Mometasone, also known as mometasone furoate, is a steroid medication used to treat certain skin conditions, hay fever, and asthma. Specifically it is used to prevent rather than treat asthma attacks. It can be applied to the skin, inhaled, or used in the nose.
|Trade names||Nasonex, Asmanex, Elocon, others|
|Topical, inhalation (nasal spray)|
|Drug class||Corticosteroid; Glucocorticoid|
|Bioavailability||Nasal spray is virtually undetectable in plasma; but systemic availability is comparable to fluticasone|
|Protein binding||98% to 99%|
|Elimination half-life||5.8 hours|
|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Formula||C22H28Cl2O4 for mometasone|
C27H30O6Cl2 as furoate
|Molar mass||427.361 g/mol (mometasone)|
521.4 g/mol (furoate)
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Common side effects when used for asthma include headache, sore throat, and thrush. Common side effects when used in the nose includes upper respiratory tract infections and nose bleeds. Common side effects when applied on the skin include acne, skin atrophy, and itchiness. It works by decreasing inflammation.
Mometasone furoate was patented in 1981 and came into medical use in 1987. It is avaliable as a generic medication. A month supply of the inhaler in the United Kingdom costs the NHS about £30 while the nasal spray is less than £2, as of 2019. In 2016 it was the 165th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 3 million prescriptions.
Mometasone furoate is used in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders (such as eczema and psoriasis) (topical form), allergic rhinitis (such as hay fever) (topical form), asthma (inhalation form) for patients unresponsive to less potent corticosteroids, and penile phimosis. In terms of steroid strength, it is more potent than hydrocortisone, and less potent than dexamethasone.
Nasal mometasone is used in adults (including the elderly) and children over two years of age, to diminish the symptoms such as hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) and other allergies (perennial rhinitis), including nasal congestion, discharge, pruritus, and sneezing and to treat nasal polyps.
- Reversing the activation of inflammatory proteins
- Activating the secretion of anti-inflammatory proteins
- Stabilizing cell membranes
- Decreasing the influx of inflammatory cells
Mechanism of actionEdit
Mometasone, like other corticosteroids, possesses anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and vasoconstrictive properties. For allergies, corticosteroids reduce the allergic reactions in various types of cells (mastocytes and eosinophils) that are responsible for allergic reactions. Mometasone and other corticosteroids circulate in the blood easily, crossing cellular membranes and binding with cytoplasmic receptors, resulting in the transcription and synthesis of proteins. It also inhibits the actions of the enzyme cytochrome P450 2C8 which participates in the activity of monooxygenase.
The inflammation is reduced in decreasing the liberation of hydrolace acids of leukocytes, the prevention of the accumulation macrophages in the sites of inflammation, the interference with adhesion of leukocytes to capillary walls, the reduction of the permeability of the capillary membranes and consequently edema, the reduction of complementary components, inhibition of histamine and kinin liberation, and interference with scar tissue formation. The proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen deposits is also reduced. It is believed that the action of corticosteroid anti-inflammatory agents is bound to inhibitive proteins of phospholipase A2, collectively called lipocortins. The lipocortins, in turn, control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation as the prostaglandins and leukotrienes, inhibiting the liberation of the molecular precursors of arachidonic acid. Intranasal mometasone alleviates symptoms such as rhinorrhea aquosa, nasal congestion, nasal drip, sneezing, and pharyngeal itching. Topical administration applied to skin reduces the inflammation associated with chronic or acute dermatosis.
Extensive metabolic hepatic metabolism of mometasone furoate to multiple metabolites occurs. No principal metabolites are detectable in plasma. After in vitro incubation, one of the minor metabolites formed is furoate 6β-hydroxymometasone. In human hepatic microsomes, the formation of these metabolites is regulated by CYP3A4.
Mometasone by itself is a synthetic, steroidal glucocorticoid or corticosteroid that was never marketed. The C17α furoate ester of mometasone, is the marketed medication. Mometasone furoate acts as a prodrug of mometasone. In addition to its glucocorticoid activity, mometasone also has very potent progestogenic activity and acts as a partial agonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor.
