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Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam,[Note 1][2] is reported to have performed during his lifetime, miracles, or supernatural acts, according to the Quran (the central religious text of Islam), hadith (records of the words, actions, and silent approval, traditionally attributed to Muhammad), and biographies of Muḥammad. Almost all the miracles come from the hadith as the vast majority are either not mentioned or their miraculous details are not mentioned in the Quran. Muhammad's miracles encompass a broad range, such as the multiplication of food, manifestation of water, hidden knowledge, prophesies, healing, punishment, and power over nature.[3]

According to historian Denis Gril, the Quran does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles, and in several verses describes the Quran itself as Muhammad's miracle.[4] However, several miracles are reported in the Quran and miracles "appear early and often in the hadith"[5] and the hadiths are indispensable in elucidating Muhammad's miracles.[6]

DisagreementEdit

At least one scholar (Sunni scholar Muhammad Asad) states that Muhammad performed no miracles other than to bring the Quran to humanity:

"In many places the Qur'an stresses the fact that the Prophet Muhammad, despite his being the last and greatest of God's apostles, was not empowered to perform miracles similar to those with which the earlier prophets are said to have reinforced their verbal messages. His only miracle was and is the Qur'an itself - a message perfect in its lucidity and ethical comprehensiveness, destined for all times and all stages of human development, addressed not merely to the feelings but also to the minds of men, open to everyone, whatever his race or social environment, and bound to remain unchanged forever…"[7]

Examples of verses where Muhammad's adversaries call on him to perform miracles without him responding with what they wanted include:

  • 2:118 -- "Why does a sign (ayatun) not come to us?'"
  • 6:37 -- "'Why has no sign (ayatun) been sent down upon him from his Lord?' Say: 'Surely God is able to send down a sign (ayatan), but most of them know not.'"
  • 10:20 "'Why has a sign (ayatun) not been sent down upon him from his Lord?'"
  • 13:7 -- "The unbelievers say, 'Why has a sign (ayatun) not been sent down upon him from his Lord?' Thou art ONLY a warner, and a guide to every people."[Note 2]

Muslim scholar Cyril Glasse does not dispute miracles were attributed to Muhammad but downplays them, stating "there is nothing conclusive about their nature; they play no role in Islamic theology, nor do they embody any essential element in the life of the Prophet". He also describes the ahadith which attribute miracles to Muhammad "minor".[9] Marcia Hermansen also states "Miracles in the Islamic tradition play less of an evidentiary role than in some other religions since the prophet Muhammad's humanity is stressed."[10]

List of miraclesEdit

At least according to Kenneth L. Woodward[11] and Abu Ibraheem,[12] Muhammad is believed to have performed numerous miracles during his life.[11]

