WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (aka Essential Medicines List or EML[1]), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.[2] The list is frequently used by countries to help develop their own local lists of essential medicines.[2] As of 2016, more than 155 countries have created national lists of essential medicines based on the World Health Organization's model list.[1] This includes both developed and developing countries.[2][3]

World map with the words "40 years of the model list of essential medicines 1977–2017"
2017 marked the 40th anniversary of the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines.

The list is divided into core items and complementary items.[4] The core items are deemed to be the most cost-effective options for key health problems and are usable with little additional health care resources.[4] The complementary items either require additional infrastructure such as specially trained health care providers or diagnostic equipment or have a lower cost–benefit ratio.[4] About 25% of items are in the complementary list.[5] Some medications are listed as both core and complementary.[6] While most medications on the list are available as generic products, being under patent does not preclude inclusion.[7]

The first list was published in 1977 and included 208 medications.[8][2][9] The WHO updates the list every two years.[10] The 14th list was published in 2005 and contained 306 medications.[11] In 2015, the 19th edition of the list was published and contains around 410 medications.[10] The 20th edition was published in 2017, and contains 433 medications.[12][13] The 21st list was published in 2019 and contains 460 medications.[14][15][16] The 22nd list was published in 2021 and contains 479 medications.[17][18] Various national lists contain between 334 and 580 medications.[5]

A separate list for children up to 12 years of age, known as the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (EMLc), was created in 2007 and is in its 8th edition.[10][19][20] It was created to make sure that the needs of children were systematically considered such as availability of proper formulations.[21][22] Everything in the children's list is also included in the main list.[23] The list and notes are based on the 19th to 22nd edition of the main list.[4][12][14][17] An α indicates a medicine is only on the complementary list.[4][14][17] Therapeutic alternatives with similar clinical performance are listed for some medicines and they may be considered for national essential medicines lists.[17][18]

Anaesthetics, preoperative medicines and medical gasesEdit

General anaesthetics and oxygenEdit

Inhalational medicinesEdit

Injectable medicinesEdit

Local anaestheticsEdit

Preoperative medication and sedation for short-term proceduresEdit

Medical gasesEdit

Medicines for pain and palliative careEdit

Non-opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIMs)Edit

 
A skeletal model of the chemical structure of aspirin

Opioid analgesicsEdit

Medicines for other common symptoms in palliative careEdit

Antiallergics and medicines used in anaphylaxisEdit

Antidotes and other substances used in poisoningsEdit

Non-specificEdit

SpecificEdit

Anticonvulsants/antiepilepticsEdit

Anti-infective medicinesEdit

AnthelminthicsEdit

Intestinal anthelminthicsEdit

 
A skeletal model of the chemical structure of albendazole

AntifilarialsEdit

Antischistosomals and other antinematode medicinesEdit

Cysticidal medicinesEdit

AntibacterialsEdit

Access group antibioticsEdit

Watch group antibioticsEdit

Reserve group antibioticsEdit

Antileprosy medicinesEdit

Antituberculosis medicinesEdit

 
Pure crystals of ethambutol

Antifungal medicinesEdit

Antiviral medicinesEdit

Antiherpes medicinesEdit

AntiretroviralsEdit

Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitorsEdit
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitorsEdit
Protease inhibitorsEdit
 
Two capsules of atazanavir
Integrase inhibitorsEdit
Fixed-dose combinations of antiretroviral medicinesEdit
Medicines for prevention of HIV-related opportunistic infectionsEdit
Other antiviralsEdit

Antihepatitis medicinesEdit

Medicines for hepatitis BEdit
Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitorsEdit
Medicines for hepatitis CEdit
Pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral combinationsEdit
Non-pangenotypic direct-acting antiviral combinationsEdit
Other antivirals for hepatitis CEdit

Antiprotozoal medicinesEdit

Antiamoebic and antigiardiasis medicinesEdit

Antileishmaniasis medicinesEdit

Antimalarial medicinesEdit

For curative treatmentEdit
For chemopreventionEdit

Antipneumocystosis and antitoxoplasmosis medicinesEdit

Antitrypanosomal medicinesEdit

African trypanosomiasisEdit
Medicines for the treatment of 1st stage African trypanosomiasisEdit
Medicines for the treatment of 2nd stage African trypanosomiasisEdit
American trypanosomiasisEdit

