Navadurga (Sanskrit: नवदुर्गा, lit.'Nine forms of Durga', IAST: durgā), are nine manifestations of Goddess Durga in Hinduism, especially worshiped during Navaratri and Durga Puja.[1] The nine forms of Durga are often considered collectively as a single deity, mainly among the followers of Shaktism sect of Hinduism, while the nine forms are worshipped on Nine days.[2]

Image of Nine forms of Durga.

According to the Hindu mythology, the nine forms are considered as the nine stages of Durga during the nine-day long duration of the war with demon-king Mahishasura, where the tenth day is celebrated as the Vijayadashami (lit.'Victory day') among the Hindus and is considered as one of the most important festivals along with the Navaratri.[3]

BackgroundEdit

During the festival of Navratri, nine unmarried virgin girls up to the age of nine years are worshiped and fed as they are considered to be the incarnations of these nine goddesses.[4] Then, there is Nabapatrika ritual during Durga Puja involves tying the branches of eight plants with their leaves with a banana plant ("Naba" meaning nine, and "Patrika" meaning leaves).[5] The tenth day is considered as Vijayadashami, or the tenth day of victory which is on the same date as Dussehra.

The Nine FormsEdit

S. No. Image

(Depiction)

Name Vahana Stage[A] Mantra Depiction Ref
1.   Shailaputri

"Daughter of Mountain"

Nandi (bull) She represents Parvati in her stage of childhood. ॐ देवी शैलपुत्र्यै नमः She is adorned with light ornamentation on her limbs and was clothed in red and pink robes. She has two hands both holding a trident and lotus. She is seated upon the behind of a white bull. [7]
2.   Brahmacharini

"Mother of devotion and penance"

She represents Parvati in her phase of asceticism. ॐ देवी ब्रह्मचारिण्यै नम: She is dressed as a female ascetic and is adorned by dried-up Rudraksha beads and flowers as her ornamentation. She has two hands, both of which carried a rosary and a water utensil. [8]
3.   Chandraghanta

"Destroyer of demons"

Tiger She represents Parvati in the form of Shakti. ॐ देवी चंद्रघण्टायै नम: She has ten hands, nine of them are armed by a trident, mace, bow, arrow, lotus, sword, bell and a waterpot, while one other hand blesses her devotees. She is seated upon a fierce tiger. [9]
4.   Kushmanda

"Goddess of The Cosmic Egg"

Lion She represents Paravati in the form of Mahashakti. ॐ ऐं ह्रीं क्लीं कूष्मांडायै नम: She has eight hands, six of which held a discus, mace, lotus, bow, and arrow in one hand, sword and rosary and the two other hands carried a jar of honey and waterpot. She is mounted upon the back of a lion. [10]
5.   Skandamata

"Goddess of motherhood and children"

She represents Parvati in her stage of motherhood. ॐ देवी स्कन्दमातायै नम: She has four hands, two of which held lotuses, the third holding her son, the six-headed infant Kartikeya seated on her lap, and the fourth saves her devotees. She is seated upon the back of a lion. [11]
6.   Katyayani

"Goddess of Power"

She represents Parvati in warrior stage. ॐ देवी कात्यायन्यै नम: She is adorned with heavy ornamentation on her limbs and is dressed in green and pink vestments. Her four hands each carried a sword, shield, lotus and trident. She's seen seated on a fearsome lion. [12]
7.   Kalaratri

"Goddess of Auspiciousness and Courage"

Donkey She represents Parvati in her form of destruction. ॐ देवी कालरात्र्यै नम: She has three bloodshot eyes, unkempt hairs, and wears a garland of skulls around her neck, which shone like lightning. Her four hands all held a trident, scimitar, vajra, and a cup. She is seated upon the behind of a donkey as her vehicle. [13]
8.   Mahagauri

"Goddess of Beauty and Women"

Ox She represents Parvati in her form of recovery. ॐ देवी महागौर्यै नम: She has four hands, three of which carried a trident, mini-drum, and a pink lotus while her one hand promised her devotees protection. She is seated upon a white ox. [14]
9.   Siddhidhatri

"Goddess of Supernatural Powers or Siddhis"

Lotus She represents Parvati in her stage of reaching her highest and supreme form as Mahashakti. ॐ ऐं ह्रीं क्लीं सिद्धिदात्यै नम: Each of her four hands carried a discus, conch shell, pink lotus and a mace. She is seated upon a fully bloomed lotus. [15]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Parvati has been described in the nine stage in nine different depiction, where she become the Maha Shakti in last stage of Siddhidhatri, after gaining Siddhis.[6]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Navratri 2021: What are the nine forms of Maa Durga and the special prasad offered to them". The Times of India. Retrieved 31 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ Amazzone 2010, p. 184.
  3. ^ Ramachandran 2020, pp. 21–23.
  4. ^ Amazzone 2010, p. 187.
  5. ^ Ostor 2004, p. 68.
  6. ^ Ramachandran 2020, p. 67.
  7. ^ "Shailaputri: Absolute form of Mother Nature". www.ttkprestige.com. Retrieved 31 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  8. ^ "Goddess Brahmacharini (Navratri 2nd day Devi): Story, Mantra in English & Hindi - Rudra Centre". www.rudraksha-ratna.com. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  9. ^ "Significance of Goddess Chandraghanta – Navratri Day 3". Cosmic Insights (in American English). 13 October 2018. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  10. ^ LLP, Adarsh Mobile Applications. "Goddess Kushmanda | Devi Kushmanda | Maa Kushmanda". Drikpanchang. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  11. ^ Ostor 2004, p. 34.
  12. ^ "Chapter Six: Shakti and Shakta". www.sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  13. ^ Mishra 1989, p. 36.
  14. ^ "Mahagauri: Pacifies ill-effects of planet Rahu". www.thehitavada.com. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  15. ^ "English News Headlines: Latest News Today, Breaking News from India & World". Jagran English. Retrieved 31 December 2021.

SourcesEdit