  • Quran - The revelation of the Quran is considered by Muslims to be Muhammad's greatest miracle[13][14][15] and a miracle for all times, unlike the miracles of other prophets, which were confined to being witnessed in their own lifetimes.[16]
  • Splitting of the moon
  • Isra and Mi'raj (Night Journey)
  • The events which occurred during his Hegira (migration from Mecca to Medina):
    • He caused blindness to Qurashite warriors after assembling at his door to assassinate him. He sprinkled a handful of dust on their heads as he recited verses from surah: Ya Sin And went away without being seen by them.
    • It was then that God gave permission to Muhammad to migrate. - The life of Muhammad by Ibn Ishaq: Muhammad's hijra.
    • When Muhammad and Abu Bakr migrated to Medina, Suraqa bin Malik pursued them. When they realized they were discovered, Muhammad looked at Suraqa so his horse sank into the earth. Suraqa then begged Muhammad to rescue him and Muhammad prayed to Allah for him hence he was saved.[17][18][19][20]
  • Prophecies made by him. This includes:
    • Muhammad telling his companion and son-in-law Uthman, that a calamity would befall him, which would be followed with his entering paradise; this eventuated during Uthman's Caliphate.[21]
    • He told his companion, Ammar ibn Yasir, that the unjust party would kill him; this eventuated during the First Fitna.[21]
    • He predicted to Suraqa bin Malik that he would wear the bracelets of Kosroe
    • He said that God would make peace between two large Muslim groups through his grandson Hasan ibn Ali; this eventuated with the Hasan–Muawiya treaty.[21]
    • He said that a man who was apparently fighting for the Muslim cause would actually be of the people of Hell; this was proven when the man committed suicide in order to remove his suffering following a wound in battle.[21]
    • He said that he would kill one of the enemies of the Muslims, Ubay ibn Khalaf, which he achieved at the Battle of Uhud.[11]
    • Before the Battle of Badr, he showed exactly where each of the enemy chiefs would be killed; they all died in the exact locations stated.[11]
    • He said that his daughter Fatimah would be the first of his family to die after him; which eventuated.[11]
  • On several occasions he provided food and water supernaturally.[22]
  • He quenched the thirst of thousands of his soldiers during the Battle of Tabouk and enabled them to use water for ablution after causing water to pour forth.[21][22]
  • He caused two trees to move at his command.[22]
  • He caused a well to swell with water after he rinsed his mouth with some water and then threw it out into the well. This was during the event of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, enabling his followers with him to drink and use the water for ablution.[23]
  • He threw a handful of dust at some of the enemy during the Battle of Hunain, causing them to be blinded. This miracle is mentioned in the Quran, Sura Al-Anfal, Verse 17 (8:17).[21]
  • He caused Abdullah ibn Masud to convert to Islam after he made a barren ewe, which produced no milk, to produce milk.[11]
  • He spit into Ali's sick eye, during the Battle of Khaybar, and it became healthy.[3]
  • His companions would hear the food before him praising God.[3]
  • He caused it to rain during a drought in Medina.[24]
  • His prayers were instantly answered.[25]
  • Stones and trees used to greet him before and during his prophethood.[26][27]
  • He used to understand the language of animals.[28][29]
  • He comforted a palm tree that was crying and upset after he stopped leaning on it during his sermons.[30]
  • He had The Seal of Prophethood (Khatam an-Nabiyyin) between his shoulders, specifically on the end of his left shoulder blade, It is depicted as a mole, in size compared to the egg of a Partridge or to a pigeon's egg and its color was the same as that of Muhammad's body.[31][32][33][34][35] It is believed that each Prophet sent by God had this Seal on a certain part of his body.[36]
  • It is reported, that Muhammad did not cast a shadow, interpreted as a sign of his "light".[37]
  • When Muhammad ascended Mount Uhud and he was accompanied by Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. The mountain shook beneath them. Muhammad then hit it with his foot and said, "O Uhud ! Be firm, for upon you there is none but a Prophet, a supporter of truth and two martyrs.[38][39][40][41][42]
  • The same event occurred on Jabal al-Nour in Mecca.[43][44][45][46][47]
  • Muhammad used to hear the voices of persons who were being tortured in their graves.[48][49]
  • When Abu Jahl was going to trample Muhammad's neck or smear his face with dust as he was engaged in prayer, Abu Jahl came near him but turned upon his heels and tried to repulse something with his hands. It was said to him: What is the matter with you? He said: There is between me and him a ditch of fire and terror and wings. Thereupon Muhammad said: If he were to come near me the angels would have torn him to pieces.[50]
  • He used to speak to the dead and hear them. It has also occurred with the bodies of the enemy chiefs after the Battle of Badr in the presence of his companions.[51][52][53]
