Dark wave(Redirected from Neoclassical dark wave)
Dark wave or darkwave is a music genre that emerged in the late 1970s as a dark variant of new wave and post-punk music. Building on those musical foundations, dark wave added dark, introspective lyrics and an undertone of sorrow.
|Other names||Doom, doom wave|
|Stylistic origins||New wave, post-punk|
|Cultural origins||Late 1970s to early 1980s in Europe (most notably United Kingdom, Germany, France and Italy) and Australia.|
|Typical instruments||guitar, bass guitar, drums, synthesizer, violin, cello, piano|
|Cold wave, ethereal, gothic rock, neoclassical, neofolk, Neue Deutsche Todeskunst
|Cold wave, Neue Deutsche Todeskunst|
In the 1980s, a subculture developed primarily in Europe alongside dark wave music, whose followers are called "wavers" or "dark wavers". In some countries such as Germany, the movement also includes fans of gothic rock (so-called "trad-goths").
Origins in EuropeEdit
Since the 1980s, the term has been used in Europe to describe the gloomy and melancholy variant of new wave and post-punk music. At that time, the term "goth" was inseparably connected with gothic rock, whereas "dark wave" acquired a broader meaning, including music artists that were associated with gothic rock and synthesizer-based new wave music, such as Bauhaus, Joy Division, The Sisters of Mercy, Cocteau Twins, The Cure, Siouxsie and the Banshees, The Chameleons, Depeche Mode, Gary Numan, and Anne Clark.
|“||The term darkwave originated in the 1980s as an indicator of the dark counterpart of new wave. Bands such as Cocteau Twins, Soft Cell, and Depeche Mode are exponents of this first generation of darkwave. Darkwave ... employs relatively slower tempos, lower pitches, and more minor keys in its musical settings of melancholy texts than new wave.
– Isabella van Elferen, Professor of Musicology,
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Kingston University, London
The movement spread internationally, developing such strands as French cold wave, with bands such as KaS Product, Asylum Party, Norma Loy, Clair Obscur, Opera Multi Steel, and Trisomie 21, and neoclassical dark wave, initiated by the music of Dead Can Dance and In the Nursery. In January 1989 guitarist Rémy Lozowski labelled the music of his cold wave band Excès Nocturne as New Wave Noire (= "dark new wave").
Simultaneously, different substyles associated with the new wave and dark wave movements started to merge and influence each other, e.g. synth-wave (a kind of new wave with synthesizers, also referred to as "electro-wave") with gothic rock, or began to borrow elements of post-industrial music. Attrition, Die Form (France), Pink Industry (UK), Psyche (Canada), Kirlian Camera (Italy), Clan of Xymox (Netherlands), Mittageisen and The Vyllies (Switzerland), performed this music in the 1980s.
German dark wave bands were mainly associated with the Neue Deutsche Welle, and included Xmal Deutschland, Mask For, Asmodi Bizarr, II. Invasion, Unlimited Systems, Moloko †, Maerchenbraut, Cyan Revue, Leningrad Sandwich, Stimmen der Stille, Belfegore, and Pink Turns Blue.
1990s: The 2nd GenerationEdit
After the new wave and post-punk movements faded in the mid-1980s, dark wave was renewed as an underground movement by German bands such as Girls Under Glass, Deine Lakaien, Love Is Colder Than Death, Love Like Blood, Diary of Dreams, and Wolfsheim, as well as early Project Pitchfork along with its offshoot Aurora Sutra. Ataraxia and The Frozen Autumn from Italy, and the French Corpus Delicti also evolved from this movement and became the leading artists of the west Romanesque scene. All of these bands followed a path based on the new wave and post-punk music of the 1980s.
|“||In the 1990s, a second generation of darkwave bands became popular, including Diary of Dreams, Deine Lakaien, and The Frozen Autumn... The German band Deine Lakaien ... is audibly influenced by the dark synthesizer sounds of Depeche Mode.
– Isabella van Elferen, Professor of Musicology,
Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Kingston University, London
At the same time, a number of German artists, including Das Ich, Goethes Erben, Relatives Menschsein, and Endraum, developed a more theatrical style, interspersed with German poetic, metaphorical lyrics, called Neue Deutsche Todeskunst (literally New German Death Art). Other bands, such as Silke Bischoff, In My Rosary, Engelsstaub, and Impressions of Winter combined synthesizers with elements of neofolk and neoclassical dark wave.
