Maxim Sergeyevich Martsinkevich (Russian: Макси́м Серге́евич Марцинке́вич, 8 May 1984 – 16 September 2020), better known as Tesak (Russian for Cleaver, Hatchet, Hand Axe, Machete), was a Russian neo-Nazi activist, media personality, vlogger, and the leader and co-founder of the Restruct movement which manifested in post-Soviet countries.
Maxim "Tesak" Martsinkevich
Максим "Тесак" Марцинкевич
|Died||16 September 2020 (aged 36)|
|Alma mater||Russian State Social University (Unfinished)|
|Known for||Leader of Russian neo-Nazi and anti-gay organizations|
|Criminal charge(s)||Incitement of racial or ethnic hatred; robbery, property destruction and hooliganism|
|Criminal penalty||Multiple terms, including 10 years in a strict regimen labor colony|
Tesak first gained public attention as a white power skinhead and the leader of the far-right youth group Format 18, which has been described as the "armed wing" of the National Socialist Society. There are numerous branches within Martsinkevich's Restruct movement, the most prominent of which is Occupy Pedophilia, stating that its goals are fighting pedophiles and spreading neo-nazi views among youth. Tesak's violent approach and targeting of gay males have been criticized, although his actions have led to the imprisonment of a highly ranked official within the Russian judicial system.
Martsinkevich received three prison sentences for inciting racial or ethnic hatred. Tesak was first indicted in 2007, after disrupting political debates by performing the Nazi salute and yelling "Sieg Heil!" at a book club in Moscow. In 2009, he was sentenced to three years for making a video with racist content. Martsinkevich's memories from this time in prison are expressed through his book Restruct. Following his release from prison, Tesak was unemployed, posted vlogs, and made a living by charging others for joining his "hunts for pedophiles" and for attending his lectures on life in prison, ways of shoplifting, as well as other subjects. In the autumn of 2013, Tesak was indicted again for releasing new videos featuring racist remarks. As a result, on 15 August 2014, he was sentenced to five years in prison. On 11 November 2014, the court reduced the sentence to two years and 10 months.
On 27 June 2017, the Babushkinsky district court of Moscow sentenced Martsinkevich to ten years in a strict regimen corrective labor colony for his involvement in attacks targeting synthetic cannabinoids dealers.
During his lifetime Martsinkevich indicated he was of Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, and Belarusian ancestry. His parents are Sergey Yevgenyevich Martsinkevich and Viktoriya Leonidovna Martsinkevich. As expressed in Tesak's first autobiographical audio book Destruct, his mother did not share her son's extremist views while his father was supportive. In a September 2012 interview, Martsinkevich said he was not married and he did not have children. According to a report in Meduza, a suicide note was discovered after Martsinkevich was found dead in his prison cell. The note was reported to have contained a request for officials give a private diary and a book on communism to Martsinkevich's wife in Yekaterinburg.
Martsinkevich was conscripted into the Russian Army, although he claimed that he was released after a few days, following a mental health evaluation caused by him having beaten up a fellow soldier of Azerbaijani ancestry. Tesak's nickname was related to his interest in knives. He graduated from a secondary vocational school for architecture and was expelled from the Russian State Social University. Martsinkevich said he had been employed as an engineer for three and a half years. He also sold videos and tried to sell music through his website.
Tesak was a member of the white power skinhead group "Russian Purpose" led by Semyon Tokmakov. Martsinkevich was also in the People's National Party until 2003. In 2005 he created the skinhead organization "Format 18". The number 18 is a code or euphemism for "Adolf Hitler", as the letter A is the first in the Latin alphabet and H is the eighth. Members of Format 18 have beaten Asian migrant workers and homeless people, filming the attacks, and releasing the videos through the Internet. Martsinkevich made fictional videos promoting hatred towards black people and antifascists. The Russian Reporter magazine published a story about one of the videos, in which "Martsinkevich shocks the public with his video of the execution of a "...Tajik drug dealer"...."hanged and dismembered by people dressed as members of the Ku-Klux-Klan"... "soon revealed as having been staged, and the flesh of the dismembered captive turned out to be beef". Martsinkevich and other members of Format 18 also appeared on the British television show Ross Kemp on Gangs: Russian neo-Nazis, as well as on Current TV's From Russia with Hate.
