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Coordinates: 31°21′N 27°14′E / 31.350°N 27.233°E / 31.350; 27.233

Marsa Matrouh (Arabic: مرسى مطروح‎, IPA: [ˈmæɾsæ mɑtˤˈɾuːħ]) is a port in Egypt, capital of Matrouh Governorate. It is 240 km (150 mi) west of Alexandria and 222 km (138 mi) from Sallum on the main highway from the Nile Delta to the Libyan border. Another highway leads south from the town, toward the Western Desert and Siwa Oasis and Bahariya Oasis.

Marsa Matrouh

مرسى مطروح
Clockwise from top:
Marsa Matrouh long beaches, Marsa Matrouh old watch tower, Cleopatra's Bath, Mediterannean, Matrouh Cornich, Cleopatra Beach
Marsa Matrouh is located in Egypt
Marsa Matrouh
Marsa Matrouh
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 31°20′N 27°13′E / 31.333°N 27.217°E / 31.333; 27.217
Country Egypt
GovernorateMatrouh
Elevation
100 ft (30 m)
Population
 (2011)
 • City68,339
 • Metro
140,000
 • Ethnicities
Egyptians, Bedouins & Egyptian-Libyans.
Time zoneUTC+2 (EST)
Area code(s)(+20) 46

In ancient Egypt and during the reign of Alexander the Great, the city was known as Amunia. In the Ptolemaic Kingdom and later during the Byzantine Empire, it was known as Paraitónion (Koinē Greek: Παραιτόνιον), and during the Roman Empire, it was called Paraetonium in Latin, which became Al-Baretoun (Arabic: البارتون‎) after the Arab conquest of Egypt[1]. As a British military base during World War II, several battles were fought around its environs as the German Afrika Korps attempted to capture the port. It fell to the Germans during the Battle of Marsa Matrouh, but was recaptured following the Second Battle of El Alamein.

Marsa Matrouh is served by Marsa Matrouh International Airport. The city features soft white sand beaches and calm transparent waters; the bay is protected from the high seas by a series of rocks forming a natural breakwater, with a small opening to allow access for light vessels.

Contents

HistoryEdit

It started as a small fishing town during Ancient Egyptian times and the reign of Alexander The Great and was named Amunia. There are ruins of a temple of Ramesses II (1200 BC). Marsa Matrouh became known as Paraitonion in the Ptolemaic era. When Roman occupation came to Egypt, the town became an important harbor for trade and shipping goods and crops to Rome. During World War II, the British Army's Baggush Box was located to the east. Starting with the completion of an extension from the previous railhead at Fuka in February 1936,[2] Marsa Matrouh was the terminus for a single-track railway, which passed through El Alamein. Marsa Matrouh served as a vital British military base during World War II and was a major objective of Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps, which captured it during the Battle of Marsa Matrouh.

GeographyEdit

ClimateEdit

Marsa Matrouh has a hot desert climate (BWh) according to Köppen climate classification, but blowing winds from the Mediterranean Sea greatly moderate the temperatures, typical to the Egypt's north coast, making its summers moderately hot and humid while its winters mild and moderately wet when sleet and hail are also common. Summers are sunny and dry, while in the colder months, mainly in winters, there is some rain and cloud cover.

Marsa Matrouh and Port Said have the coolest summer days of any other cities or resorts, although not significantly cooler than other northern coastal places, additionally Rafah, Alexandria, Abu Qir, Rosetta, Baltim, Kafr el-Dawwar and Marsa Matrouh are the wettest in Egypt.


