Alexei Anatolievich Navalny (Russian: Алексе́й Анато́льевич Нава́льный, Russian pronunciation: [ɐlʲɪkˈsʲej ɐnɐˈtolʲjɪvʲɪtɕ nɐˈvalʲnɨj]; born 4 June 1976) is a Russian lawyer and political activist. A regular participant in Russian March, since 2009, he has gained prominence in Russia, and in the Russian and international media, as a critic of corruption and of Russian President Vladimir Putin. He has organized demonstrations promoting reform and attacking political corruption, Putin and Putin's political allies; he has run for a political office on the same platform. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal described him as "the man Vladimir Putin fears most".
|Leader of Russia of the Future|
|Assumed office |
28 March 2019
|Preceded by||Himself (as leader of Progress Party)|
|Leader of Progress Party|
17 November 2013 – 19 May 2018
Alexei Anatolievich Navalny
4 June 1976
Butyn, Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||Russia of the Future (since 2018)|
|Progress Party (2013–18)|
|Alma mater||Peoples' Friendship University of Russia|
Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation
|Occupation||Lawyer, activist, politician|
|Known for||Leader of the Progress Party|
Barred 2018 run for presidency
|Awards||Yale World Fellow (2010)|
A self-described nationalist democrat, Navalny is a Russian Opposition Coordination Council member and the leader of the political party Progress Party. In September 2013, he ran in the Moscow mayoral election, supported by the RPR-PARNAS party. He came in second, with 27% of the vote, losing to incumbent mayor Sergei Sobyanin, a Putin appointee. Navalny and his allies insisted that the actual number was still higher and that authorities had committed election fraud in order to prevent a runoff election from taking place.
Navalny came to prominence via his blog hosted by LiveJournal, but later switched to YouTube where he has 2.9 million subscribers and Twitter where he has more than 2.1 million followers. He has used his blog, YouTube and Twitter channels to publish videos and documents about corruption by Russian state officials, to organize political demonstrations, and to promote his campaigns for office. He has also been active in other media: most notably, in a 2011 radio interview he described Russia's ruling party, United Russia, as a "party of crooks and thieves", which soon became a popular epithet. He created the Anti-Corruption Foundation in 2011.
Navalny has been arrested many times by Russian authorities. He received two suspended sentences for alleged embezzlement in two separate cases, one in July 2013, and another in December 2014, for five-year and 3.5-year terms of imprisonment, respectively. Both cases are considered to be fabrications in retaliation for his political activity and violated Navalny's right to a fair trial, according to rulings by the European Court of Human Rights. The Memorial Human Rights Center considered Navalny as a political prisoner. In February 2014, Navalny was placed under house arrest and restricted from communicating with anyone but his family.
In March 2017, Alexei Navalny and his Anti-Corruption Foundation created a documentary He Is Not Dimon to You, accusing Dmitry Medvedev, the prime minister and former president of Russia, of corruption.
In December 2016, Navalny started his campaign to run for President of Russia during the 2018 election, but was barred by Russia's Central Electoral Commission in December 2017 and the Supreme Court of Russia rejected his appeal and upheld the ban. He and his supporters have been arrested and become victims of attacks on numerous occasions during the campaign. In May 2018, he was sentenced to 30 days in prison after being arrested for attending an unsanctioned protest against Putin in Moscow; he condemned the verdict.
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 Anti-corruption investigations
- 3 Political activity
- 4 Criminal cases
- 5 Political views
- 6 Reception
- 7 Family
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early life and careerEdit
Navalny is of Russian and Ukrainian descent. His father is from Zalissia, a village near the border of Belarus in Ivankiv Raion, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. Navalny grew up in Obninsk about 100 km southwest of Moscow, but spent his childhood summers with his grandmother in Ukraine. His parents, Anatoly Navalny and Lyudmila Navalnaya, own a basket-weaving factory in the village of Kobyakovo, Moscow Oblast, which they have run since 1994.
Navalny graduated from the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 1998 with a law degree. He then studied securities and exchanges at the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation. Navalny received a scholarship to the Yale World Fellows program at Yale University in 2010.
In 2008, Navalny spent around 300,000 rubles on stocks of five oil and gas companies: Rosneft, Gazprom, Gazprom Neft, Lukoil, and Surgutneftegaz, thus becoming an activist shareholder. As such, he began to aim at making the financial properties of these companies transparent. This is required by law, but there are allegations that some of the top managers of these companies are involved in thefts and are obscuring transparency. Other activities deal with wrongdoings by Russian police, such as Sergei Magnitsky's case, improper usage of state's budget funds, quality of state services and so on.
In November 2010, Navalny published confidential documents about Transneft's auditing. According to Navalny's blog, about $4 billion were stolen by Transneft's leaders during the construction of the Eastern Siberia – Pacific Ocean oil pipeline.
In December 2010, Navalny announced the launch of the RosPil project, which seeks to bring to light corrupt practices in the government procurement process. The project takes advantage of existing procurement regulation that requires all government requests for tender to be posted online. Information about winning bids must be posted online as well. The name RosPil is a pun on the slang term "raspil" (wikt:ru:распил) for a corruption practice of appropriating the money allocated from the state budget.
In May 2011, Navalny launched RosYama (literally "Russian Hole"), a project that allowed individuals to report potholes and track government responses to complaints.
In August 2011, Navalny publicized papers related to a scandalous real estate deal between Hungarian and Russian governments. According to the papers, Hungary sold a former embassy building in Moscow for US$21 million to an offshore company of Viktor Vekselberg, who immediately resold it to the Russian government for $111 million. Irregularities in the paper trail implied a collusion. Three Hungarian officials responsible for the deal were detained in February 2011. It is unclear whether any official investigation was conducted on the Russian side.
In May 2012, Navalny accused Deputy Prime Minister Igor Shuvalov of corruption, stating that companies owned by Roman Abramovich and Alisher Usmanov had transferred tens of millions of dollars to Shuvalov's company, allowing Shuvalov to share in the profit from Usmanov's purchase of the British steel company Corus. Navalny posted scans of documents to his blog showing the money transfers. Usmanov and Shuvalov stated the documents Navalny had posted were legitimate, but that the transaction had not represented a violation of Russian law. Shuvalov stated, "I unswervingly followed the rules and principles of conflict of interest. For a lawyer, this is sacred".
In July 2012, Navalny posted documents on his blog allegedly showing that Alexander Bastrykin, head of the Investigative Committee of Russia, owned an undeclared business in the Czech Republic. The posting was described by the Financial Times as Navalny's "answering shot" for having had his emails leaked during his arrest in the previous month.
In March 2017, Navalny launched the campaign "He Is Not Dimon To You", accusing Dmitry Medvedev, the Prime Minister, of corruption. The authorities either ignored the report produced by Navalny, or commented that the report was issued by a "convicted criminal" and is not worth commenting on. On 26 March, Navalny organized a series of anti-corruption rallies in different cities across Russia. In some cities, the rallies were sanctioned by the authorities, but in others, including Moscow and Saint Petersburg, they were not allowed. The Moscow police said that 500 people had been detained, but according to the human rights group OVD-Info, 1,030 people were detained in Moscow alone, including Navalny himself. On 27 March, he was fined 20,000 rubles minimum for organizing an illegal protest, and jailed for 15 days for resisting arrest.
In 2000, following the announcement of a new law that would raise the electoral threshold for State Duma elections, Navalny joined the Russian United Democratic Party Yabloko. According to Navalny, the law was stacked against Yabloko and Union of Right Forces, and he decided to join, even though he was not "a big fan" of either organization. In 2001, he was listed as a member of the party. In 2002, he was elected to the regional council of the Moscow branch of Yabloko. In 2003, he headed the Moscow subdivision of the election campaign of the party for the parliamentary election held in December. In April 2004, Navalny became Chief of staff of the Moscow branch of Yabloko, which he remained until February 2007. In 2004, he also became Deputy Chief of the Moscow branch of the party. From 2006 to 2007, he was a member of the Federal Council of the party.
In August 2005, Navalny was incorporated into Social Council of Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow, created prior to the Moscow City Duma election held later that year, in which he took part as a candidate. In November, he was one of the initiators of Youth Public Chamber, intended to help younger politicians take part in legislative initiatives.
At the same time, in 2005, Navalny started another youth social movement, named "DA! – Democratic Alternative".[note 1] The project was not connected to Yabloko (nor any other political party). Within the movement, Navalny participated in a number of projects. In particular, he was one of the organizers of the movement-run political debates, which soon got resonance in media. Navalny also organized television debates via state-run Moscow channel TV Center; two initial episodes showed high ratings, but the show was suddenly canceled. According to Navalny, authorities prohibited some people from receiving TV coverage.
