Montmorency, Val-d'Oise

Montmorency (French pronunciation: [mɔ̃mɔʁɑ̃si] ) is a commune in the Val-d'Oise department, in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 15.3 km (9.5 mi) from the center of Paris.

St Martin Collegiate Church
Coat of arms of Montmorency
Location (in red) within Paris inner and outer suburbs
Location (in red) within Paris inner and outer suburbs
Location of Montmorency
Montmorency is located in France
Montmorency is located in Île-de-France (region)
Coordinates: 48°59′26″N 2°19′22″E / 48.9906°N 2.3228°E / 48.9906; 2.3228
IntercommunalityCA Plaine Vallée
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Maxime Thory[1]
5.37 km2 (2.07 sq mi)
 • Density4,100/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
95428 /95160
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Montmorency was the fief of the Montmorency family, one of the oldest and most distinguished families of the French nobility. It is now a wealthy suburb of Paris.

Name edit

The name Montmorency was recorded for the first time in Medieval Latin as Mons Maurentiacus (attested in 993). Mons Maurentiacus, literally "Mount Maurentiacus", was the name given to the promontory over which a castle was built in the Early Middle Ages. Maurentiacus, the name of the area surrounding the promontory, meant "estate of Maurentius", probably a Gallo-Roman landowner.

In 1689 Montmorency was officially renamed Enghien, but the village on the slopes of the promontory was still referred to as "Montmorency" by most people. During the French Revolution, at the creation of French communes in 1790, the newly born commune was named Montmorency. Three years later in 1793, at the peak of the French Revolution, the name of the commune, which was probably thought of as too reminiscent of the overthrown Ancien Régime, was changed into Émile, in honor of French philosopher and writer Jean-Jacques Rousseau who had composed his educational treaty Émile a few decades earlier while in residence at Montmorency.

In 1813 the commune was renamed Montmorency. In 1815, at the Restoration of monarchy, the commune was renamed Enghien. Throughout these troubled years, however, the village was always referred to as "Montmorency" by the locals, regardless of what the official name was in all its changes.

Lac d'Enghien with a view of Montmorency

The name "Enghien", on the other hand, was used for the lake and marshland in the valley beneath Montmorency, an area that was withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the commune of Montmorency/Enghien in 1790, and was divided between the jurisdictions of several neighboring communes. In other words, the place called "Enghien" was not located within the commune of Enghien.

This confusing situation was ended on 27 November 1832, when the commune of Enghien was definitely renamed Montmorency. In 1850, the area of Enghien, which had developed as a spa resort, was incorporated as a commune (named Enghien-les-Bains) by detaching its territory from the territory of four communes neighboring Montmorency. The commune of Montmorency did not lose territory and as such was not affected by the incorporation of the commune of Enghien-les-Bains.

History edit

Montmorency was the fief of the Montmorency family, one of the oldest and most distinguished families of the French nobility, who owed their name to the location of their ancestral castle on the promontory of Montmorency. The castle of Montmorency was destroyed by the English during the Hundred Years' War and was not rebuilt. After the Hundred Years' War, the Montmorency moved their residence to the Château d'Écouen in Écouen, 5.6 km (3.5 mi) to the northeast of Montmorency.

In 1632 the last Montmorency, Henri II de Montmorency, was executed for treason in Toulouse and the duchy of Montmorency was inherited by the Princes of Condé, a cadet branch of the French royal family who, like the Montmorency, did not reside in Montmorency, choosing instead the Château de Chantilly as their residence. In 1689 King Louis XIV allowed the duchy of Montmorency to be renamed duchy of Enghien, in memory of the duchy of Enghien (modern-day Belgium) which the Princes of Condé had lost in 1569 at the death of Louis I de Bourbon, Prince de Condé. Montmorency/Enghien was the fief of the Princes of Condé until the French Revolution.

The art collector Pierre Crozat had a country retreat here in the first half of the 18th century, the fashionable Château de Montmorency, which was at the centre of social gatherings. It contained a chapel decorated in 1715-16 by Pierre Le Gros the Younger[3] and paintings by Charles de La Fosse.[4] The building was demolished in 1817.

In addition, the Montmorency cherry, a popular sour cherry variety, derives its name from the town.

Population edit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 1,870—    
1800 1,697−1.38%
1806 1,683−0.14%
1821 1,573−0.45%
1831 1,789+1.30%
1836 1,870+0.89%
1841 1,930+0.63%
1846 2,051+1.22%
1851 2,144+0.89%
1856 2,359+1.93%
1861 2,613+2.07%
1866 3,126+3.65%
1872 3,494+1.87%
1876 4,088+4.00%
1881 4,295+0.99%
1886 4,894+2.65%
1891 4,577−1.33%
1896 4,966+1.64%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 5,419+1.76%
1906 5,997+2.05%
1911 7,093+3.41%
1921 8,490+1.81%
1926 9,977+3.28%
1931 10,891+1.77%
1936 10,535−0.66%
1946 11,126+0.55%
1954 14,094+3.00%
1962 16,369+1.89%
1968 18,691+2.24%
1975 20,860+1.58%
1982 20,798−0.04%
1990 20,920+0.07%
1999 20,599−0.17%
2007 21,381+0.47%
2012 20,842−0.51%
2017 21,461+0.59%
Source: EHESS[5] and INSEE (1968–2017)[6]

Transport edit

The closest station to Montmorency is Enghien-les-Bains station on the Transilien Paris-Nord suburban rail line and it takes 15 minutes from Paris Gare du Nord to get there. This station is located in the neighboring commune of Enghien-les-Bains, 2.1 km (1.3 mi) from the town center of Montmorency. From there you can take the buses 15M or 13 to get into the city center.

Education edit

Primary schools:[7]

  • Three combined preschools (maternelles) and elementary schools: Pasteur, La Fontaine, and Sablons preschool/Jules Ferry elementary
  • Preschool only: Jules Ferry preschool and Ferdinand Buisson preschool
  • Elementary school only: Ferdinand Buisson elementary

Secondary schools:[8]

Personalities edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires"., Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2021". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 28 December 2023.
  3. ^ Gerhard Bissell, Pierre le Gros, 1666-1719, Reading, Berkshire 1997, pp. 16-17, 119.
  4. ^ Germaid Ruck, Lafosse, Charles de, in: Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon, vol. 82, de Gruyter, Berlin 2014, p. 475.
  5. ^ Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Montmorency, EHESS (in French).
  6. ^ Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  7. ^ "Scolaire Archived 2017-12-30 at the Wayback Machine." Montmorency, Val-d'Oise. Retrieved on September 8, 2016.
  8. ^ "Collèges et lycées." Montmorency, Val-d'Oise. Retrieved on September 8, 2016.

External links edit