The organization maintained a website which was banned in 2007 after a complaint from one of the writers of for an antifascist website. A number of followers of Format 18 have also uploaded their own videos of humiliations and physical violence. The most recognized video of that kind has been described as the "execution of a Tajik and a Dagestanian", released in August 2007, at a time when Martsinkevich was already incarcerated. The Investigative Committee of Russia made a statement indicating that the executions shown in the videos have been verified as real.
Format 18 was banned for extremism by a Russian court order in September 2010.
Russia 88 filmEdit
Actions of the neo-Nazi organization Format 18 inspired Russian director Pavel Bardin to create the drama Russia 88 (2009). The movie is about a gang of skinheads who are entertained by filming their beatings of people of non-Slavic appearance, to be released on the Internet. One of the publicly available Format 18 videos called "Dacha History X" features an old woman (played by one of the skinheads) who hates black people and her grandson who buries them in the garden. A similar event takes place in the movie Russia 88. Among other similarities, the main character of the film is nicknamed Shtyk (Bayonet), and like Tesak, he takes a camera and films Russians when asking for their opinion on immigrants from the Caucasus and Asia.
On 28 January 2007, Martsinkevich and his friends visited the Bilingua book club in Moscow. At the time, it was used as a platform for the political debates involving journalists Yulia Latynina and Maxim Kononenko. Tesak asked if they agreed that in order for Russia to improve, every democrat needed to be killed, then shouted "Sieg!" and put his hand up in the Nazi salute, followed by his friends yelling "Heil!". The shouting continued for a few more minutes, with a number of the female attendees yelling "fascism will not pass!" in response. Kononenko suggested that they call the police, as performing Nazi salutes in public places was prohibited in Russia. The police were not called. Eventually, the host of the debates Alexey Navalny submitted a letter to the Russian public prosecutors' office.
On 2 July 2007, about 10 members of a Russian anti-extremist special forces unit arrested Martsinkevich at a gym he had used for training. On 18 February 2008, Tesak was sentenced to three years in prison for inciting ethnic or racial hatred (article 282 in Russia). The Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta published an opinion piece stating that investigators ignored the worst cases of this neo-Nazi's criminal activity, thus leading to the mild punishment.
In 2006, 20 people dressed as members of the Ku Klux Klan staged the execution of a Tajik drug dealer, filming and releasing it on the Internet. The organizers of the performance were Martsinkevich and Artyom Zuev. Zuev also provided the voice-over for the video.
For these acts, on 16 January 2009, Tesak was charged with inciting ethnic hatred and received a sentence of three years in prison. The court has given credit to the prisoner's good conduct and adjusted the sentence to three and a half years in prison starting from the first conviction. Artyom Zuev received a suspended sentence of three years.
Martsinkevich was released on 31 December 2010. Half a year later he attempted to join the Russian Opposition Coordination Council and was registered as a candidate for the elections but was subsequently disqualified for his neo-Nazi views and lack of opposition to the Russian government, with the latter partly related to his application fee having been paid by a member of the pro-government youth movement Nashi.
After getting out of prison Martsinkevich started the Occupy Pedophilia (Russian: Оккупай-педофиляй, romanized: Okkupay-pedofilyay) movement focused on beating up and humiliating males regarded as pedophiles. Members of the movement found victims through the Internet, posed as male minors, and went on a date. Then a group of people met the alleged pedophile and humiliated him, sometimes pouring urine over his head, while filming it for release online.
In September 2013, the media began to report on one of Tesak's videos recorded in an apartment in Moscow, resulting in the arrest of Andrey Kaminov, ex-deputy chief of the Federal Bailiffs' Service of the Moscow region. Kaminov was charged with committing obscene sexual acts towards a minor.