In late 2006, Navalny appealed to the Moscow City Hall, asking to grant the permission to conduct the nationalist 2006 Russian March. He, however, added that Yabloko condemned "any ethnic or racial hatred and any xenophobia" and called on police to oppose "any Fascist, Nazi, xenophobic manifestations".[note 2] Navalny was an observer during the organizing committee meetings; he was named as an organizer for the march in media, which he denied.
In July 2007, Navalny resigned from the post of Deputy Chief of the Moscow branch of the party. By then, he had founded a nationalist movement, "The People" (see below). During a party council in December 2007, Navalny publicly demanded "the immediate resignation of party chairman and all his deputies, and the re-election of at least 70% of the Bureau". He was consequently expelled from Yabloko "for causing political damage to the party; in particular, for nationalist activities". Navalny declared the actual rationale behind his exclusion was his demand of resignation by Grigory Yavlinsky, who was the leader of the party at the moment.
"The People" movementEdit
On 23 June 2007, Navalny co-founded a new political movement, named "The People", which upheld the positions of "democratic nationalism", defined as a fight for democracy and the rights of ethnic Russians; according to a Navalny's biographer, Navalny differentiates the ethnic and social aspects of the term, highlighting the latter. (In Russian, "nation" is commonly defined as a social term, while "nationality" is seen as related to ethnicity.)
In June 2008, the movement joined forces with two other Russian nationalist movements, Movement Against Illegal Immigration (MAII) and Great Russia, to form a new coalition, Russian National Movement. Navalny declared the movement would participate in the next parliamentary elections, planning to get a great share of votes; he added, "up to 60% of the population upholds spontaneous nationalism, but it is not legally effectuated". Later the same month, the MAII and The People signed a cooperation agreement; at the procedure, he defined the "new political nationalism" as democratic, "fundamentally and statistically", adding, "we can teach blatant liberals a thing or two". He also declared he wanted to distance the coalition from the skinheads, calling for close collaboration with the leftists and the liberals for fair elections the coalition "would win", and demanded political liberalization and early parliamentary elections in Russia.
In 2011, Navalny admitted the movement "The People" did not establish itself as a working structure.
Involvement in 2011 parliamentary election and 2011–13 Russian protestsEdit
In December 2011, after parliamentary elections and accusations of electoral fraud, around 6,000 people gathered in Moscow to protest over the contested result, and some 300 were arrested including Navalny. After a period of uncertainty, Navalny was produced at court and thereafter sentenced to the maximum 15 days "for defying a government official". Alexei Venediktov, editor-in-chief of Echo of Moscow radio station, called the arrest "a political mistake: jailing Navalny transforms him from an online leader into an offline one". Navalny was kept in the same prison as several other activists, including Ilya Yashin and Sergei Udaltsov, the unofficial leader of the Vanguard of Red Youth, a radical Russian communist youth group. Udaltsov has gone on hunger strike to protest against the conditions.
Navalny was arrested on 5 December, convicted and sentenced to 15 days in jail. Since his arrest, his blog has become available in English.
Navalny told reporters on his release that it would be senseless for him to run in the presidential elections because the Kremlin would not allow them to be fair. But he said that if free elections were held, he would "be ready" to run. On 24 December, he helped lead a demonstration much larger than the post-election one (50,000 strong, in one Western-media account[who?]), telling to the crowd, "I see enough people to take the Kremlin right now".
In March 2012, after Putin was elected president, Navalny helped lead an anti-Putin rally in Moscow's Pushkin Square, attended by between 14,000 and 20,000 people. After the rally, Navalny was detained by authorities for several hours, then released.
On 8 May, the day after Putin was inaugurated, Navalny and Udaltsov were arrested after an anti-Putin rally at Clean Ponds, and were each given 15-day jail sentences. Amnesty International designated the two men prisoners of conscience. On 11 June, Moscow prosecutors conducted a 12-hour search of Navalny's home, office and a search of the apartment of one of Navalny's relatives. The searches were undertaken, according to the RT television network, as part of a broader investigation into the clashes between opposition activists and riot police that happened on 6 May. Soon afterwards, some of Navalny's personal emails were posted online by a pro-government blogger.
On 26 June 2012, it was announced Navalny's comrades would establish a new political party based on e-democracy; Navalny declared he did not plan to participate in this project at the moment. On 31 July, they filed a document to register an organizing committee of the future party; the party was named "The People's Alliance". The party was declared to be centrist; one of the then-current leaders of the party and Navalny's ally Vladimir Ashurkov explained this was intended to help the party get a large share of voters. However, at the moment, the party did not have a comprehensive ideology. The party would limit the number of its members to 500. Navalny said the concept of political parties was "outdated", and added his participation would make maintaining the party more difficult. However, he "blessed" the party and discussed its maintenance with its leaders. They, in turn, stated they wanted to eventually see Navalny as a member of the party. The party planned to use the activity of its members in media and the Internet as a massive advantage. Ashurkov said he expected the party to get an official registration during spring 2013.
On 15 December 2012, the party held its founding congress; Navalny expressed support to the party, saying, "The People's Alliance is my party", but again refused to join it, citing the criminal cases against him. The party announced it planned reforms on judiciary and law enforcements, a partial transition of presidential powers to the parliament, and limiting migration into the country. On 10 April 2013, the party filed documents for the official registration of the party. On 30 April, the registration of the party was suspended. The party held the second congress to correct the violations proclaimed by the Ministry of Justice. On 5 July, the party was declined registration; according to Izvestia, not all founders of the party were present during the congress, even though the papers were signed by their autographs. Navalny reacted to that with a tweet saying, "[...] A salvo of all guns". (On the same day, he also spoke his last words before the Kirovles trial.) Following the mayoral election, on 15 September, Navalny declared he would join and, possibly, head the party. On 17 November, the party held another founding congress; Navalny was elected as the leader of the party.
In November 2013, registered party "Homeland" led by Andrei Bogdanov changed its name to "The People's Alliance"; on 30 November, Ministry of Justice recognized the renaming as legal. On 8 January 2014, Navalny's party filed documents for registration for the second time. On 20 January, registration of the party was suspended; according to Russian laws, no two parties can share a name. On 8 February 2014, Navalny's party changed its name to "Progress Party". On 25 February, the party was registered. At that moment it had six months to register regional branches in at least in half the federal subjects of Russia; the time period could be prolonged if the party was appealing from a court judgment of denial of registration of a branch in at least one subject.[note 3] According to Dmitri Krainev, member of the main board of the party, the party had 15 registered regional branches on 22 August, and the party informed the Ministry of Justice the term would be prolonged, citing suspension of registration or trials regarding registration of regional branches. On 24 September, it informed the ministry about another prolongation of the term. On 26 September, the party declared it registered 43 regional branches. An unnamed source of Izvestia in the ministry said registrations completed after the six-months term would not be taken in consideration, adding, "Yes, trials are taking place in some regions [...] they cannot register new branches in other regions during the trials, because the main term is over". Navalny's blog countered, "Our answer is simple. A six-month term for registration has been legally prolonged ad interim prosecution of appeals of denials and registration suspensions".
On 2 October 2014, the party filed documents of registration of 44 regional branches; according to Krainev, from that moment, the party should have been added to the list of structures eligible for participation in elections. The party tried to appoint candidates for municipal elections in two towns in Moscow Oblast, but was rejected the right to do so, because it was not added to the said list. After that, the party tried to challenge the non-inclusion in the list in courts; however, the standing has been supported by every next court the party addressed, with the latest being Moscow City Court on 30 March 2015. On 1 February, the party held a convention, where Navalny stated the party was preparing for the 2016 elections, declaring the party would maintain its activity across Russia, saying, "We are unabashed to work in remote lands where the opposition does not work. We can even [work] in Crimea". The candidates the party would appoint were to be chosen via primary elections; however, he added, party's candidates may be removed from elections. On 17 April, the party initiated a coalition of democratic parties.
On 28 April 2015, the party was deprived of registration by the Ministry of Justice, which stated the party had not registered the required number of regional branches within six months after the official registration. Krainev claimed the party could be only eliminated by the Supreme Court, and he added not all trials of registration of regional branches were over, calling the verdict "illegal twice". He added, the party would refer to the European Court of Human Rights, and expressed confidence the party would be restored and admitted to elections. The next day, the party officially challenged the verdict.