Society and cultureEdit
As of 2016 mometasone furoate was available worldwide in formulations for nasal, oral inhalation, and topical administration, for human and for veterinary use, and in combinations with other drugs, under many brand names.
It was available as of 2016 as the single active agent in the following brands: Alcom, Altosone, Asmanex, Atozon, Aureox, Belloseta, Bioelementa, Biometasona, Bloctimo, Borgasone, Breso, Broner, Codermo, Cortynase, Cutimom, Cutizone, Cutticom, Dance, Demoson, Dergentil, Derimod, Dermacortine, Dermaten, Dermome, Dermosona, Dermotasone, Dermovel, Desdek, Ecelecort, Ecural, Edelan, Elica, Elisone, Elisox, Elitasone, Elna, Elocan, Elocom, Elocon, Elocortin, Elofute, Elomet, Elomox, Eloskin, Eloson, Elosone, Elovent, Elox, Etacid, Eversone, Eztom, F-Din, Fenisona, Flazcort, Flogocort, Fremomet, Frondava, Fu Mei Song, Fulmeta, Furo, Furoato de Mometasona, Furoderm, Gistan-H, Honmet, Iflacort, Intercon, Ivoxel, Kalmente, Konex, Ladexol, Lisoder, Logren, Loksin, Lomeane, M-Furo, Makiren, Mefurosan, Melocort, Mena, Mesone, Metacortil, Metactiv, Metaflam, Metagra, Metasafe, Metason, Metasone, Metaspray, Metatop, Metaz, Metmin, Metsone, Midermin, Mifusin, Minyear, Mofacort, Mofulex, Mofur, Mofuroate, Molison, Momate, Momax, Momecon, Momecort, Momecutan, Momederm, MomeGalen, Momegen, Momekort, Momelab, Momentum, Momeplus, Momerid, Momeson, Momesone, Momester, Momet, Mometa, Mometagen, Mometason, Mometasona, Mometasona Furoato, Mometasone Furoate, Mometasone Furoate Hydrate, Mometasonfuroaat, Mometasonfuroat, Mometasoni furoas, Mometasonum, Mometasyn, Mometasyn, Mometax, Mometazon, Mometazona, Mometazona Fuorat, Mometazonfuroat, Mometix-AQ, Momevate, Momexa, Mommex, Mommox, Momtas, Monaliz, Monez, Monovel, Monovo, Mosone, Motaderm, Motaneal, Movesan, Mtaz, Mundoson, Murozo, Myrey, Narinex, Nasamet, Nasehaler, Nasocure, Nasomet, Nasometin, Nasonex, Nassomet, Nazofix, Nazoster, Netonox, Nexomist, Novasone, Ovison, Ovixan, Oximax, Pharmecort, Pluster, Pronasal, Propel, Prospiril, Pydercon, Rinelon, Rinitek, Rino-Val, Rinobudex, Rinonex, Rinosal, Rinosona, Rinoval, Risonel, Sensicort, Septopic, Silkaren, Soneta, Suavicort, Suqi, Synaller, Tabunex, Topcort, Topison, Uniclar, Uniderm, Vizomet, Yperod, Zalconex, and Zynovate.
The following combination drugs were available as of 2016:
- Mometasone and azelastine as Nasaflex
- Mometasone and clotrimazole and gentamicin for veterinary use as Mometamax
- Mometasone and florfenicol and terbinafine for veterinary use as Claro
- Mometasone and formoterol as Dulera and Zenhale
- Mometasone and fusidic acid as Momate-F
- Mometasone and miconazole as Elica M and Sensicort-F
- Mometasone and mupirocin as Sensicort-B
- Mometasone and orbifloxacin and posaconazole for veterinary use as Posatex
- Mometasone and salicylic acid as Belosalic, Cortimax-S, Elicasal, Elocom Plus, Elosalic, Momate, Momesalic, Momtas, Monsalic, and Sensicort-S
- Mometasone and tazarotene as Tazasone Forte
- Mometasone and terbinafine as Cutizone-T
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