  • He used to heal the sick and cure the blind by only touching the patient.[54][55][56]
  • According to Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, Muhammad's success and victory against his enemies was one of his miracles.[57] Similarly, many modern Muslim historians believe Muhammad's greatest miracles were his worldly accomplishments, in a short time span, in various fields (such as the religious, social, proselytising, political, military and literary spheres) and "the transformation of the Arabs from marauding bands of nomads into world conquerors."[58][59]
  • The day Muhammad came to Madinah, everything in Madinah became illuminated, and the day when Muhammad died, everything in Madinah became dark.[60][61][62]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ According to at least one Salafi/Wahabi scholar, Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid, "Allaah supported the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) with physical miracles, with which he challenged his people. Among the most important of these were the splitting of the moon and the Night Journey to Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). They were unable to match these miracles, and so they were a decisive, divine testimony to the truth of his Prophethood (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)."[1]
  2. ^ Some figures of European enlightenment (Count Henri de Boulainvilliers (1658-1722), Voltaire, Edward Gibbon) spoke well of the Quran in comparison with the Bible and Christianity because (among other reasons, they thought) unlike the bible the Quran contained no miracles .[8]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Salih Al-Munajjid, Muhammed (10 October 1998). "Evidence for the truth of the Prophethood of Muhammad". Islam Question and Answer. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  2. ^ Abu Ibraheem. "Miracles of Prophet Muhammad". Why Islam. ICNA (Islamic Circle of North America). Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Kenneth L. Woodward (10 Jul 2001). The Book of Miracles: The Meaning of the Miracle Stories in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam (reprint ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 189. ISBN 9780743200295.
  4. ^ Denis Gril, Miracles, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an
  5. ^ F. E. Peters (13 Oct 2010). Jesus and Muhammad: Parallel Tracks, Parallel Lives. Oxford University Press. p. 205. ISBN 9780199780044.
  6. ^ Kenneth L. Woodward (10 Jul 2001). The Book of Miracles: The Meaning of the Miracle Stories in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam (reprint ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 183. ISBN 9780743200295.
  7. ^ Muhammad Asad, Message of the Qur'an [Dar Al-Andalus Limited 3 Library Ramp, Gibraltar rpt. 1993] p. 427, fn. 71
  8. ^ Ibn Warraq, Why I'm Not a Muslim, 1995: p.19-21
  9. ^ Glasse, Cyril (2001). "Miracles". The New Encyclopedia of Islam. Altamira. p. 310. ISBN 0-7591-0189-2.
  10. ^ Marcia Hermansen (2004). Martin, Richard C. (ed.). Encyclopedia or Islam and the Muslim World. MacMillan Reference USA. p. 454.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Kenneth L. Woodward (10 Jul 2001). The Book of Miracles: The Meaning of the Miracle Stories in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam (reprint ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 188. ISBN 9780743200295.
  12. ^ Abu Ibraheem. "Miracles of Prophet Muhammad". Why Islam. Retrieved 1 September 2019.
  13. ^ Ibrāhīm, Zaynab; Aydelott, Sabiha T.; Kassabgy, Nagwa, eds. (1 Jan 2000). Diversity in Language: Contrastive Studies in Arabic and English Theoretical and Applied Linguistics (illustrated ed.). American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 31. ISBN 9789774245787.
  14. ^ David Whitten Smith; Elizabeth Geraldine Burr (21 Aug 2014). Understanding World Religions: A Road Map for Justice and Peace (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 142. ISBN 9781442226449.
  15. ^ Brown, Brian Arthur, ed. (1 Jan 2014). Three Testaments: Torah, Gospel, and Quran (illustrated, reprint ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 403. ISBN 9781442214934.
  16. ^ Edward Sell (5 Nov 2013). The Faith of Islam. Routledge. p. 218. ISBN 9781136391699.
  17. ^ "Hadith - Book of Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (Ansaar) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  18. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Drinks - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  19. ^ "Hadith - Book of Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  20. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Zuhd and Softening of Hearts - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Kenneth L. Woodward (10 Jul 2001). The Book of Miracles: The Meaning of the Miracle Stories in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam (reprint ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 186. ISBN 9780743200295.