Moscow mayoral candidacyEdit
On 30 May 2013, Sergey Sobyanin, the mayor of Moscow, argued an elected mayor is an advantage for the city compared to an appointed one, and on 4 June, he announced he would meet the President Vladimir Putin and ask him for a snap election, mentioning the Muscovites would agree the governor elections should take place in the city of Moscow and the surrounding Moscow Oblast simultaneously. On 6 June, the request was granted, and the next day, the Moscow City Duma appointed the election on 8 September, the national voting day.
On 3 June, Navalny announced he would run for the post. To become an official candidate, he would need either seventy thousand signatures of Muscovites or to be pegged for the office by a registered party, and then to collect 110 signatures of municipal deputies from 110 different subdivisions (three quarters of Moscow's 146). Navalny chose to be pegged by a party, RPR-PARNAS (which did peg him, but this move sharpened relations within the party; after one of its three co-chairmen and the original founder, Vladimir Ryzhkov, had left the party, he said this had been one of the signs the party was "being stolen from him"). Among the six candidates who were officially registered as such, only two (Sobyanin and Communist Ivan Melnikov) were able to collect the required number of the signatures themselves, and the other four were given a number of signatures by the Council of Municipal Formations, following a recommendation by Sobyanin, to overcome the requirement (Navalny accepted 49 signatures, and other candidates accepted 70, 70, and 82).
On 17 July, Navalny was registered as one of the six candidates for the Moscow mayoral election. However, on 18 July, he was sentenced for a five-year prison term for the embezzlement and fraud charges that were declared in 2012. Several hours after his sentencing, he pulled out of the race and called for a boycott of the election. However, later that day, the prosecution office requested the accused should be freed on bail and travel restrictions, since the verdict had not yet taken legal effect, saying they had previously followed the restrictions, Navalny was a mayoral candidate, and an imprisonment would thus not comply with his rule for equal access to the electorate. On his return to Moscow after being freed pending an appeal, he vowed to stay in the race. The Washington Post has speculated that his release was ordered by the Kremlin in order to make the election and Sobyanin appear more legitimate.
|29 August–2 September||60.1%||21.9%|||
|27 June–3 July||77.9%||10.8%|||
Navalny's campaign was based mainly on fundraising: out of 103.4 million rubles (approximately $3.09 million as of the election day[rates 1]), the total size of his electoral fund, 97.3 million ($2.91 million) were transferred by individuals throughout Russia; such a number is unprecedented in Russia. It achieved a high profile through an unprecedentedly large campaign organization that involved around 20,000 volunteers who passed out leaflets and hung banners, as well as several campaign rallies a day around the city; they were the main driving force for the campaign. The New Yorker described the resulted campaign as "a miracle", along with Navalny's release on 19 July, the fundraising campaign, and the personality of Navalny himself. The campaign received very little television coverage and did not utilize billboards. Thanks to Navalny's strong campaign (and Sobyanin's weak one), his result grew over time, weakening Sobyanin's, and in the end of the campaign, he declared the runoff election (to be conducted if none of the candidates receives at least 50% of votes) was "a hair's breadth away".
The largest sociological companies predicted (Levada Center was the only one not to have made any predictions; the data it had on 28 August, however, falls in line with other companies') Sobyanin would win the election, scoring 58% to 64% of the vote; they expected Navalny to receive 15–20% of the vote, and the turnout was to be 45–52%. The final results of the voting showed Navalny received 27.24% of the vote, more than candidates appointed by the parties that received second, third, fourth, and fifth highest results during the 2011 parliamentary elections, altogether. Navalny fared better in the center and southwest of Moscow, which have higher income and education levels. However, Sobyanin received 51.37% of the vote, which meant he won the election. The turnout was 32.03%. The companies explained the differences arose from the fact Sobyanin's electorate did not vote, feeling their candidate was guaranteed to win. Navalny's campaign office's measures predicted Sobyanin would score 49–51%, and Navalny would get 24–26% of votes.
Many experts said the election had been fair, that the number of irregularities had been much lower than those of other elections held within the country, and that the irregularities had had little effect on the result. Dmitri Abyzalov, leading expert of Center of Political Conjuncture, added low turnout figures provide a further sign of fairness of the election, because that shows they were not overestimated. However, according to Andrei Buzin, co-chairman of the GOLOS Association, State Departments of Social Security added people who did not originally want to vote to lists of those who would vote at home, with the number of such voters being 4.5% of those who voted, and added this did cause questions if Sobyanin would score 50% if this did not take place. Dmitry Oreshkin, leader of the "People's election commission" project (who did a separate counting based on the data from election observers; their result for Sobyanin was 49.7%), said now that the runoff election was only 1.5% away, all details would be looked at very closely, and added it was impossible to prove "anything" juridically.
On 9 September, the day following the election, Navalny publicly denounced the tally, saying, "We do not recognize the results. They are fake". Sobyanin's office rejected an offer of a vote recount. On 12 September, Navalny addressed the Moscow City Court to overturn the result of the poll; the court rejected the assertion. Navalny then challenged the decision in the Supreme Court of Russia, but the court ruled that the election results were legitimate.
RPR-PARNAS and democratic coalitionEdit
Following the mayoral election, Navalny was offered a position of a fourth co-chairman of RPR-PARNAS. However, Navalny made no public reaction.
In early 2014, Russia's political landscape changed dramatically: Following the Euromaidan demonstrations and civil unrest in Kiev, which resulted in establishment of a new pro-EU president and government, a countering wave of protests and civil unrest started in Southern and Eastern Ukraine, and in Crimea, a "volunteer force of self-defense of Crimea" announced a referendum, the question for which eventually was, whether Crimea should join the Russian Federation or not. (Later, Putin publicly declared the self-defense forces were composed of Russian military.) Following the referendum, Crimea de facto became a part of Russia. The sociological center marked the fact Putin's rating was skyrocketing: it was just 29% (among all respondents, including those who were unsure or would not vote) in January 2014, but rose to 49% in April 2014, a figure that would transform to 81% if those who were unsure or not willing to vote were excluded.
On 14 November 2014, the two remaining RPR-PARNAS co-chairmen, Boris Nemtsov and former Prime Minister of Russia Mikhail Kasyanov, declared it was the right moment to create a wide coalition of political forces, who favor the "European choice"; Navalny's Progress Party was seen as one of the potential participants. However, on 27 February 2015, Nemtsov was shot dead. Prior to his assassination, Nemtsov worked on a project of a coalition (in which Navalny and Khodorkovsky would become co-chairmen of RPR-PARNAS; Navalny declared merging parties would invoke bureaucratic difficulties and question the legitimacy of party's right to participate in federal elections without signatures collecting); the murder accelerated the work, and on 17 April, Navalny declared a wide discussion had taken place among Progress Party, RPR-PARNAS, and other closely aligned parties, which resulted in an agreement of formation of a new electoral bloc between the two leaders. Soon thereafter, it was signed by four other parties and supported by Khodorkovsky's Open Russia foundation. Electoral blocs are not present within the current law system of Russia, so it would be realized via means of a single party, RPR-PARNAS, which is not only eligible for participation in statewide elections, but is also currently not required to collect citizens' signatures for the right to participate in the State Duma elections scheduled for September 2016 thanks to the regional parliament mandate previously taken by Nemtsov. The candidates RPR-PARNAS would appoint were to be chosen via primary elections.
The coalition claimed to have collected enough citizens' signatures for registration in the four regions it originally aimed for. However, in one region, the coalition would declare some signatures and personal data have been altered by malevolent collectors; signatures in the other regions have been rejected by regional election commissions. Сomplaints have been issued to the Central Election Commission of Russia, after which the coalition has been registered as a participant in a regional election in one of the three contested regions, Kostroma Oblast. According to a source of Gazeta.ru "close to the Kremlin", the presidential administration saw coalition's chances as very low, yet was wary, but the restoration in one region occurred so PARNAS could "score a consolation goal". According to the official election results, the coalition scored 2.28% of votes, not enough to overcome the 5% threshold; the party admitted the election was lost.
Presidential election 2018Edit
On 8 February 2017, the Leninsky district court of Kirov repeated its sentence of 2013 (which was previously annulled after the decision of ECHR, which ruled that Russia had violated Navalny's right for a fair trial, see the Kirovles case) and charged him with a five-year suspended sentence. This sentence, if it comes into force and remains valid, might prohibit the future official registration of Navalny as a candidate. Navalny announced that he will pursue the annulment of the sentence that clearly contradicts the decision of ECHR. Moreover, Navalny announced that his presidential campaign will proceed independently of courts decisions. He referred to the Russian Constitution (Article 32), which deprives only two groups of citizens of the right to be elected: those recognized by court as legally unfit and those kept in places of confinement by a court sentence. According to The Economist, Navalny was the "chief threat to Vladimir Putin" in the 2018 election.