Martsinkevich described Occupy Pedophilia as "a social project aimed at promoting National Socialism, exposing the essence of liberal views and attracting society's attention to this issue. He charged people a set amount of money for participating in the "hunts for pedophiles", often described as a "safari" by the members of the movement.
Activists of the movement and Tesak in particular were criticized by the media for vigilantism, violence, and connections to another branch of Martsinkevich's Restruct movement called Occupy Gerontophilia (Russian: Оккупай-геронтофиляй), which targeted young males allegedly interested in dates with older same-sex partners. Actions of members of both of the branches have also been described as campaigns against LGBT people, with one Occupy Pedophilia local group leader saying that "practically all gay men [are] pedophiles".
In December 2013, he was convicted In absentia for extremism based on a court decision in Moscow. The reason was the publication of three YouTube videos featuring Tesak. Two of the videos were his reviews of the Russian movies Stalingrad and Okolofutbola (Kicking Off), with racist remarks, while the third video criticized all the candidates of the Moscow mayoral elections and suggested removing immigrants as a means of improving the city. Videos related to the "Occupy pedophilia" movement have also been investigated. Martsinkevich said that the indictment was ordered by the "pedo lobby" seeking revenge, mentioning the official Andrey Kaminov he caught during a date with a minor organized by Maxim.
Tesak was arrested in Cuba on 17 January 2014. On 27 January 2014, he was handcuffed and deported from Havana to Moscow for overstaying, then arrested by Russian authorities. On 29 January, Martsinkevich was indicted in person.
A Moscow court began hearing the case on 30 July 2014. Martsinkevich was charged with inciting ethnic hatred with the threat of violence (part 2 of the article 282 of the criminal code in Russia). The prosecution argued that the defendant has shown three videos with extremist content and psychological threats made by Martsinkevich on his personal page on the social network Vkontakte. The court agreed and, on 15 August 2014, sentenced Martsinkevich to five years in a penal colony with a strict regimen. On 11 November 2014, the prisoner's lawyers appealed the decision and the court reduced the sentence to two years and ten months.
On 18 March 2015, it was reported that Martsinkevich had been charged with robbery and hooliganism. His lawyer said that the charges were related to Tesak's activities against smoking blends dealers. The case was heard at the Babushkinsky District Court in November 2016, with Marsinkevich pleading not guilty. The prosecutor asked for 11 years and 6 months of confinement in a strict regimen corrective labor colony. Tesak was found guilty of the attacks - one having resulted in death, and on 27 June 2017, judge Alexander Glukhov sentenced Martsinkevich to 10 years in a strict regimen labor colony, beginning on 27 January 2014. One other attacker received 10 years, while the others have received 3 to 5.
On 21 May 2018, it was reported that the Moscow City Court has overturned the 27 June 2017 conviction and requested another hearing, while leaving Martsinkevich incarcerated. In December 2018, the Babushkinsky District Court again sentenced Martsinkevich to 10 years in a strict regimen labor colony. Martsinkevich filed an appeal. He was serving out the sentence in Matrosskaya Tishina.
Other legal troublesEdit
In February 2013, Tesak was in Minsk, Belarus to get a laser vision correction. During the visit, he entered into a fight with a group of anti-fascist football fans of FC Partizan, resulting in him getting arrested by the police on the suspicion of hooliganism. He was soon released with no charges pressed.
One of Martsinkevich's lawyers made a public statement in October 2014, saying that his client was recently charged with hooliganism for cutting off a man's hair.
In November 2014, Tesak was charged with inciting ethnic hatred for writing and publishing his book Restruct, which has been classified as extremist.
On 16 September 2020, Martsinkevich was found dead with signs of torture in a pre-trial detention centre in the Chelyabinsk region, reportedly from taking his own life. Investigators launched a preliminary inquiry into his mysterious death, the cameras didn't work that night. He had been due to travel to Moscow for questioning as part of a criminal case originating from 1999. He was 36. A funeral of Martsinkevich at Kuntsevo Cemetery in Moscow was attended by estimated 2 to 4.5 thousand people. The official explanation of his death as a suicide was contested by his attorney Matvey Dzen and by multiple commentators both friendly and hostile to the departed.
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