Nancy Hogshead-Makar, J.D. (born April 17, 1962), née Nancy Lynn Hogshead, is an American swimmer who represented the United States at the 1984 Summer Olympics, where she won three gold medals and one silver medal. She is currently the CEO of Champion Women, an organization leading targeted efforts to advocate for equality and accountability in sport. Focus areas include equal play, such as traditional Title IX compliance in athletic departments, sexual harassment, abuse and assault, as well as employment, pregnancy, and LGBT discrimination. In 2012 she began working on legislative changes to assure club and Olympic sports athletes were as protected from sexual abuse. In 2018, the Protecting Young Victims from Sexual Abuse and SafeSport Authorization Act was finally enacted.
Hogshead-Makar in 2017
|Full name||Nancy Lynn Hogshead|
|National team||United States|
|Born||April 17, 1962|
Iowa City, Iowa
|Height||5 ft 10 in (1.78 m)|
|Weight||146 lb (66 kg)|
|Strokes||Butterfly, freestyle, individual medley|
|College team||Duke University|
Hogshead's family is from Iowa. She was born in Iowa City, Iowa but her family moved to Florida shortly afterwards. When she was 11 years old, her family moved to Jacksonville, Florida, where she would meet coach Randy Reese and be exposed to a team oriented towards nationals. By age 12 she had qualified for the U.S. Senior Nationals and held the national age-group record in the 200 individual medley. Her first American Record was in the 100y butterfly in 1977. Nancy left home to train for the 1980 Olympics while still in high school, with the University of Florida swim team, or FAST. She qualified for the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow in the 200m butterfly and the 400m individual medley, but the American-led boycott kept her home.
Duke University offered Hogshead its first swimming scholarship. There, she was again undefeated in dual meets and set a school record in eight different events; one of which stood until 2011. She was a four-time ACC champion and two-time All-American. She is the first woman to be inducted into the Duke Athletics Hall of Fame.
In 1981, Duke University red-shirted Nancy after she was raped while running between campuses, and suffered from PTSD for several months. In the fall of 1982, her coach enticed her to return to the pool by offering her a scholarship and a position on the team if she merely showed up at the competitions. Entering competitive swimming awakened competitive juices.
In January, 1983, Nancy left Duke to train full-time for the 1984 Olympics in California. This time she switched from butterfly to freestyle. She won additional national titles on her way to qualifying for the 1984 US swimming team.
At the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, she won three gold medals and one silver medal, becoming the most decorated swimmer at the Games. She competed in the first event of the Games, the women's 100m freestyle, where she won in a tie-finish, with American teammate Carrie Steinseifer. They were both awarded gold medals. Hogshead also won golds in the 4 × 100 m freestyle and the 4 × 100 m medley teams, and a silver medal in the 200m individual medley.
Her international career started in 1977, at the age of 14, when she broke her first American Record. That year, she was the only American swimmer to be ranked number one in the world in an international event.
Hogshead returned to Duke University to finish her undergraduate degree in 1984. During the summer of 1985, Hogshead interned at the Women's Sports Foundation, at the urging of Donna de Varona. The organization had a strong influence on her career direction and she has worked with the organization for thirty years. She served on the board of trustees from 1987 to 1993 and as its President from 1993 to 1994. She was their Legal Adviser from 2003–2010, and was their Senior Director of Advocacy from 2010–2014.
In 2014, Hogshead-Makar founded Champion Women.
Hogshead is a high-profile advocate of gender equity in sports and a specialist on Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. After receiving her J.D. degree from Georgetown University Law Center, Hogshead returned to Jacksonville for private practice at Holland & Knight, LLP. She represented student-athletes and universities in Title IX matters.
From 2001 – 2013, Hogshead-Makar was a tenured professor on the faculty at Florida Coastal School of Law in Jacksonville, where she taught first-year torts and sports law courses, including "Gender Equity in Athletics."
From 2004 – 2012 she was the Co-Chair of the American Bar Association (ABA) Committee on the Rights of Women.
From 2009 – 2013 she was a board member on The Forum for the Scholarly Study of Intercollegiate Athletics in Higher Education, and served on the editorial board of the Journal of Intercollegiate Sport.
Since 2011, she has served as a board member on the Aspen Institute, "Sport and Society".
She was an advisory board member of the Association of Title IX Administrators "ATIXA" 2011 – 2017
From 2007 – 2010, she served on The Florida Governor's Council on Physical Fitness. The council provided Governor Crist with a state plan of action to promote physical fitness and nutrition, particularly among children.
She has been an evaluator for missed drug tests by the United States Anti-Doping Agency ("USADA") from 2003–2014.
She was a founding member of FCSL's Sports Law Center, offering students a certificate in Sports Law program, from 2004 – 2013.
Hogshead-Makar has testified in Congress numerous times and has served on two Presidential committees on gender in sports.