On 26 March 2017, Navalny organized a series of anti-corruption rallies in different cities across Russia. This appeal was responded to by the representatives of 95 Russian cities, and four cities abroad: London, Prague, Basel and Bonn.
On 27 April 2017, Navalny was attacked by unknown assailants outside his office in the Anti-Corruption Foundation. They sprayed a mixture of brilliant green, possibly with other components into his face (see Zelyonka attack). He reportedly lost 80 percent of the sight in his right eye. Navalny accused the Kremlin of orchestrating the attack.
On 7 July 2017, he was released from jail after spending 25 days of imprisonment. Before that, he was arrested in Moscow for participating in protests and was sentenced to 30 days in jail for organizing illegal protests.
On 6 September 2017, Human Rights Watch accused Russian police with systematic interference with Navalny's presidential campaign. "The pattern of harassment and intimidation against Navalny's campaign is undeniable," said Hugh Williamson, Europe and Central Asia director at Human Rights Watch. "Russian authorities should let Navalny's campaigners work without undue interference and properly investigate attacks against them by ultra-nationalists and pro-government groups."
On 21 September 2017, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe invited Russian authorities, in connection with the Kirovles case, "to use urgently further avenues to erase the prohibition on Mr Navalnyy's standing for election".
On 2 October 2017, Navalny was sentenced to 20 days in jail for calls to participate in protests without approval from state authorities.
In December 2017, Russia's Central Electoral Commission barred Navalny from running for President in 2018, citing Navalny's corruption conviction. The European Union said Navalny's removal cast "serious doubt" on the election. Navalny called for a boycott of the 2018 presidential election, stating his removal meant that millions of Russians were being denied their vote.
Navalny led protests on 28 January 2018 to urge a boycott of Russia's 2018 presidential election. Navalny was arrested on the day of the protest and then released the same day, pending trial. OVD-Info reported that 257 people were arrested throughout the country. According to Russian news reports, police stated Navalny was likely to be charged with calling unauthorized demonstrations. Two of Navalny's associates were given brief jail terms for urging people to attend unsanctioned opposition rallies. Navalny stated on 5 February 2018 the government was accusing Navalny of assaulting an officer during the protests. Navalny was among 1600 people detained during 5 May protests prior to Putin's inauguration; Navalny was charged with disobeying police. On 15 May, he was sentenced to 30 days in jail. Immediately after his release on 25 September 2018, he was arrested and convicted for organising illegal demonstrations and sentenced to another 20 days in jail.
Moscow City Duma elections 2019Edit
During the 2019 Moscow City Duma election Navalny supported independent candidates, most of whom were not allowed to participate in the elections, which led to mass street protests. In July 2019, Navalny was arrested, first for ten days, and then, almost immediately, for 30 days. On the evening of 28 July, he was hospitalized with severe damage to his eyes and skin. At the hospital, he was diagnosed with an "allergy," although this diagnosis was disputed by Anastasia Vasilieva, an ophthalmologist who previously treated Navalny after a chemical attack by an alleged protester in 2017. Vasilieva questioned the diagnosis and suggested the possibility that Navalny's condition was the result of "the damaging effects of undetermined chemicals". On 29 July 2019, Navalny was discharged from hospital and taken back to prison, despite the objections of his personal physician who questioned the hospital's motives. Supporters of Navalny and journalists near the hospital were attacked by the police and many were detained.
On 30 July 2012, the Investigative Committee charged Navalny with embezzlement. The committee stated that he had conspired to steal timber from Kirovles, a state-owned company in Kirov Oblast, in 2009, while acting as an adviser to Kirov's governor Nikita Belykh. Investigators had closed a previous probe into the claims for lack of evidence. Navalny was released on his own recognizance but instructed not to leave Moscow.
Navalny described the charges as "weird" and unfounded. He stated that authorities "are doing it to watch the reaction of the protest movement and of Western public opinion [...] So far they consider both of these things acceptable and so they are continuing along this line". His supporters protested before the Investigative Committee offices.
In April 2013, Loeb&Loeb LLP issued "An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny", a paper detailing Investigative Committee accusations. The paper concludes that "the Kremlin has reverted to misuse of the Russian legal system to harass, isolate and attempt to silence political opponents".
Conviction and releaseEdit
The Kirovles trial commenced in the city of Kirov on 17 April 2013. On 18 July, Navalny was sentenced to five years in jail for embezzlement. He was found guilty of misappropriating about 16 million rubles ($500,000) worth of lumber from a state-owned company. The sentence read by the judge Sergey Blinov was textually the same as the request of the prosecutor, with the only exception that Navalny was given five years, and the prosecution requested six years.
Later that evening, the Prosecutor's Office appealed Navalny and Ofitserov jail sentences, arguing that until the higher court affirmed the sentence, the sentence was invalid. The next morning, the appeal was granted. Navalny and Ofitserov were released on 19 July, awaiting the hearings of the higher court. The prosecutor's requested decision was described as "unprecedented" by experts.[who?]
The prison sentence was suspended by a court in Kirov in 16 October 2013, still being a burden for his political future.
Review of the sentenceEdit
On 23 February 2016, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Russia had violated Navalny's right to a fair trial, and ordered the government to pay him 56,000 euros in legal costs and damages.
On 8 February 2017, the Leninsky district court of Kirov repeated its sentence of 2013 and charged Navalny with a five-year suspended sentence. Navalny announced that he will pursue the annulment of the sentence that clearly contradicts the decision of ECHR.
Yves Rocher case and home arrestEdit
In 2008, Oleg Navalny made an offer to Yves Rocher Vostok, the Eastern European subsidiary of Yves Rocher between 2008 and 2012, to accredit Glavpodpiska, which was created by Navalny, with delivering duties. On 5 August, the parties signed a contract. To fulfill the obligations under the agreement, Glavpodpiska outsourced the task to sub-suppliers, AvtoSAGA and Multiprofile Processing Company (MPC). In November and December 2012, the Investigating Committee interrogated and questioned Yves Rocher Vostok. On 10 December, Bruno Leproux, general director of Yves Rocher Vostok, filed to the Investigative Committee, asking to investigate if the Glavpodpiska subscription company had damaged Yves Rocher Vostok, and the Investigative Committee initiated a case.
The prosecution claimed Glavpodpiska embezzled money by taking duties and then redistributing them to other companies for lesser amounts of money, and collecting the surplus: 26.7 million rubles ($540,000) from Yves Rocher Vostok, and 4.4 million rubles from the MPC. The funds were claimed to be subsequently legalized by transferring them on fictitious grounds from a fly-by-night company to Kobyakovskaya Fabrika Po Lozopleteniyu, a willow weaving company founded by Navalny and operated by his parents. Navalnys denied the charges. The brothers' lawyers claimed, the investigators "added phrases like 'bearing criminal intentions' to a description of regular entrepreneurial activity". According to Oleg Navalny's lawyer, Glavpodpiska did not just collect money, it controlled provision of means of transport, execution of orders, collected and expedited production to the carriers, and was responsible before clients for terms and quality of executing orders.
Yves Rocher denied that they had any losses, as did the rest of the witnesses, except the Multiprofile Processing Company CEO Sergei Shustov, who said he had learned about his losses from an investigator and believed him, without making audits. Both brothers and their lawyers claimed Alexei Navalny did not participate in the Gladpodpiska operations, and witnesses all claimed they had never encountered Alexei Navalny in person before the trial.
Home arrest and limitationsEdit
Following the imputed violation of travel restrictions, Navalny was placed under house arrest and prohibited from communicating with anyone other than his family, lawyers, and investigators on 28 February 2014. Navalny claimed the arrest was politically motivated, and he filed a complaint to the European Court of Human Rights. On 7 July, he declared the complaint had been accepted and given priority; the court compelled the Government of Russia to provide answers to a questionnaire.
The home arrest, in particular, prohibited usage of Internet; however, new posts were released under his social media accounts after the arrest was announced. A 5 March post claimed the accounts were controlled by his Anti-Corruption Foundation teammates and his wife Yulia. On 13 March, his LiveJournal blog was blocked in Russia, because, according to the Federal Service for Supervision of Communications, Information Technology, and Mass Media (Roskomnadzor), "functioning of the given web page breaks the regulation of the juridical decision of the bail hearing of a citizen, against who a criminal case has been initiated". Navalny's associates started a new blog, navalny.com, and the LiveJournal blog was eventually abolished, with the last post published on 9 July.