Medicines for ectoparasitic infectionsEdit

Antimigraine medicinesEdit

For treatment of acute attackEdit

For prophylaxisEdit

Immunomodulators and antineoplasticsEdit

Immunomodulators for non-malignant diseaseEdit

Antineoplastics and supportive medicinesEdit

Cytotoxic medicinesEdit

Targeted therapiesEdit

ImmunomodulatorsEdit

Hormones and antihormonesEdit

Supportive medicinesEdit

Antiparkinsonism medicinesEdit

Medicines affecting the bloodEdit

Antianaemia medicinesEdit

Medicines affecting coagulationEdit

Other medicines for haemoglobinopathiesEdit

Blood products of human origin and plasma substitutesEdit

Blood and blood componentsEdit

 
Bag containing one unit of fresh frozen plasma

Plasma-derived medicinesEdit

Human immunoglobulinsEdit

Blood coagulation factorsEdit

Plasma substitutesEdit

Cardiovascular medicinesEdit

Antianginal medicinesEdit

Antiarrhythmic medicinesEdit

Antihypertensive medicinesEdit

Medicines used in heart failureEdit

Antithrombotic medicinesEdit

Anti-platelet medicinesEdit

Thrombolytic medicinesEdit

Lipid-lowering agentsEdit

Dermatological medicines (topical)Edit

Antifungal medicinesEdit

Anti-infective medicinesEdit

Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic medicinesEdit

Medicines affecting skin differentiation and proliferationEdit

Scabicides and pediculicidesEdit

Diagnostic agentsEdit

Ophthalmic medicinesEdit

Radiocontrast mediaEdit

Antiseptics and disinfectantsEdit

AntisepticsEdit

DisinfectantsEdit

DiureticsEdit

Gastrointestinal medicinesEdit

Antiulcer medicinesEdit

Antiemetic medicinesEdit

Anti-inflammatory medicinesEdit

LaxativesEdit

Medicines used in diarrhoeaEdit

Oral rehydrationEdit

Medicines for diarrheaEdit

Medicines for endocrine disordersEdit

Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutesEdit

AndrogensEdit

EstrogensEdit

No listings in this section.

ProgestogensEdit

Medicines for diabetesEdit

InsulinsEdit

Oral hypoglycaemic agentsEdit

Medicines for hypoglycaemiaEdit

Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicinesEdit

ImmunologicalsEdit

Diagnostic agentsEdit

Sera, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodiesEdit

VaccinesEdit

 
A vial of oral cholera vaccine

Recommendations for all

Recommendations for certain regions

Recommendations for some high-risk populations

Recommendations for immunization programmes with certain characteristics

Muscle relaxants (peripherally-acting) and cholinesterase inhibitorsEdit

Ophthalmological preparationsEdit

Anti-infective agentsEdit

Anti-inflammatory agentsEdit

Local anestheticsEdit

Miotics and antiglaucoma medicinesEdit

MydriaticsEdit

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)Edit

Medicines for reproductive health and perinatal careEdit

ContraceptivesEdit

Oral hormonal contraceptivesEdit

Injectable hormonal contraceptivesEdit

Intrauterine devicesEdit

Barrier methodsEdit

Implantable contraceptivesEdit

Intravaginal contraceptivesEdit

Ovulation inducersEdit

UterotonicsEdit

Antioxytocics (tocolytics)Edit

Medicines administered to the motherEdit

Medicines administered to the neonateEdit

Peritoneal dialysis solutionEdit

Medicines for mental and behavioural disordersEdit

Medicines used in psychotic disordersEdit

Medicines used in mood disordersEdit

Medicines used in depressive disordersEdit

Medicines used in bipolar disordersEdit

Medicines for anxiety disordersEdit

Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disordersEdit

Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance useEdit

Medicines acting on the respiratory tractEdit

Antiasthmatics and medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseEdit

Solutions correcting water, electrolyte and acid-base disturbancesEdit

OralEdit

ParenteralEdit

MiscellaneousEdit

Vitamins and mineralsEdit

Ear, nose and throat medicinesEdit

Medicines for diseases of jointsEdit

Medicines used to treat goutEdit

Disease-modifying agents used in rheumatoid disorders (DMARDs)Edit

Juvenile joint diseasesEdit

Dental preparationsEdit

NotesEdit

An α indicates the medicine is only on the complementary list. For these items specialized diagnostic or monitoring or specialist training are needed. An item may also be listed as complementary on the basis of higher costs or a less attractive cost-benefit ratio.[4][14]