  22. ^ a b c Leaman, Oliver, ed. (2006). The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia (illustrated, reprint, annotated ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 423. ISBN 9780415326391.
  23. ^ "Hadith - Book of Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  24. ^ Kenneth L. Woodward (10 Jul 2001). The Book of Miracles: The Meaning of the Miracle Stories in Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam (reprint ed.). Simon & Schuster. pp. 197–8. ISBN 9780743200295.
  25. ^ "Hadith - The Book of the Merits of the Companions - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  26. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Virtues - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  27. ^ "Hadith - Chapters on Virtues - Jami' at-Tirmidhi - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  28. ^ "Hadith - Book of Jihad (Kitab Al-Jihad) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  29. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Etiquette of Traveling - Riyad as-Salihin - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  30. ^ "Hadith - Book of Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  31. ^ "Hadith - Book of Ablutions (Wudu') - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  32. ^ "Hadith - Book of Patients - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  33. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Virtues - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  34. ^ "Hadith - Seal Of Nubuwwah (Prophethood) Of Rasoolullah - Shama'il Muhammadiyah - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  35. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Virtues - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  36. ^ al-Suyūṭī, Abū al-Faḍl. Al-Khasais-ul-Kubra. pp. 1/103.
  37. ^ Lālana Śāha City of Mirrors Oxford University Press 2017 ISBN 978-0-190-68022-0 page 524
  38. ^ "Hadith - Book of Companions of the Prophet - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  39. ^ "Hadith - Book of Companions of the Prophet - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  40. ^ "Hadith - Book of Companions of the Prophet - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  41. ^ "Hadith - Chapters on Virtues - Jami' at-Tirmidhi - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  42. ^ "Hadith - Book of Model Behavior of the Prophet (Kitab Al-Sunnah) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  43. ^ "Hadith - The Book of the Merits of the Companions - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  44. ^ "Hadith - The Book of the Merits of the Companions - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  45. ^ "Hadith - Chapters on Virtues - Jami' at-Tirmidhi - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  46. ^ "Hadith - The Book of the Sunnah - Sunan Ibn Majah - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  47. ^ "Hadith - Chapters on Virtues - Jami' at-Tirmidhi - Sunnah.com **Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  48. ^ "Hadith - Book of Ablutions (Wudu') - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  49. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Funerals - Sunan an-Nasa'i - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  50. ^ "Hadith - Book of Characteristics of the Day of Judgment, Paradise, and Hell - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  51. ^ "Hadith - Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet (pbuh) (Al-Maghaazi) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  52. ^ "Hadith - Book of Funerals (Al-Janaa'iz) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  53. ^ "Hadith - The Book of Paradise, its Description, its Bounties and its Inhabitants - Sahih Muslim - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  54. ^ "Hadith - Book of Military Expeditions led by the Prophet (pbuh) (Al-Maghaazi) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  55. ^ "Hadith - Book of Medicine (Kitab Al-Tibb) - Sunan Abi Dawud - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  56. ^ "Hadith - Book of Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihaad) - Sahih al-Bukhari - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  57. ^ Laurence Edward Browne (1933). The Eclipse of Christianity in Asia: From the Time of Muhammad Till the Fourteenth Century. Cambridge University Press Archive. p. 90.
  58. ^ Daniel W. Brown (4 Mar 1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought (reprint, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780521653947.
  59. ^ Patricia Blundell; Trevor Jordan (7 Mar 2012). Exploring Religion and Ethics: Religion and Ethics for Senior Secondary Students. Cambridge University Press. pp. 129–30. ISBN 9780521187169.
  60. ^ "Hadith - The Death Of Sayyidina Rasoolullah - Shama'il Muhammadiyah - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  61. ^ "Hadith - Chapters on Virtues - Jami' at-Tirmidhi - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.
  62. ^ "Hadith - Chapters Regarding Funerals - Sunan Ibn Majah - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه و سلم)". sunnah.com.

Further readingEdit