The home arrest was eased a number of times: On 21 August, Navalny was allowed to communicate with his co-defendants; a journalist present in the courthouse at the moment confirmed Navalny was allowed to communicate with "anyone but the Yves Rocher case witnesses". On 10 October, his right to communicate with the press was confirmed by another court, and he was allowed to make comments on the case in media (Navalny's plea not to prolong the arrest was, however, rejected). On 19 December, he was allowed to mail correspondence to authorities and international courts. Navalny again pleaded not to prolong the arrest, but the plea was rejected again.
The verdict was announced on 30 December 2014. Alexei Navalny was given 3.5 years of suspended sentence, and Oleg Navalny was sentenced to 3.5 years in prison and was arrested after the verdict was announced; both had to pay a fine of 500,000 rubles and a compensation to the Multiprofile Processing Company of over 4 million rubles. In the evening, several thousands protesters gathered in the center of Moscow. Navalny broke his home arrest to attend the rally and was immediately arrested by the police and brought back home.
Both brothers filed complaints to the European Court of Human Rights: Oleg's was communicated and given priority; Alexei's was reviewed in the context of the previous complaint related to this case and the Government of Russia had been "invited to submit further observations". The second instance within the country confirmed the verdict, only releasing Alexei from the responsibility to pay his fine. Both prosecutors and defendants were not satisfied with this decision.
On 17 October 2017, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Navalny's conviction for fraud and money laundering "was based on an unforeseeable application of criminal law and that the proceedings were arbitrary and unfair." The Court found that the domestic court's decisions had been arbitrary and manifestly unreasonable. ECHR found the Russian courts' decisions violated articles 6 and 7 of the European Convention on Human Rights. On 15 November 2018, the Great Chamber upheld the decision.
After the Yves Rocher case, Navalny had to pay a compensation of 4.4 million rubles. He declared the case was "framed up", but he added he would pay the sum as this could affect granting his brother parole. On 7 October 2015, Alexei's lawyer announced the defendant willingly paid 2.9 million and requested an installment plan for the rest of the sum. The request was granted, except the term was contracted from the requested five months to two, and a part of the sum declared paid (900,000 rubles; arrested from Navalny's banking account) was not yet received by the police; the prosecutors declared that may happen because of inter-process delays.
Later that month, Kirovles sued Navalny for the 16.1 million rubles declared pecuniary injury; Navalny declared he had not expected the suit, as Kirovles did not initiate it during the 2012–13 trial. On 23 October, a court resolved the said sum should be paid by the three defendants. The court denied the defendants' motion 14.7 million had already been paid by that point; the verdict and the payment sum were justified by a ruling by a Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation. Navalny declared he could not cover the requested sum; he called the suit a "drain-dry strategy" by authorities.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2015)
In late December 2012, Russia's federal Investigative Committee asserted that Allekt, an advertising company headed by Navalny, defrauded the Union of Right Forces (SPS) political party in 2007 by taking 100 million rubles ($3.2 million) payment for advertising and failing to honor its contract. If charged and convicted, Navalny could be jailed for up to 10 years. "Nothing of the sort happened – he committed no robbery", Leonid Gozman, a former SPS official, was quoted as saying. Earlier in December, "the Investigative Committee charged [...] Navalny and his brother Oleg with embezzling 55 million rubles ($1.76 million) in 2008–2011 while working in a postal business". Navalny, who denied the allegations in the two previous cases, sought to laugh off news of the third inquiry with a tweet stating "Fiddlesticks [...]".
In February 2011, in an interview with the radio station finam.fm, Navalny called the main Russian party, United Russia, a "party of crooks and thieves". In May 2011, the Russian government began a criminal investigation into Navalny, widely described in Western media as "revenge", and by Navalny himself as "a fabrication by the security services". Meanwhile, "crooks and thieves" became a popular nickname for the party.
On 4 June 2012, Navalny was ordered by Moscow's Lyublinsky District Court to pay 30,000 rubles ($900) as compensation for "moral harm" to United Russia State Duma Deputy Vladimir Svirid, after Svirid filed charges against Navalny for comments he made in an article written for Esquire magazine about the United Russia party: "In United Russia, there are people I come across that I generally like. But if you have joined United Russia, you are still a thief. And if you are not a thief, then you are a crook, because you use your name to cover the rest of the thieves and crooks." Svirid had originally sought one million rubles in the case.
In 2008, during the Russo-Georgian War, Navalny called Georgians "rodents" (Russian: грызуны) and called for imposing of a complete blockade on Georgia and eviction of all Georgian nationals from Russia. He further stated that he very much wanted to strike the Georgian General Staff with a cruise missile. In response to criticism, in 2013 Navalny said that he regretted calling Georgians rodents but stood by everything else he said at the time.
In 2011, Navalny stated he considered himself a "nationalist democrat". International media have often commented on his ambiguous but non-condemnatory stance toward ethnic Russian nationalism. The BBC noted in a profile of Navalny that his endorsement of a political campaign called "Stop feeding the Caucasus" and his willingness to speak at ultra-nationalist events "have caused concern among liberals". He also has been a co-organizer of the "Russian March", which Radio Free Europe describes as "a parade uniting Russian nationalist groups of all stripes".
Early in 2012, Navalny stated on Ukrainian TV, "Russian foreign policy should be maximally directed at integration with Ukraine and Belarus… In fact, we are one nation. We should enhance integration." During the same broadcast Navalny said that he did not intend "to prove that the Ukrainian nation does not exist. God willing, it does". He added, "No one wants to make an attempt to limit Ukraine's sovereignty". In October 2014, Navalny stated "I do not see any kind of difference at all between Russians and Ukrainians", he admitted that his views might provoke "horrible indignation" in Ukraine. In 2015, he declared, "I do not take Ukrainians for a special sort of Russians and [I] do not deny the Ukrainian nation from its political subjectivity".
He also said that Russian government should stop "sponsoring the war" in Donbass. Navalny has strongly criticized Vladimir Putin's policies in Ukraine: "Putin likes to speak about the 'Russian world' but he is actually making it smaller. In Belarus, they sing anti-Putin songs at football stadiums; in Ukraine they simply hate us. In Ukraine now, there are no politicians who do not have extreme anti-Russian positions. Being anti-Russian is the key to success now in Ukraine, and that is our fault".
In March 2014, Navalny declared that he did not support Russia's annexation of Crimea. According to The Moscow Times, "Navalny suggested that Kiev should grant Crimea greater autonomy while remaining part of Ukraine, guarantee the right to speak Russian in Ukraine, keep Ukraine out of NATO, and let the Russian Black Sea fleet remain in the peninsula free of charge". In October 2014, Navalny stated in an interview by Echo of Moscow that he would not return Crimea to Ukraine if he were to become the president of Russia but that "a normal referendum" should be held in Crimea to decide what country the peninsula belongs to.
In October 2010, Navalny was the decisive winner of on-line "Mayor of Moscow elections" held by Kommersant and Gazeta.ru. He received about 30,000 votes, or 45%, with the closest rival being "Against all candidates" with some 9,000 votes (14%), followed by former First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Boris Nemtsov with 8,000 votes (12%) out of a total of about 67,000 votes.
The reaction to Navalny's mayoral election result in 2013 was mixed: Nezavisimaya Gazeta declared, "The voting campaign turned a blogger into a politician", and following an October 2013 Levada Center poll that showed Navalny made it to the list of potential presidential candidates among Russians, receiving a rating of 5%, Konstantin Kalachev, the leader of the Political Expert Group, declared 5% was not the limit for Navalny, and unless something extraordinary happened, he could become "a pretender for a second place in the presidential race". On the other hand, The Washington Post published a column by Milan Svolik that stated the election was fair so the Sobyanin could show a clean victory, demoralizing the opposition, which could otherwise run for street protests. Putin's press secretary Dmitry Peskov stated on 12 September, "His momentary result cannot testify his political equipment and does not speak of him as of a serious politician".
When referring to Navalny, Putin never actually pronounced his name, referring to him as a "mister" or the like; Julia Ioffe took it for a sign of weakness before the opposition politician, and Peskov later stated Putin never pronounced his name in order not to "give [Navalny] a part of his popularity". In July 2015, Bloomberg's sources "familiar with the matter" declared there was an informal prohibition from the Kremlin for senior Russian officials from mentioning Navalny's name. Peskov rejected the assumption there is such a ban; however, in doing so, he did not mention Navalny's name either.
