 1917 N. Hadzikyriakos   Greece 3,533 Sunk
2 July 1917 Bessie   Sweden 66 Sunk
10 August 1917 Capella I   Norway 3,990 Sunk
13 August 1917 Turakina   United Kingdom 9,920 Sunk
15 December 1917 Baron Leopold Davilliers   France 163 Damaged
20 December 1917 Polvarth   United Kingdom 3,146 Sunk
14 February 1918 Bessie Stephens   United Kingdom 119 Sunk
17 February 1918 Pinewood   United Kingdom 2,219 Sunk
19 February 1918 Wheatflower   United Kingdom 188 Sunk
20 February 1918 Djerv   United Kingdom 1,527 Sunk
23 February 1918 Ulabrand   Norway 2,011 Sunk
30 April 1918 Kafue   United Kingdom 6,044 Sunk
30 April 1918 Kempock   United Kingdom 255 Sunk
2 May 1918 Medora   United Kingdom 5,135 Sunk
5 May 1918 Tommi   United Kingdom 138 Sunk
6 May 1918 Leeds City   United Kingdom 4,298 Sunk
11 May 1918 San Andres   Norway 1,656 Sunk
12 May 1918 Inniscarra   United Kingdom 1,412 Sunk
16 May 1918 Tartary   United Kingdom 4,181 Sunk
22 May 1918 Meran   Norway 656 Sunk
21 June 1918 Eglantine   Norway 339 Sunk
26 June 1918 Atlantian   United Kingdom 9,399 Sunk
27 June 1918 Llandovery Castle   Royal Canadian Navy 11,423 Sunk
1 July 1918 USS Covington   United States Navy 16,339 Sunk
1 July 1918 Origen   United Kingdom 3,545 Sunk

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Merchant ship tonnages are in gross register tons. Military vessels are listed by tons displacement.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boats: U 86". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e Gröner 1991, pp. 12-14.
  3. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Friedrich Crüsemann". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  4. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Alfred Götze". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  5. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "WWI U-boat commanders: Helmut Patzig". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  6. ^ Llandovery Castle at red-duster.co.uk Archived 30 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit during WWI: USS Covington (ID-1409)". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  8. ^ "Covington". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 8 May 2008.
  9. ^ Helgason, Guðmundur. "Ships hit by U 86". German and Austrian U-boats of World War I - Kaiserliche Marine - Uboat.net. Retrieved 7 December 2014.

BibliographyEdit

  • Gröner, Erich; Jung, Dieter; Maass, Martin (1991). U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith; Magowan, Rachel. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4.

External linksEdit