  1. ^ Thiopental may be used as an alternative depending on local availability and cost.
  2. ^ (For use in spinal anaesthesia during delivery, to prevent hypotension).
  3. ^ No more than 30% oxygen should be used to initiate resuscitation of neonates less than or equal to 32 weeks of gestation.
  4. ^ Not in children less than 3 months.
  5. ^ Not recommended for anti‐inflammatory use due to lack of proven benefit to that effect.
  6. ^ For the management of cancer pain
  7. ^ Alternatives limited to hydromorphone and oxycodone
  8. ^ For the management of cancer pain.
  9. ^ a b Alternatives limited to dolasetron, granisetron, palonosetron, and tropisetron
  10. ^ Alternatives limited to cetirizine and fexofenadine
  11. ^ There may be a role for sedating antihistamines for limited indications (EMLc).
  12. ^ Alternatives limited to prednisone
  13. ^ For use as adjunctive therapy for treatment-resistant partial or generalized seizures.
  14. ^ Alternatives limited to diazepam and midazolam
  15. ^ For use in eclampsia and severe pre‐eclampsia and not for other convulsant disorders.
  16. ^ For buccal administration when solution for oromucosal administration is not available.
  17. ^ The presence of both 25 mg/5 mL and 30 mg/5 mL strengths on the same market would cause confusion in prescribing and dispensing and should be avoided.
  18. ^ a b Avoid use in pregnancy and in women and girls of child-bearing potential, unless alternative treatments are ineffective or not tolerated because of the high risk of birth defects and developmental disorders in children exposed to valproate in the womb.
  19. ^ Oxamniquine is listed for use when praziquantel treatment fails.
  20. ^ > 1 month.
  21. ^ Only for the presumptive treatment of epidemic meningitis in children older than two years and in adults.
  22. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (J01CF Beta-lactamase resistant penicillins)
  23. ^ cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration due to better bioavailability.
  24. ^ Use in children <8 years only for life-threatening infections when no alternative exists.
  25. ^ Procaine benzylpenicillin is not recommended as first-line treatment for neonatal sepsis except in settings with high neonatal mortality, when given by trained health workers in cases where hospital care is not achievable.
  26. ^ Third-generation cephalosporin of choice for use in hospitalized neonates.
  27. ^ Do not administer with calcium and avoid in infants with hyperbilirubinemia.
  28. ^ > 41 weeks corrected gestational age.
  29. ^ Erythromycin may be an alternative. For use in combination regimens for eradication of H. pylori in adults
  30. ^ Imipenem/cilastatin is an alternative for complicated intraabdominal infections and high-risk febrile neutropenia only, except for acute bacterial meningitis in neonates, where meropenem is preferred
  31. ^ For use only in patients with HIV receiving protease inhibitors
  32. ^ For use only in combination with meropenem or imipenem/cilastatin
  33. ^ ≥ 5 years
  34. ^ Terizidone may be an alternative
  35. ^ Prothionamide may be an alternative
  36. ^ Imipenem/cilastatin may be an alternative
  37. ^ For treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, mycoses caused by Talaromyces marneffei and chromoblastomycosis; and prophylaxis of histoplasmosis and infections caused by T. marneffei in AIDS patients.
  38. ^ For treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and acute invasive aspergillosis.
  39. ^ Alternatives limited to anidulafungin and caspofungin
  40. ^ Alternatives limited to valaciclovir
  41. ^ also indicated for pre-exposure prophylaxis.
  42. ^ For use in pregnant women and in second-line regimens in accordance with WHO treatment guidelines.
  43. ^ a b Alternatives limited to lamivudine (for emtricitabine)
  44. ^ combination also indicated for pre-exposure prophylaxis
  45. ^ For the treatment of viral haemorrhagic fevers
  46. ^ For the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVr).
  47. ^ For severe illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in critically ill hospitalized patients
  48. ^ For the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVr).
  49. ^ Pangenotypic when used in combination with sofosbuvir
  50. ^ Pangenotypic when used in combination with daclatasvir
  51. ^ For the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with direct acting anti-viral medicines
  52. ^ To be used in combination with ribavirin
  53. ^ Alternatives limited to tinidazole
  54. ^ a b To be used in combination with artesunate 50 mg.
  55. ^ For use in the management of severe malaria.
  56. ^ Not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy or in children below 5 kg.
  57. ^ To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine.
  58. ^ Other combinations that deliver the target doses required such as 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride) with 50 mg artesunate can be alternatives.
  59. ^ For use only for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection.
  60. ^ For use only in combination with quinine.
  61. ^ Only for use to achieve radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, given for 14 days.
  62. ^ For use only in the management of severe malaria, and should be used in combination with doxycycline.
  63. ^ Only in combination with artesunate 50 mg.
  64. ^ For use only in Central American regions, for Plasmodium vivax infections.
  65. ^ For use only in combination with chloroquine.
  66. ^ For the treatment of 1st and 2nd stage human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection.
  67. ^ To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection.
  68. ^ To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection.
  69. ^ To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection
  70. ^ Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection.
  71. ^ Certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab and infliximab are alternatives, including quality-assured biosimilars
  72. ^ a b c d e f g h i Including quality-assured biosimilars
  73. ^ Afatinib and gefitinib are alternatives
  74. ^ Pembrolizumab is an alternative, including quality-assured biosimilars
  75. ^ Alternatives limited to enzalutamide
  76. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (L02BG Aromatase inhibitors)
  77. ^ Alternatives limited to flutamide and nilutamide
  78. ^ Alternatives limited to goserelin and triptorelin
  79. ^ Alternatives limited to prednisone
  80. ^ Alternatives limited to trihexyphenidyl
  81. ^ Alternatives limited to benserazide (for carbidopa)
  82. ^ periconceptual use for prevention of first occurrence of neural tube defects
  83. ^ Alternatives limited to epoetin alfa, beta and theta, darbepoetin alfa, methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta, and their quality-assured biosimilars.