According to polls conducted by the Levada Center in 2013, Navalny's recognition among the Russian population stood at 37%. Out of those who were able to recognize Navalny, 14% would either "definitely" or "probably" support his presidential run.
The same pollster showed Navalny's presidential ratings in March and April 2014 were 1% and "<1%".
The Levada Center also conducted another survey, which was released on the 6 April 2017, showing Navalny's recognition among the Russian population at 55%. Out of those who recognized Navalny, 4% would "definitely" vote for him and 14% would "probably" vote for him in the presidential election. However, in a poll conducted by the same pollster between 21 and 24 April 2017, which did not name any candidates but asked respondents to volunteer a candidate on their own, Navalny only got the preferences of 1% of those who were polled.
Within Russia, reaction to Navalny's criminal cases varied with political views of commentators: Those who supported Navalny and/or his activities generally declared he was not guilty, while his political opponents generally claimed the opposite.
During and after the Kirovles trial, a number of prominent people expressed support to Navalny and/or condemned the trial. The last Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev called it "proof that we do not have independent courts". Former Minister of Finance Alexei Kudrin stated that it was "looking less like a punishment than an attempt to isolate him from social life and the electoral process". It was also criticized by novelist Boris Akunin, and jailed Russian oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who called it similar to the treatment of political opponents during the Soviet era.
Other prominent Russians had different reactions: Vladimir Zhirinovsky, leader of the nationalist LDPR, called the verdict "a direct warning to our 'fifth column'", and added, "This will be the fate of everyone who is connected with the West and works against Russia". Duma Vice-Speaker Igor Lebedev stated that he did not understand the "fuss about an ordinary case". He added, "If you are guilty before the law, then whoever you were – a janitor, a homeless man or a president – you have to answer for your crimes in full accordance with the Criminal Code."
A variety of officials from the Western countries condemned the verdict. United States Department of State Deputy Spokesperson Marie Harf stated that the United States was "very disappointed by the conviction and sentencing of opposition leader Aleksey Navalniy". The spokesperson for European Union High Representative Catherine Ashton said that the outcome of the trial "raises serious questions as to the state of the rule of law in Russia". Andreas Schockenhoff, Germany's Commissioner for German-Russian Coordination, stated, "For us, it's further proof of authoritarian policy in Russia, which doesn't allow diversity and pluralism". Western media were also critical: in particular, The New York Times proclaimed in response to the verdict, "President Vladimir Putin of Russia actually seems weak and insecure".
The verdict in the case of Yves Rocher caused similar reactions. According to Alexei Venediktov, the verdict was "unfair", Oleg Navalny was taken "hostage", while Alexei was not jailed to avoid "furious reaction" from Putin, which was caused by the change of measure of restraint after the Kirovles trial. A number of deputies appointed by United Russia and LDPR found the verdict too mild. Experts interrogated by BBC Russian Service expressed reactions close to the political positions their organizations generally stand on. The spokesperson for EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini stated the same day that the sentence was likely to be politically motivated.
Public opinion varied over time: According to Levada Center, 20% of people thought the Kirovles case had been caused by an actual violation of law, while 54% agreed the rationale beyond the case was his anti-corruption activity in May 2011. In May 2013, the shares of people who held these opinions were 28% and 47%, correspondingly; however, in September 2013, the shares were 35% and 45%. The organization suggested this had been caused by corresponding coverage in media. By September 2014, the percentages had undergone further changes, and equaled 37% and 38%. The center also stated the share of those who found the result of another criminal case against him was unfair and Navalny was not guilty dropped from 13% in July 2013 to 5% in January 2015, and the number of those who found the verdict was too tough also fell from 17% to 9%. The share of those who found the verdict to be either fair or too mild was 26% in July 2013, and has exceeded 35% since September 2013.
Awards and honorsEdit
In 2011, Foreign Policy magazine named Navalny to the FP Top 100 Global Thinkers, along with Daniel Domscheit-Berg and Sami Ben Gharbia of Tunisia, for "shaping the new world of government transparency". FP picked him again in 2012. He was listed by Time magazine in 2012 as one of the world's 100 most influential people, the only Russian on the list. In 2013, Navalny came in at No. 48 among "world thinkers" in an online poll by the UK magazine Prospect.
In 2015, Alexei and Oleg Navalny were chosen to receive the "Prize of the Platform of European Memory and Conscience 2015". According to the Platform's statement, "The Members of the Platform have voted this year for the Navalny brothers, in recognition of their personal courage, struggle and sacrifices for upholding fundamental democratic values and freedoms in the Russian Federation today. By the award of the Prize, the Platform wishes to express its respect and support to Mr Oleg Navalny whom the Platform considers a political prisoner and to Mr Alexei Navalny for his efforts to expose corruption, defend political pluralism and opposition to the mounting authoritarian regime in the Russian Federation".
Navalny is married to Yulia Navalnaya and has two children.
- The Russian word "да" (da) means "yes".
- Argued as following: "It is clearly stated in the preamble of our declaration that the Yabloko Party thoroughly and sharply opposes any national and racial discord and any xenophobia. However, in this case, when we know [...] that the Constitution guarantees to us the right to gather peacefully and without a weapon, we see that in these conditions the prohibition of the Russian March as it was announced, provokes the organizers to some activities that could end not so well. Thus we appeal to the Moscow City Hall [...] for permission".
- Article 15, section 7: "Terms, as provided by sections 4 and 6 of the present article, are prolonged if a territorial body has passed a verdict of suspension of state registration of a regional branch of a political party, as provided by section 5.1 of the present article, or a verdict of denial of state registration of a regional branch of a political party has been challenged to a court and, as of the day of expiration of the said terms, has not gone into effect." The following section is given as in force as on 2 April 2012 (the section had not changed by 1 May 2015).
- Exchange rates used in the article
- "биография—Алексей Навальный: Кто такой Алексей Навальный". 2018.navalny.com (in Russian).
- Carl Schreck (9 March 2010). "Russia's Erin Brockovich: Taking On Corporate Greed". Time. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Matthew Kaminski (3 March 2012). "The Man Vladimir Putin Fears Most (the weekend interview)". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Russian blogger Alexei Navalny in spotlight after arrest". The Washington Post.
- Englund, Will (9 September 2013). "Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny has strong showing in Moscow mayoral race, despite loss". The Washington Post.
- Kim, Lucian (8 February 2018). "Banned From Election, Putin Foe Navalny Pursues Politics By Other Means". NPR. Retrieved 11 February 2018.
- Sebastian, Clare (12 June 2017). "Alexey Navalny and Russia's YouTube insurgency". CNN.
- Tom Parfitt (10 May 2011). "Russian blogger Alexei Navalny faces criminal investigation". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Russian opposition leader Navalny faces third inquiry". BBC News. 24 December 2012. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link). BBC. 24 December 2012. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
- Brumfield, Ben; Phil Black (18 July 2013). "Report: Stark Putin critic Navalny hit with criminal conviction". CNN. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- David M. Herszenhorn (18 July 2013) "Russian Court Convicts Opposition Leader". The New York Times
- Englund, Will (19 July 2013). "In Russia, activist Alexei Navalny freed one day after conviction". The Washington Post.
- Andrew E. Kramer (16 October 2013) Navalny Is Spared Prison Term in Russia. The New York Times.
- MacFarquhar, Neil; Nechepurenko, Ivan (8 February 2017). "Aleksei Navalny, Viable Putin Rival, Is Barred From a Presidential Run". The New York Times.
- "Радио ЭХО Москвы :: Новости / Правозащитный центр Мемориал признал Алексея Навального политическим заключенным". Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Vasilyeva, Nataliya (30 December 2014). "Conviction of Putin foe sets off protest in Moscow". Associated Press. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
- "Navalny's Anti-Corruption Fund Accuses Medvedev of Secret Massive Estate". Foreign Policy. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
- "Kremlin queries legality of boycott call". BBC News. 26 December 2017. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Polina Ivanova (15 May 2018). "Russian opposition leader Navalny jailed for 30 days over protest". Reuters.
- Sergei Hrabovsky. Олексій Навальний як дзеркало російської революції (in Ukrainian). day.kiev.ua. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- АЛЕКСЕЙ НАВАЛЬНЫЙ (in Russian). esquire.ru. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Kanygin, Pavel (20 December 2012). Непр(е)ступная фабрика Навальных. Специальный репортаж из родительского гнезда лидера оппозиции. Novaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 1 June 2017.