After 1993, in the United States the term dark wave (as the one-word variant 'darkwave') became associated with the Projekt Records label, because it was adopted by label founder Sam Rosenthal after leafing through the pages of German music magazines such as Zillo, and has been used to promote and market artists from German label Hyperium Records in the U.S., e.g. Chandeen and Love Is Colder Than Death.
|“||I first became aware of the term "Dark Wave" back in 1992. It appeared in German magazines – such as Zillo – describing a style of European music that followed other "waves" such as New Wave... I found those two words ("dark" and "wave") quite interesting. This was something underground, submerged, obscure... which swept over you, immersed you, surrounded you. It was a poetic phrase that could describe many different sounds. At the time, I was looking for a name for my little mail-order company. I wanted something that would encompass the variety of music available in my catalog.
– Sam Rosenthal, Projekt Records, 2000
Projekt features bands such as Lycia, Black Tape for a Blue Girl, and Love Spirals Downwards, some of these characterized by atmospheric guitar and synth-sounds and female vocals. This style took cues from 1980s bands like Cocteau Twins and is often referred to as ethereal dark wave. Projekt has also had a long association with Attrition, who appeared on the label's earliest compilations. Another American record label in this vein was Tess Records, which featured This Ascension, Faith and the Muse, and the reunited Clan of Xymox.
Joshua Gunn, a professor of communication studies at Louisiana University, described the U.S. type of dark wave music as
|“||an expansion of the rather limited gothic repertoire into electronica and, in a way, the US answer to the 'ethereal' subgenre that developed in Europe (e.g. Dead Can Dance). Anchored by Sam Rosenthal's now New York-based label Projekt, dark wave music is less rock and more roll, supporting bands who tend to emphasize folk songcraft, hushed vocals, ambient experimentation, and synthesized sounds [...] Projekt bands like Love Spirals Downwards and Lycia are the most popular of this subgenre.||”|
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"The subculture of the Goths (in Germany called "Grufties") started in Britain in the early 1980s and derives from the gloomy, resigned side of punk and new wave, in the field of music called "dark wave" or "doom.""
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"Dark Wave was another late-'70s off-shoot of New Wave. The genre contained the gloomiest of the groups, featuring with slower tempos, deeper vocals, and intense lyrical content. Some bands include The Danse Society, The Sisters of Mercy, and Bauhaus. The Dark Wavers still exist, and the popularity of the genre has seen a revival in recent years."
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- Haumann, Melanie: Fetisch Weiblichkeit. Der Mythos der schönen Frau?, Verlag für Wissenschaft und Forschung, 2001, ISBN 3-897-00326-0, p. 2
"Die Dark Waver, Waver – oder belächelnd auch "Grufties" genannt – sind eine Jugendkultur, die in den 80er Jahren aus der Punk-Bewegung entstanden ist."
- Farin, Klaus: "Jugend, Gesellschaft und Recht im neuen Jahrtausend", Forum Verlag Godesberg, 2003, ISBN 3-930-98284-6, p. 66
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"The term "darkwave" came from back in the 1980s, and was one of the terms used to describe the Golden Age bands, as well as dark electronica acts like Gary Numan and Depeche Mode."
- Matzke, Peter; Seeliger, Tobias: Das Gothic- und Dark-Wave-Lexikon, p. 39, 2002, ISBN 3-89602-277-6
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- Mercer, Mick (1988). Gothic Rock Black Book. [London]: Omnibus Press. ISBN 9780711915466. OCLC 20596441.
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"A pioneer of Darkwave music, the mix of Synth Wave, Post-Punk, and Gothic Rock had its golden age in the '80s among contemporaries like Bauhaus, Joy Division, The Cure, Sisters of Mercy, Siouxsie and the Banshees, Cocteau Twins, and Depeche Mode."
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- Kilpatrick, Nancy. The Goth Bible: A Compendium for the Darkly Inclined. New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 2004, ISBN 0-312-30696-2, p. 85.
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- Matzke, Peter; Seeliger, Tobias: Das Gothic- und Dark-Wave-Lexikon, p. 111, 2002, ISBN 3-89602-277-6
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- Matzke, Peter; Seeliger, Tobias: Das Gothic- und Dark-Wave-Lexikon, p. 311, 2002, ISBN 3-89602-277-6
- Schmidt, Axel; Neumann-Braun, Klaus: Die Welt der Gothics. Spielräume düster konnotierter Transzendenz., Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2004, ISBN 3-531-14353-0, p. 280/281.
- Matzke, Peter; Seeliger, Tobias: Das Gothic- und Dark-Wave-Lexikon, p. 221, 2002, ISBN 3-89602-277-6
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- Various Artists: From Across this Gray Land, first appearance of Attrition on Projekt Records, 1986
- Matzke, Peter; Seeliger, Tobias: Das Gothic- und Dark-Wave-Lexikon, p. 146, 2002, ISBN 3-89602-277-6
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- Issitt, Micah: Goths: A Guide to an American Subculture, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2011, ISBN 0-313-38604-8, p. 137
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