  84. ^ Apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban are alternatives
  85. ^ Alternatives are limited to dalteparin and nadroparin, including their quality-assured biosimilars.
  86. ^ Alternatives are limited to the oral form of deferasirox.
  87. ^ Polygeline, injectable solution, 3.5% is considered an alternative.
  88. ^ a b c Includes carvedilol and metoprolol as alternatives
  89. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C08CA Dihydropyridine derivatives)
  90. ^ Includes atenolol, carvedilol, and metoprolol as alternatives. Atenolol should not be used as a first-line agent in uncomplicated hypertension in patients > 60 years.
  91. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09AA ACE inhibitors, plain)
  92. ^ Hydralazine is listed for use in the acute management of severe pregnancy‐induced hypertension only. Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the availability of more evidence of efficacy and safety of other medicines.
  93. ^ a b c Alternatives limited to chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, and indapamide
  94. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09AA ACE inhibitors, plain) (for lisinopril) and 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C08CA Dihydropyridine derivatives) (for amlodipine)
  95. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09AA ACE inhibitors, plain) (for lisinopril) and chlorthalidone, chlorothiazide, indapamide (for hydrochlorothiazide)
  96. ^ a b Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09CA Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), plain)
  97. ^ Methyldopa is listed for use only in the management of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the evidence of greater efficacy and safety of other medicines.
  98. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09CA Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), plain) (for telmisartan) and 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C08CA Dihydropyridine derivatives) (for amlodipine)
  99. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09CA Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), plain) (for telmisartan) and chlorthalidone, chlorothiazide, indapamide (for hydrochlorothiazide)
  100. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (C09AA ACE inhibitors, plain)
  101. ^ Alternatives limited to bumetanide and torasemide
  102. ^ For use in high‐risk patients. Alternatives limited to atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, and pravastatin
  103. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (D01AC Imidazole and triazole derivatives) excluding combinations
  104. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (D07AC Corticosteroids, potent (group III))
  105. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (D07AA Corticosteroids, weak (group I))
  106. ^ Alternatives limited to calcitriol and tacalcitol
  107. ^ Alternatives limited to podophyllotoxin
  108. ^ Alternatives limited to precipitated sulfur topical ointment
  109. ^ Alternatives limited to atropine and cyclopentolate
  110. ^ Alternatives limited to propanol
  111. ^ Alternatives limited to iodine
  112. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (D08AE Phenol and derivatives)
  113. ^ Alternatives limited to bumetanide and torasemide
  114. ^ Alternatives limited to chlorothiazide and chlorthalidone
  115. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (A02BC Proton pump inhibitors) excluding combinations
  116. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (A02BA H2-receptor antagonists) excluding combinations
  117. ^ Alternatives limited to mesalazine
  118. ^ Alternatives limited to bisacodyl
  119. ^ In acute diarrhoea zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts.
  120. ^ Alternatives limited to norethisterone
  121. ^ Alternatives limited to insulin degludec, insulin detemir, and insulin glargine, including quality-assured biosimilars
  122. ^ Alternatives limited to canagliflozin and dapagliflozin
  123. ^ Glibenclamide not suitable above 60 years. Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (A10BB Sulfonylureas)
  124. ^ a b Carbimazole is an alternative depending on local availability
  125. ^ For use when alternative first-line treatment is not appropriate or available; and in patients during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  126. ^ For use when alternative first-line treatment is not appropriate or available
  127. ^ Exact type to be defined locally
  128. ^ a b c Recommended for certain regions
  129. ^ a b c d e f Recommended for some high-risk populations
  130. ^ a b c Recommended only for immunization programmes with certain characteristics
  131. ^ For infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
  132. ^ Alternatives limited to amikacin, kanamycin, netilmicin, and tobramycin
  133. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (S01AE Fluoroquinolones)
  134. ^ Alternatives limited to chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline
  135. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (S01HA Local anaesthetics) excluding cocaine and combinations
  136. ^ Alternatives limited to carbachol
  137. ^ Alternatives limited to 4th level ATC chemical subgroup (S01ED Beta blocking agents) excluding combinations
  138. ^ Alternatives limited to cyclopentolate hydrochloride or homatropine hydrobromide only for the EMLc
  139. ^ For use in women actively breastfeeding at least 4 times per day
  140. ^ Alternatives limited to methylergometrine
  141. ^ Where permitted under national law and where culturally acceptable.
  142. ^ Only for use for induction of labour where appropriate facilities are available.
  143. ^ Alternatives limited to indometacin
  144. ^ Alternatives limited to prostaglandin E2
  145. ^ Alternatives limited to risperidone injection
  146. ^ Alternatives limited to citalopram, escitalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline
  147. ^ Alternatives limited to buprenorphine. The medicines should only be used within an established support programme.
  148. ^ Alternatives limited to beclometasone, ciclesonide, flunisolide, fluticasone, and mometasone
  149. ^ Alternatives limited to beclometasone/formoterol, budesonide/salmeterol, fluticasone/formoterol, fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, and mometasone/formoterol
  150. ^ Alternatives limited to terbutaline
  151. ^ Alternatives limited to aclidinium, glycopyrronium, and umeclidinium
  152. ^ Ergocalciferol can be used as an alternative.
  153. ^ Colecalciferol can be used as an alternative.
  154. ^ Alternatives limited to ofloxacin
  155. ^ For use for rheumatic fever, juvenile arthritis, Kawasaki disease

