Microbeads are manufactured solid plastic particles of less than one millimeter in their largest dimension. They are most frequently made of polyethylene but can be of other petrochemical plastics such as polypropylene and polystyrene. They are used in exfoliating personal care products, toothpastes and in biomedical and health-science research.
Microbeads can cause plastic particle water pollution and pose an environmental hazard for aquatic animals in freshwater and ocean water. In the US, the Microbead-Free Waters Act 2015 phases out microbeads in rinse-off cosmetics by July 2017. Several other countries have also banned microbeads from rinse-off cosmetics, including France, the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand.
Microbeads are manufactured solid plastic particles of less than one millimeter in their largest dimension, and commercially available in particle sizes from 10 micrometres (0.00039 in) to 1 millimetre (0.039 in). Low melting temperature and fast phase transitions make them especially suitable for creating porous structures in ceramics and other materials. They are most frequently made of polyethylene or other petrochemical plastics such as polypropylene and polystyrene.
Microbeads are added as an exfoliating agent to cosmetics and personal care products, such as soap, facial scrub and toothpastes. They may be added to over-the-counter drugs. In biomedical and health science research microbeads are used in microscopy techniques, fluid visualization, fluid flow analysis, and process troubleshooting.
Sphericity and particle size uniformity create a ball-bearing effect in creams and lotions, resulting in a silky texture and spreadability. Smoothness and roundness can provide lubrication. Colored microspheres add visual appeal to cosmetic products.
Microbeads are washed down the drain, can pass unfiltered through sewage treatment plants and make their way into rivers and canals, resulting in plastic particle water pollution. A team of researchers from Uppsala University published a subsequently retracted study (for methodological reasons) which stated that one of the various animals affected by microbeads was perch, a freshwater fish. When born into polluted environments containing high quantities of polystyrene particles they chose to eat these microbeads instead of real food like zooplankton. Plastic-eating perch demonstrated negative behavioral effects; for example, they ignored the smell of predators which left them vulnerable. The beads can absorb and concentrate pollutants like pesticides and polycyclic hydrocarbons. Microbeads have been found to pollute the Great Lakes in high concentrations, particularly Lake Erie. A study from the State University of New York, found anywhere from 1,500 to 1.1 million microbeads per square mile on the surface of the Great Lakes.
One study suggested that environmentally relevant levels of polyethylene microbeads had no impact on larvae. Some wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the U.S. and Europe can remove microbeads with an efficiency of greater than 98%, others may not. As such, other sources of microplastic pollution (e.g. microfibers/fibers and car tires) are more likely to be associated with environmental hazards.
A variety of wildlife, from insect larvae, small fish, amphibians and turtles to birds and larger mammals, mistake microbeads for their food source. This ingestion of plastics introduces the potential for toxicity not only to these animals but to other species higher in the food chain. Harmful chemicals thus transferred can include hydrophobic pollutants that collect on the surface of the water such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Banning production and sale in cosmeticsEdit
In 2012, the North Sea Foundation and the Plastic Soup Foundation launched an app that allows Dutch consumers to check whether personal care products contain microbeads. In the summer of 2013, the United Nations Environment Programme and UK based NGO Fauna and Flora International joined the partnership to further develop the app for international audiences. The app has enjoyed success, convincing a number of large multinationals to stop using microbeads, and is available in seven languages. There are many natural and biodegradable alternatives to microbeads that have no environmental impact when washed down the drain, as they will either decompose or get filtered out before being released into the natural environment. Some examples to use as natural exfoliates include ground up almonds, oatmeal, seasalt and coconut husks. Burt’s Bees and St. Ives use apricot pits and cocoa husks in their products instead of microbeads to reduce their negative environmental impact.
Due to the increase in bans of microbeads in the USA, many cosmetic companies are also phasing out microbeads from their production lines. L’Oreal is planning to phase out polyethylene microbeads in the exfoliates, cleansers and shower gels from their products by 2017. Johnson and Johnson, who have already started to phase out microbeads at the end of 2015, will by 2017 not be producing any polyethylene microbeads in their products. Lastly, Crest phased out microbead plastics in its toothpastes by February 2016. The global phase out should be completed by the end of 2017.
On May 18, 2015, Canada took its first steps toward banning microbeads when a Member of Parliament from Toronto, John McKay, introduced Bill C-680, which would ban the sale of microbeads. The first Canadian province to take action against microbeads was Ontario, where Maire-France Lalonde, a Member of the Provincial Parliament introduced Microbead Elimination and Monitoring Act. This bill enforced the ban of manufacturing microbeads in cosmetics, facial scrubs or washes, and similar products. The bill also proposed that there would be yearly samples taken from the Canadian Great Lakes, which would be analyzed for traces of microbeads.
Pointe-Claire mayor, Morris Trudeau and members of the City Council requested its residents to sign a petition asking governments of Canada and Quebec to ban “the use of plastic microbeads in cosmetic and cleansing products.” Trudeau suggested that if Quebec bans microbeads, manufactures will be encouraged to stop producing them in their products. Megan Leslie, Halifax Member of Parliament presented a motion against microbeads in the House of Commons, which got “unanimous support” and is hoping for them to be listed under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act as a toxin.
