Mudanya (Mudania,[3] Greek: τα Μουδανιά, ta Moudaniá [Pl.]) (the site of ancient Apamea Myrlea) is a town and district of Bursa Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. It is located on the Gulf of Gemlik, part of the southern coast of the Sea of Marmara. As of 1911, it was connected with Bursa by the Mudanya–Bursa railway and a carriage road, and with Istanbul by steamers.[4] Mudanya has only an open anchorage usable in calm weather. The town produces olive oil and there is a pier used by local fishing and cargo boats.

Mudanya
Mudanya is located in Turkey
Mudanya
Mudanya
Coordinates: 40°22′35″N 28°53′00″E / 40.37639°N 28.88333°E / 40.37639; 28.88333Coordinates: 40°22′35″N 28°53′00″E / 40.37639°N 28.88333°E / 40.37639; 28.88333
CountryTurkey
ProvinceBursa
Government
 • MayorHayri Türkyılmaz (CHP)
 • KaymakamOrhan Çiftçi
Area
 • District333.72 km2 (128.85 sq mi)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
56,153
 • District
75,344
 • District density230/km2 (580/sq mi)
Post code
16940
Websitewww.mudanya.bel.tr
View of Güzelyalı and Mudanya

HistoryEdit

According to the Ottoman General Census of 1881/82-1893, the kaza of Mudanya had a total population of 16.683, consisting of 11.792 Greeks and 4.891 Muslims.[5] A port city, it also had a railway connection to Bursa which was completed in 1875. The railway had a pier at the seaport of Mudanya for exporting. Istanbul was often the recipient of exported goods from Mudanya. Silk was a popular export.[3] During the Turkish War of Independence, Mudanya was bombarded and thus partially burned by the British Fleet during the Summer Offensive of 1920. Sergeant Şükrü from Mudanya and 9 of his brothers-in-arms were killed during the allied bombardment and subsequent landing.[6]

 
Mudanya being bombarded and thus burned by the British Warships on July 6th, 1920.

Liberation of MudanyaEdit

Mudanya and its environs were liberated by the Turkish Kocaeli Army Corps under the Command of Halit (Karsıalan) Paşa on the 12th of September 1922.[7] Cavalry Captain Abidin's 3 consecutive reports regarding the capture of the Greek 11th Infantry Division (Manisa Division), 45th &17th Infantry regiments along with its commanders and with Major-General Nikolaos Kladas in Mudanya on the 12th of September 1922 highlights the events.[8]

 
The return of HMS Royal Sovereign's seaman after forced landing under heavy machine gun & rifle fire. (Mudanya, July 1920)
 
Allied Occupation Officers in Mudanya in 1922, French Naval Officers on the left and the British on the right.

1st Report

Mudanya

11.9.338 (1922)

Cavalry Division Command

1. I occupied Mudanya. I have captured 400 prisoners and 500 guns here. There is enough equipment and ammunition here for an army.

2. Three companies of the enemy's cavalry have now approached the town and cut off my access to you.

3. I have decided to make all kinds of sacrifices for the safety of my nation. I'm sending you 300 or so prisoners as samples. If the road coming to Mudanya, following the coast, is not blocked by the divisional troops before it breaks dawn, it is certain that I will be in danger with my retinue. Moreover, the war supplies worth millions will be destroyed.

4. As per the truce I made, the enemy fleet will not be able to shoot at the town and the surroundings of Mudanya. In such a case, the French torpedo will intervene.

5. As I presented above, I was compelled to send the convoy of prisoners off the road, as the main street was held by the enemy cavalry.

6. In short, there were 20,000 people in this town, both refugees and soldiers. I will keep my fortitude, using my last strength to capture them. The cavalry that I have sent is to be reinforced with at least one cavalry platoon and returned quickly together with the guides.

11 September 338 (1922) at 24:00

Captain Abidin


2nd Report

From Mürselköy - 13.9.1338 (1922)

To Mürettep (Reorganized) Cavalry Division Command

1. Today I realized that you could not receive the report I submitted at 13.9.1338 (1922) at 01:00. I am presenting the same for the second time.

2. When I entered the town of Mudanya, I came across small Greek detachments. I entered the town with the fastest march, not allowing any armed engagement.

3. I found and saw 700 Greek soldiers and 3000 Greek and Armenian gangs in the town. I didn't show any weakness towards them and shouted as much as I could, that "The town is besieged by our troops, and the most effective remedy for them was to surrender." In this way, I tried to deceive the masses of soldiers and people. I could only get a successful answer at 23:00. Upon this success, I gathered the prisoners, not dealing with refugees, equipment and ammunition. At 01:00, I set out the (prisoner's) convoy, consisting of 300 soldiers and 11 officers. Today, I got the news that this group is going to Bursa. From midnight to the morning of the same night, I captured and delivered 550 soldiers and 12 officers including 9 captains and lieutenants, 2 senior officers and 1 staff officer.