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML): 30th anniversary". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d "Essential medicines". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2017.
  3. ^ Persaud N, Jiang M, Shaikh R, Bali A, Oronsaye E, Woods H, Drozdzal G, Rajakulasingam Y, Maraj D, Wadhawan S, Umali N, Wang R, McCall M, Aronson JK, Plüddemann A, Moja L, Magrini N, Heneghan C (June 2019). "Comparison of essential medicines lists in 137 countries". Bull. World Health Organ. 97 (6): 394–404C. doi:10.2471/BLT.18.222448. hdl:10665/325509. ISSN 0042-9686. PMC 6560372. PMID 31210677.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. p. Annex 1. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  5. ^ a b Bansal D, Purohit VK (January 2013). "Accessibility and use of essential medicines in health care: Current progress and challenges in India". Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. 4 (1): 13–18. doi:10.4103/0976-500X.107642. PMC 3643337. PMID 23662019.
  6. ^ "The Selection and Use of Essential Medicines – WHO Technical Report Series, No. 920: 5. Reviews of sections of the Model List: 5.2 Review of core versus complementary listing of medicines". World Health Organization (WHO). 2003. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  7. ^ Beall R (2016). "Patents and the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (18th Edition): Clarifying the Debate on IP and Access" (PDF). World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). Retrieved 3 May 2017.
  8. ^ World Health Organization (1977). The selection of essential drugs : report of a WHO expert committee [meeting held in Geneva from 17 to 21 October 1977]. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/41272. ISBN 9241206152. Technical report series; no. 615.
  9. ^ Wirtz VJ, Hogerzeil HV, Gray AL, Bigdeli M, de Joncheere CP, Ewen MA, et al. (January 2017). "Essential medicines for universal health coverage". Lancet. 389 (10067): 403–476. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31599-9. PMC 7159295. PMID 27832874.
  10. ^ a b c "WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines". World Health Organization. The current versions are the 21st WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) and the 7th WHO Essential Medicines List for Children (EMLc) updated in June 2019.
  11. ^ Prakash B, Nadig P, Nayak A (2016). "Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist". Indian Journal of Dermatology. 61 (1): 32–38. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.174017. PMC 4763692. PMID 26955092.
  12. ^ a b World Health Organization (2017). WHO model list of essential medicines, 20th list (March 2017, amended August 2017). Geneva. hdl:10665/273826.
  13. ^ "Essential Medicines List and WHO Model Formulary". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
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  15. ^ World Health Organization (2019). Executive summary: the selection and use of essential medicines 2019: report of the 22nd WHO Expert Committee on the selection and use of essential medicines. Geneva. hdl:10665/325773. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.05. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  16. ^ "Strengthening access to essential medicines". World Health Organization. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
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  19. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines for children: 7th list 2019. Geneva. hdl:10665/325772. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.07. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit

eEML - Electronic Essential Medicines List