- "Alexei Navalny". The Moscow Times. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Guy Faulconbridge (11 December 2011). "Newsmaker – Protests pitch Russian blogger against Putin". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Irina Mokrousova, Irina Reznik (13 February 2012). "Чем зарабатывает на жизнь Алексей Навальный". Vedomosti.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Nataliya Vasilyeva (1 April 2010). "Activist presses Russian corporations for openness". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Как пилят в Транснефти (in Russian). LiveJournal. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "Russia checks claims of $4bn oil pipeline scam". BBC News. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Soldatkin, Vladimir (14 January 2011). "Russia's Transneft denies $4 bln theft". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Alexei Navalny (29 December 2010). "RosPil". Navalny Live Journal Blog (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- Alexei Navalny (30 May 2011). "RosYama" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 15 February 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- Bálint Ablonczy (23 July 2012). "It's ugly, but it was ours". Hetivalasz. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Инновационные технологии: как это работает на самом деле (in Russian). Navalny.Live Journal. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012. Cite journal requires
- Andy Potts (21 February 2011). "Vekselberg faces questions over Hungarian property fraud". The Moscow News. Retrieved 21 February 2012.
- "Hungary: detentions linked to the sale of property in Moscow". OSW. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Andrew E. Kramer (30 March 2012). "Activist Presses for Inquiry into Senior Putin Deputy". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
- "Russian whistleblower accuses Putin's investment czar of multimillion dollar corruption". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
- Charles Clover (26 July 2012). "Blogger strikes at Putin with data release". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Mortensen, Antonia; Fred Pleitgen; Matt Rehbein (25 March 2017). "Kremlin critic detained in tense anti-corruption protests". CNN. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Walker, Shaun (27 March 2017). "Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny jailed after protests". The Guardian.
- "Russia jails protests leader Alexei Navalny for 15 days". BBC News. 27 March 2017.
- "About Navalny" (in Russian). navalny.ru. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Navalny, Alexei". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
- "SvobodaNews.ru Московское "Яблоко" поддержало проведение "Русского марша"".
- Ilya Azarov (15 December 2007). "Яблоко" откатилось (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- "Алексей Навальный биография, фото, последние новости". Uznayvse.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Дмитрий Волчек (30 November 2011). "Метод Навального". Svoboda.org. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Националисты объединились в Русское национальное движение [Russian nationalists were united in a national movement]. Echo of Moscow (in Russian). 8 June 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Политические националисты" заключили пакт о сотрудничестве ["Political nationalists" made a pact on cooperation]. grani.ru (in Russian). 6 August 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Albats, Evgeniya (25 April 2011). "Я думаю, власть в России сменится не в результате выборов". The New Times. Archived from the original on 29 August 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Julia Ioffe (5 December 2011). "Russian Elections: Faking It". The New Yorker. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Julia Ioffe (6 December 2011). "Putin's Big Mistake?". The New Yorker. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Tom Parfitt (17 December 2011). "Vladimir Putin's persecution campaign targets protest couple". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "The Blog on Navalny in English". LiveJournal. Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- Stephen Ennis (21 December 2011). "Profile: Russian blogger Alexei Navalny". BBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Guy Faulconbridge (20 December 2011). "Navalny challenges Putin after leaving Russian jail". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Fred Weir (24 December 2011). "Huge protest demanding fair Russian elections hits Moscow". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Russia election: Police arrest 550 at city protests". BBC News. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Police keep anti-Putin protesters on the run". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Amnesty Calls Navalny, Udaltsov 'Prisoners of Conscience'". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012.
- "Homes of Russian opposition figures searched ahead of rally".. RT (TV network). 11 June 2012. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- "Соратники Навального создадут партию без него: Россия". Lenta.ru. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Команда Алексея Навального создает партию". Vedomosti.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- ""Лента.ру" изучила устройство "партии Навального": Россия". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Партия Навального будет брать электорат в блогосфере | Гражданская активность | Общество | Московские новости". Mn.ru. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Navalny Declines to Join His Own Party". Sputniknews.com. 15 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Регистрация партии соратников Навального приостановлена — BBC Русская служба". BBC. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "О приостановлении государственной регистрации партии — Новости. Народный альянс". Peoplesalliance.ru. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Минюст окончательно отказал в регистрации партии Навального — Известия". Izvestia. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Партии сторонников Навального отказали в регистрации: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный намерен вступить в незарегистрированную партию "Народный альянс" и, возможно, возглавить ее". Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "TASS: Russia — The PeopleБ─≥s Alliance party of NavalnyБ─≥s supporters opens founding congress in Moscow". Tass.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Navalny becomes the People's Alliance party leader | Russia Beyond the Headlines". Rbth.com. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Минюст зарегистрировал смену названия партии Богданова на "Народный альянс": Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "З — Юкейяеи Мюбюкэмши Онанперяъ Гю ╚Мюпндмши Юкэъмя╩". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Минюст приостановил регистрацию партии А.Навального :: Политика :: РосБизнесКонсалтинг". Top.rbc.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Навальный решил отсудить "Народный альянс" у Богданова: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. 28 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Партия Навального сменила название: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Партия Навального получила регистрацию: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Федеральный закон от 11.07.2001 N 95-ФЗ (ред. от 23.05.2015) "О политических партиях" / КонсультантПлюс". Consultant.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Навальный объявил о готовности подтвердить регистрацию партии :: Политика :: РосБизнесКонсалтинг". Top.rbc.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Мосгорсуд не допустил партию Навального к выборам — BBC Русская служба". BBC. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Navalny's party to continue working for participation in elections | Russia Beyond the Headlines". Rbth.com. 1 February 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный — Объединение состоялось, у нас будет предвыборный список". Navalny.com. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Минюст отменил регистрацию "Партии прогресса", нарушившей закон при регистрации отделений". Tass.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Минюст отменил регистрацию "Партии прогресса", нарушившей закон при регистрации отделений". Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- ""Партия прогресса" обжаловала решение Минюста о ликвидации". The-village.ru. 16 April 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- ""Нужны и демократия, и власть" | Городская власть | Москва | Московские новости". Mn.ru. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Отставка Собянина и досрочные выборы мэра: причины и последствия | РИА Новости". RIA Novosti. 19 June 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Собянин подписал указ о временном исполнении обязанностей мэра Москвы | РИА Новости". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "з-мНБНЯРХ - дНЯПНВМШЕ БШАНПШ ЛЩПЮ лНЯЙБШ МЮГМЮВЕМШ МЮ 8 ЯЕМРЪАПЪ". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Навальный заявил о намерении участвовать в выборах мэра Москвы: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- ""Это рейдерский захват партии". Почему Рыжков ушел из РПР-ПАРНАС". Tvrain.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Навального зарегистрировали кандидатом в мэры Москвы: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Совет муниципальных депутатов передал Навальному 49 подписей: Политика: Россия". Lenta.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Smolchenko, Anna (17 July 2013). "Navalny Moscow mayoral bid accepted ahead of verdict". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Navalny pulls out of Moscow poll, calls for boycott". Agence France-Presse.
- "Прокуратура просит выпустить Навального и Офицерова под подписку | РИА Новости". RIA Novosti. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Freed Kremlin critic arrives in Moscow". Al Jazeera.
- "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. 24 July 2013. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Synovate Comcon :: О Компании :: Новости". Comcon-2.ru. Archived from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "База данных по курсам валют | Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "??" (PDF). Report.navalny.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Ennis, Stephen. "Alexei Navalny runs Western-style campaign in Moscow poll". BBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Laura Mills and Lynn Berry (8 September 2013). "Strong Showing for Navalny in Moscow Mayoral Race". Associated Press.