Climate data for Marsa Matrouh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 31.0
(87.8)
34.0
(93.2)
40.0
(104.0)
42.2
(108.0)
42.4
(108.3)
46.2
(115.2)
44.2
(111.6)
40.2
(104.4)
43.8
(110.8)
39.3
(102.7)
34.4
(93.9)
29.2
(84.6)
46.2
(115.2)
Average high °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
18.5
(65.3)
19.6
(67.3)
22.9
(73.2)
25.3
(77.5)
28.1
(82.6)
28.6
(83.5)
29.5
(85.1)
28.5
(83.3)
26.5
(79.7)
22.8
(73.0)
19.3
(66.7)
23.9
(75.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.5
(56.3)
15.1
(59.2)
17.6
(63.7)
20.2
(68.4)
23.4
(74.1)
25.0
(77.0)
25.5
(77.9)
24.3
(75.7)
21.6
(70.9)
17.9
(64.2)
14.4
(57.9)
19.3
(66.7)
Average low °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
8.9
(48.0)
10.4
(50.7)
12.5
(54.5)
15.1
(59.2)
18.6
(65.5)
20.7
(69.3)
21.2
(70.2)
19.9
(67.8)
17.2
(63.0)
13.5
(56.3)
10.4
(50.7)
14.8
(58.6)
Record low °C (°F) 1.0
(33.8)
2.5
(36.5)
1.0
(33.8)
1.8
(35.2)
7.2
(45.0)
9.8
(49.6)
11.6
(52.9)
16.1
(61.0)
10.0
(50.0)
4.8
(40.6)
6.0
(42.8)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.4)
19
(0.7)
11
(0.4)
3
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
2
(0.1)
0
(0)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
19
(0.7)
18
(0.7)
29
(1.1)
141
(5.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3.2 1.9 1.4 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.7 2.3 12.6
Average relative humidity (%) 71 69 68 66 73 73 75 73 71 70 68 69 70.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 196.3 214.5 254.1 269.1 316.7 355.4 371.9 356.3 309.2 268.2 222.2 196.6 3,330.5
Source #1: NOAA[3]
Source #2: Voodoo Skies (record temperatures)[4]

Another source shows more precipitation and stabler average temperatures.

Marsa Matrouh mean sea temperature[6]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
18 °C (64 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 18 °C (64 °F) 20 °C (68 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 26 °C (79 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 22 °C (72 °F) 20 °C (68 °F)

Main sightsEdit

  • Ruins of the Temple of the King, Pharaoh Ramesses II (1200 BC)
  • Drowned city of Caesar.
  • Drowned Palace of Cleopatra.
  • Egyptian Fleet Anchorage which was built by the Ptolemies. The remains of the naval installations still stand west of the port.
  • Coptic Chapel: built in the early Coptic age, it contains several caves bearing inscriptions.
  • Rommel's Hideout: A cave, hewn in the rock, where Rommel drew up plans of his military operations. It has now been turned into a military museum.
  • The British Cemetery: Thousands of rock-hewn tombstones stand in straight rows amidst a fenced garden.
  • The German Cemetery: It is a fortress like memorial that was built on a height overlooking the sea.
  • The Italian Cemetery: It is a high tower fort standing on a high hill. The walls of the building are covered with marble.

Main beachesEdit

  • Ageebah Beach: About 28 km west of Marsa Matrouh downtown, it is distinguished by its numerous natural cave
  • Al-Obayed Beach: About 20 km west of Marsa Matrouh downtown
  • Rommel Bay.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Paraetonium". catholicencyclopedia.newadvent.com. Retrieved 2019-01-15.
  2. ^ Playfair, Vol. I, page 3.
  3. ^ "Marsa Matrouh A Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  4. ^ "Marsa Matrouh Monthly Temperature weather history". Voodoo Skies. Retrieved 18 August 2015.[permanent dead link]
  5. ^ "Climate: Marsa Matrouh - Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  6. ^ "Marsa Matrouh Climate and Weather Averages, Egypt". Weather to Travel. Retrieved 13 July 2013.

External linksEdit

SourcesEdit

  • Playfair, Major-General I.S.O.; Molony, Brigadier C.J.C.; with Flynn, Captain F.C. (R.N.) & Gleave, Group Captain T.P. (2009) [1st. pub. HMSO:1954]. Butler, Sir James (ed.). The Mediterranean and Middle East, Volume I: The Early Successes Against Italy, to May 1941. History of the Second World War, United Kingdom Military Series. Uckfield, UK: Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84574-065-3.