4. While I was busy with these tasks, the Commander of the 11th Division (Major General Nikolaos Kladas) came to crossroads of the Mudanya - Bursa Street with his headquarters and wanted to enter the town, but we did not allow. We informed him that he would be treated as a prisoner of war. In his final reply, the division commander said that he would fight until the last man. At this time (September 12 at 05:00), the town was besieged by the troops of the 11th Division. Unfortunately, the French did not inform us of this situation. Even though the sun was rising two spear lengths, the sound of the rifles of the cavalry division I belonged to could be heard. I learned that not even a single guard was placed on the street that follows the beach. I armed the people of the town of Mudanya. By imprisoning the captives in mosques, I requested guidance and assistance from the French. I got a negative answer. Upon this disappointment, I found a weak spot of the Greek troops and decided to break through and put this decision into practice at 06:30. I did not accept the humiliation of Greeks surrendering to the French. Disregarding the hail of bullets coming from all sides, I took advantage of the space between the vanguard and the main body, and arrived to the shore of peace (the sea of Marmara). This success cost me dearly. Lieutenant Lütfi Efendi was wounded in the head, I just learned that Ali and Kazım Efendi took refuge in the French torpedo. I know about 13 animals dead and badly injured. I will report the actual casualties after the privates and officers are assembled.

5. The attack of the 1st (Turkish Infantry) Division was very rapid, 6 battalions of infantry, an artillery battery and battle equipment were taken from the enemy.

6. The enemy units you will find in front of you from now on are the fugitive soldiers. Battalion and regiment (Greek) commanders say that these men have no supplies and ammunition. Thousands of animals, goods, etc. in Mudanya were plundered by the (Turkish) infantry units and the people. These could not be preserved well.

7. Some of the (prisoners) soldiers are in Bursa with the other captives, some are in the forests of Mudanya, and some are with the French. I'm busy collecting these. Upon its completion, I will join the regiment.

Com. of the 37th Cavalry Regiment, 2nd Cmp.

Cpt.

Abidin

His adjutant officer's statement: The enemy surrendered 15 field-, 8 mountain- and 4 howitzer cannons in Mudanya.

Arrival of the report to the Division: 14 September 1338 at 07:00


3rd Report

14.9.1338 (1922)

Mürettep (Reorganized) Cavalry Division Commander

1. I hereby present my treaty with the French.

2. From the point of view of preserving the honour and dignity of the (Turkish National) Government, I did not allow confiscation of the belongings and money of any Greek soldier or officer. Unfortunately, in front of my eyes, 700 prisoners and 18 officers were examined one by one, by the French, and they took all their money and valuables. Since I had few soldiers, I couldn't prevent this meanness and despicable behaviour of the French, I was satisfied only with protest. I request you to report this sad case to the army, sir.

Commander of the 2nd Company of the 37th Cavalry Regiment,

Abidin

The town was the signing place of the Armistice of Mudanya between Turkey, Italy, France and Britain on October 11, 1922, following the Turkish War of Independence.

After the Treaty of Lausanne and the Greco-Turkish population exchange agreement, the Greeks of the town were transferred into mainland Greece, establishing a settlement to which they gave the name of their previous town, Nea Moudania (New Moudania, located on the Chalkidiki peninsula, in the Macedonia region of Greece). In return, a number of Cretan Turks were settled in Mudanya.

Traditional architecture in MudanyaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ a b Prothero, G.W. (1920). Anatolia. London: H.M. Stationery Office.
  4. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mudania" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 18 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 955.
  5. ^ Kemal Karpat (1985), Ottoman Population, 1830-1914, Demographic and Social Characteristics, The University of Wisconsin Press, p. 132-133
  6. ^ "Zafer'den Kurtuluş'a… 12 Eylül 1922 Mudanya'nın Kurtuluşu". MUDANYA Gazetesi. 2022-09-11. Retrieved 2022-10-16.
  7. ^ "Zafer'den Kurtuluş'a… 12 Eylül 1922 Mudanya'nın Kurtuluşu". MUDANYA Gazetesi. 2022-09-11. Retrieved 2022-10-16.
  8. ^ Niş, Kemal; Söker, Reşat; Ercan, Tevfik; Anıt, Çetin (December 1995). Türk İstiklal Harbi II. Cilt Batı Cephesi 6. Kısım III. Kitap Büyük Taarruzda Takip Harekatı (31 Ağustos - 18 Eylül 1922) (in Turkish). Ankara, Türkiye: Genelkurmay Atase Başkanlığı Yayınları. pp. 311–312. ISBN 9789754090598.

External linksEdit