On June 29, 2016, the Federal Government of Canada added microbeads in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act under Schedule 1 as a toxic substance. The import or manufacture of toiletries containing microbeads was banned on 1 January 2018 and sales were banned from 1 July 2018. Microbeads in natural health products and non-prescription drugs will also be banned in 2019.
India's microbead ban will enter force in 2020.
On 23 November 2016, Minister Simon Coveney T.D. Minister for Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government (the Minister with policy responsibility for marine environmental protection) informed the Seanad, the upper house of the Irish legislature, that he intends to notify the EU Commission of Ireland's intention to introduce legislation to ban microbeads in certain personal care products, detergents and scouring agents in 2017. This is due to the potential harm they may present to riverine, estuarine and marine environments. It is his intention to enact and commence this legislation in 2017. On 25 of November 2016, he wrote to EU Commissioner Karmenu Vella to advise him that Ireland will be formally notifying the EU of its intention to ban sale or manufacture of certain products containing microbeads. Ireland will continue to advocate for a ban throughout the EU.
The Netherlands was the first country to announce its intent to be free of microbeads in cosmetics by the end of 2016. State Secretary for Infrastructure and the Environment Mansveld has said she is pleased with the progress made by the members of the Nederlandse Cosmetica Vereniging (NCV), the Dutch trade organisation for producers and importers of cosmetics, who have ceased using microbeads or are working towards removing microbeads from their product. By 2017 80% of them should have completed the transition to a microbead-free product line.[according to whom?] Among the NCV's members are large multinationals such as Unilever, L'Oréal, Colgate-Palmolive, Henkel, and Johnson & Johnson.
On December 4, 2017, the New Zealand government announced that it would ban the production and sale of microbeads in the country. New Zealand banned the import, manufacture and sale of microbeads in rinse-off cosmetics on 7 June 2018.
Sweden has implemented a ban on the import and manufacture of microbeads in rinse-off cosmetics on 1 July 2018, which will be followed by a sales ban in January 2019.
A microbeads ban has been proposed in South Africa after microplastic pollution was found in tap water.
Taiwan implemented a ban on the import and manufacture of microbeads in rinse-off cosmetics on 1 January 2018, which was followed by a sales ban on 1 July 2018.
The British government has banned the production of microbeads in rinse-off cosmetics and cleaning products in England. The ban on production took effect on 9 January 2018  and was followed by a sales ban on 19 June 2018. Scotland introduced its own manufacture and sales ban on the same day and Wales introduced its on 30 June 2018. Northern Ireland announced it would introduce a full ban on 1 October 2018.
At the federal level the Microbead-Free Waters Act of 2015 prohibits the manufacture and introduction into interstate commerce of rinse-off cosmetics containing intentionally-added plastic microbeads by July 1, 2017. Representative Frank Pallone proposed the bill in 2014 (H.R. 4895, reintroduced in 2015 as H.R. 1321). On December 7, 2015, his proposal was narrowed by amendment to rinse-off cosmetics, and passed unanimously by the House. The American Chemistry Council and other industry groups supported the final bill, which the Senate passed on December 18, 2015, and the president signed on December 28, 2015.
Illinois became the first U.S. state to enact legislation banning the manufacture and sale of products containing microbeads; the two-part ban goes into effect in 2018 and 2019. The Personal Care Products Council, a trade group for the cosmetics industry, came out in support of the Illinois bill. Other states have followed.
|State/Territory||Date Enacted||Effective date||Scope|
|California||October 8, 2015||January 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics that contain more than 1 ppm of microbeads. Does not allow biodegradable microbeads.|
|Colorado||March 26, 2015||Jan. 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads.|
|Connecticut||June 30, 2015||Jan. 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads.|
|Illinois||8 June 2014||Jan. 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads. Excludes prescription drugs.|
|Indiana||April 15, 2015||Jan. 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads.|
|Maine||March 2015||Jan. 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads.|
|Maryland||May 12, 2015||Jan. 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads.|
|New Jersey||March 2015||Jan. 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads.|
|Wisconsin||July 1, 2015||January 1, 2018 (manufacture of personal care products) – Jan. 1, 2020 (sale of over-the-counter drugs)||Restricted to rinse-off cosmetics. Allows biodegradable microbeads. Excludes prescription drugs.|
In 2014, legislation was voted on but failed to pass in New York.
In 2015, Erie County, New York passed the first local ban in the state of New York. It bans the sale and distribution of all plastic microbeads (including biodegradable ones) including from personal care products. As of September 2015[update], its prohibition on sales is stronger than any other law in the country. It was enacted on August 12, 2015 and should take effect in February, 2016. This appears to be the first ban to go into effect in the country. In November 2015 four other NY counties followed suit.
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