She has written numerous scholarly and lay articles. She is widely quoted and interviewed on topics related to gender equity, including participation, treatment, scholarships, sexual harassment and assault, and pregnancy discrimination.
Hogshead married Scott Makar, a fellow lawyer at Holland & Knight, on October 10, 1999, and hyphenated his surname to her maiden name. Her husband served as Florida Solicitor General (FSG) upon his appointment by Florida Attorney General Bill McCollum in February 2007. He is currently a state appellate judge, serving as a member of the Florida First District Court of Appeal. The couple has a son, Aaron, and twin daughters, Helen Clare and Millicent.
During the 1984 Olympics, she missed earning a fifth medal by 7/100th of a second, when she suffered a bronchial spasm that led to a diagnosis of asthma. After the initial disbelief, she accepted her condition and learned to monitor and control it. From 1984–1996, Hogshead-Makar lectured around the world about asthma management. GlaxoSmithKline sponsored her as she spoke to over 100 groups each year across the US and internationally. Hogshead earned the title of National Spokesperson for the American Lung Association. Hogshead authored the 1990 book, Asthma and Exercise, the first comprehensive book on the topic of asthma and sports. The book tells inspirational stories of athletes who learned to manage their condition.
Awards and honorsEdit
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- 1977 AAU Nathan Mallison award as Florida's outstanding amateur athlete.
- 1984 Come-Back Swimmer of the Year Award from USA Swimming
- 1984 Kiphuth Award (given to the best all-around swimmer nationally)
- 1993 National Association for Sports and Physical Education Hall of Fame
- 1994 International Swimming Hall of Fame
- 1994 Duke University Sports Hall of Fame
- 1995 Florida Sports Hall of Fame
- 1988 Jacksonville Sports Hall of Fame
- 2002 Honorary Doctorate, Springfield College, (received honorary degree with comedian Bill Cosby).
- 2000 Ranked as Florida's 13th greatest athlete of the 20th Century by Sports Illustrated
- 2001 International Scholar-Athlete Hall of Fame
- 2002 Honorary Doctorate from Springfield College
- 2003 Yolanda Jackson Give Back Award from the Women's Sports Foundation
- 2003 Community Woman of the Year Award from Jacksonville University
- 2004 International Women's Sports Hall of Fame
- 2007 Florida High School Athletic Hall of Fame
- 2007 Honor Award from National Association of Collegiate Women Athletics Administrators
- 2007 Named as one of the most influential people in the 35-year history of Title IX by Sports Illustrated
- 2007 Featured, "100 Trailblazers; Great Women Athletes Who Opened Doors for Future Generations" by Richard Lapchick.
- 2007 Honor Award Winner, National Association of Collegiate Women Athletics Administrators, (now, Women Leaders In College Sports)
- 2008 Academic All-America Hall of Fame from College Sports Information Director's of America (CoSIDA)
- 2011 Inductee, National Consortium for Academics and Sports
- 2011 "Courage Award" National Organization for Women
- 2012 ESPN Named one of "40 Women Who Will Change Way Sports are Played."
- 2012 ESPNW and Women in Cable Telecommunications named one of "Women who have made a significant impact on society after playing high school or college sports.
- 2012 "Advocate's Award" from the Alliance of Women Coaches
- 2014 International Olympic Committee, Women and Sport Award for the Americas, Monaco
- 2014 Babe Didrikson Zaharias Award
- 2014 Lifetime Achievement Award, Women in Business
- 2015 Shape America, Guiding Women in Sports Award
- 2015 Pi Beta Phi, International Sorority, Distinguished Alumni
- 2016 Inductee, Episcopal School of Jacksonville Hall of Honor
- 2017 Florida Trend Magazine, Listed in Women in Leadership
- 2018 The Carlile Cup for Lifetime Achievement
- Butler, Carney, Carter, Hogshead-Makar front Florida High School Athletic Hall of Fame's 2007 induction class (February 9, 2007). Florida High School Athletic Association. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Rob Trucks (July 31, 2012). "How A Career Ends: Nancy Hogshead-Makar, Olympic Swimming Gold Medalist". Deadspin.com. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Nancy Hogshead-Makar. Florida Coastal School of Law. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- "Gossip". (July 25, 1999). The Florida Times-Union. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
-  Florida Attorney General, Solicitor General profile
- Palka, Mary Kelli:"Attorney's new post combines 2 passions: Teaching and state law". The Florida Times-Union (February 23, 2007). Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Faces of Asthma-Nancy Hogshead. National Institute of Health. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
- Evans, Hilary; Gjerde, Arild; Heijmans, Jeroen; Mallon, Bill; et al. "Nancy Hogshead". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on April 17, 2020.
- Nancy Hogshead (USA) – Honor Swimmer profile at International Swimming Hall of Fame
- Nancy Hogshead-Makar – Faculty profile at Florida Coastal School of Law
- Nancy Hogshead-Makar – Video interview with Miller on Sports Radio
- Jacksonville.com Top 100 Athletes of the Century