- "Участие Навального в выборах мэра Москвы / Итоги года / Независимая газета". Ng.ru. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Masha Lipman (6 September 2013). "Alexey Navalny's Miraculous, Doomed Campaign". The New Yorker. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Почему социологические службы не смогли спрогнозировать результаты выборов московского мэра - Газета.Ru". Gazeta.ru. 16 November 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Ябедемхъ Н Опнбндъыхуяъ Бшанпюу Х Петепемдслюу". Moscow_city.vybory.izbirkom.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Выборы мэра превратились в "большую проблему"". Utro.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Политолог Д.Орешкин: Выборы мэра Москвы были в 10 раз честнее думских :: Политика :: РосБизнесКонсалтинг". Top.rbc.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Анастасия Агамалова; Наталья Райбман; Алексей Никольский. "На Болотной площади прошел митинг в поддержку Навального". Vedomosti.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Верховный суд не согласился отменить итоги выборов мэра Москвы". Vesti.ru. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "От Навального требуют конкретики / Политика / Независимая газета". Ng.ru. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Возможные результаты президентских и парламентских выборов". Levada.ru. 14 May 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "З-Цюгерю - Делнйпюрш Сксвхкх Лнлемр Дкъ Назедхмемхъ". Kommersant.ru. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "З-Цюгерю - Лхуюхк Йюяэъмнб Х Юкейяеи Мюбюкэмши Онькх Мю Мнбне Назедхмемхе". Kommersant.ru. 18 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный — Демократическая коалиция. Уже шесть партий и конкретные планы". Navalny.com. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный - Разворот". Echo of Moscow (in Russian). 17 April 2015. Archived 19 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- "ПАРНАС отказалась от выборов в Калужской области". Slon.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Новосибирский облизбирком отказался регистрировать Демократическую коалицию". Slon.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "ПАРНАС сняли с выборов в Магадане". Slon.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "ПАРНАС сняли с выборов в Костромской области". Slon.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "ЦИК обязал избирком Костромской области рассмотреть вопрос о регистрации Демкоалиции - Газета.Ru". Gazeta.ru. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Озвучены окончательные результаты ПАРНАСа на выборах в Костромской области". vz.ru. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- Перцев, Андрей (13 December 2016). "Алексей Навальный намерен участвовать в президентских выборах" – via Kommersant.
- Алексей Навальный (13 December 2016). "Пора выбирать: Алексей Навальный — кандидат в президенты России" – via YouTube.
- Гальперович, Данила. "Навального по "делу Кировлеса" повторно приговорили к условному сроку".
- "Aleksei Navalny's protesters are a force to be reckoned with". The Economist. 16 June 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "Мы ждем перемен? [We are waiting for change?]". ROSBALT. 23 March 2017.
- Navalny Accuses Police Of Failing To Investigate Attack, by RFE/RL
- Zelyonka: The Green 'Weapon Of Choice'.
- "Navalny Sues Police, Loses Vision in One Eye, and Launches New Manhunt". The Moscow Times. 2 May 2017.
- "Alexei Navalny, Putin foe, claims vision loss after chemical attack; blames Kremlin". The Washington Post. 2 May 2017.
- "Russian opposition leader Navalny released from prison". Politico. 7 July 2017.
- "Russia: Nationwide Assaults on Political Opposition Campaign". Human Rights Watch. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2017.
- "H46-25 Navalnyy and Ofitserov v. Russian Federation (Application No. 46632/13)". Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. 21 September 2017.
- Алексей Навальный арестован на 20 суток (in Russian). www.kommersant.ru. 2 October 2017.
- "Навальный обжаловал решение Верховного суда о недопуске на выборы". РБК. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- "Russian Supreme Court Rejects Navalny Appeal On Presidential Election Ban". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
- Heintz, Jim (28 January 2018). "Russian opposition leader arrested amid election protests". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- Bennetts, Marc (5 February 2018). "Russian police accuse Navalny of assaulting officer during protest". the Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2018.
- Bennetts, Marc (5 May 2018). "Russia's Alexei Navalny arrested as 1,600 detained nationwide". the Guardian. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- Ivanova, Polina (15 May 2018). "Russian opposition leader Navalny jailed for 30 days over protest". Reuters. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- Walker, Shaun (29 July 2019). "Alexei Navalny discharged from hospital against wishes of doctor". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- Kovalev, Alexey (29 July 2019). "Discharge, itching, and lesions: Doctors disagree about why Russia's jailed opposition leader needed to be hospitalized". Meduza. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
- CNN, Fred Pleitgen, Mary Ilyushina, Nathan Hodge and Sebastian Shukla. "Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny is hospitalized after being detained". CNN. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
- "Russian blogger Navalny charged with embezzlement". BBC News. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Putin critic Navalny charged with theft". Al Jazeera. 31 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Ellen Barry (31 July 2012). "Russian Prosecutors Charge Protest Movement Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "An Analysis of the Russian Federation's prosecutions of Alexei Navalny". Google. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- "Subscribe to read". Financial Times. 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2018.
- Daniel Sandford (17 April 2013). "Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny goes on trial". BBC. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Elder, Miriam (18 July 2013). "Russia: Alexei Navalny found guilty of embezzlement". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Outspoken Putin critic Alexei Navalny hit with prison sentence". CNN. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Воронин, Николай (18 July 2013). Как судили Навального: репортаж из зала суда (in Russian). BBC. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Alexei Navalny freed following anti-Putin protests in Moscow – video". The Guardian. London. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Alpert, Lukas I. (19 July 2013). "Alexei Navalny Freed Pending Appeal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- "European Court: Trial Against Putin Foe Navalny Was Unfair". ABC News. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- "Верховный суд отменил приговор Навальному по делу "Кировлеса"". ТАСС Информационное Агентство России. 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- "Суть "дела Ив Роше" и братьев Навальных - BBC Русская служба". BBC. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Details Of Yves Rocher Case :: Politics :: Society & Politics :: Russia-InfoCentre". Russia-ic.com. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Opposition activist Navalny gets suspended sentence in Yves Rocher case | Russia Beyond the Headlines". Rbth.co.uk. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Navalny brothers Yves Rocher embezzlement case investigation completed | Russian Legal Information Agency (RAPSI)". Rapsinews.com. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Court puts Russian opposition leader under house arrest". Moscow News.Net. 28 February 2014.
- "Роскомнадзор заблокировал блог Навального - Газета.Ru | Новости". Gazeta.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- ""Триумф российского правосудия": суд смягчил условия ареста Алексея Навального". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- "Суд спустя полгода снял с Навального "обет молчания", разрешив отвечать на накопившиеся к нему претензии". newsru.com. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- "Суд разрешил Алексею Навальному комментировать дело "Ив Роше"". Bfm.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Суд смягчил условия домашнего ареста Навального :: Общество :: РБК". Top.rbc.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Smith-Spark, Laura; Chance, Matthew; Eshchenko, Alla (30 December 2014). "Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny gets 3.5-year suspended sentence". CNN. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- Могилевская, Анна (17 February 2015). "Приговор Алексею и Олегу Навальным вступил в силу". Коммерсантъ. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Alexander, Harriet (30 December 2014). "Alexei Navalny breaks his house arrest to attend protest against his sentence". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- Некоторые юридические новости. "Алексей Навальный — Некоторые юридические новости". Navalny.com. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Human rights court: Kremlin critic's conviction 'arbitrary and unfair'". POLITICO. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- "HUDOC - European Court of Human Rights". hudoc.echr.coe.int. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- (in Italian) Giampiero Buonomo, La tutela del dibattito politico al di là delle immunità. Questione giustizia. 20 February 2019.
- "Суд предоставил Навальному отсрочку для оплаты долга по "делу "Ив Роше"". Росбалт. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный в рамках дела "Ив Роше" выплатил 3 млн рублей". Коммерсантъ. 10 July 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный получил два месяца отсрочки выплаты по делу "Ив Роше"". Коммерсантъ. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный получил два месяца отсрочки выплаты по делу "Ив Роше"". Коммерсантъ. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Алексей Навальный должен оплатить ущерб по делу "Кировлеса"". vedomosti.ru. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Навальному грозит банкротство после решения суда о выплате "Кировлесу" 16 миллионов". mk.ru. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Catherine Belton (10 May 2011). "Russia Targets Anti-Graft Blogger". Financial Times. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Alexander Bratersky (11 May 2011). "Navalny Targeted in Fraud Inquiry". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Daniel Sandford (30 November 2011). "Russians tire of corruption spectacle". BBC News. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Navalny Must Pay for 'Crooks and Thieves' Comment". The Moscow Times. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- "Anti-Kremlin Figure Navalny Sets Sights on Presidency". RIA Novosti. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Opposition blogger Navalny voices presidential ambitions amid dwindling support". RT. 5 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Андрей Илларионов: Против Путина, но за империю. Темная сторона оппозиции | Новое Время". Nv.ua. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Navalny, Alexei (22 July 2013). "Блог: Ответ Айдеру Муждабаеву" [Blog: Response to Ayder Muzhdabaev]. Echo of Moscow (in Russian). Archived 10 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "The birth of Russian citizenry". The Economist. 17 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Mark Adomanis (15 July 2013). "Did Russian Opposition Leader Alexey Navalny Just Endorse A Race Riot?". Forbes. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "So where's the change in Russia? - Le Monde diplomatique - English edition". Mondediplo.com. 31 March 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "В столице отрепетировали "Русский марш" / Регионы России / Независимая газета". Ng.ru. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Russia's Aleksei Navalny: Hope Of The Nation – Or The Nationalists?, by Robert Coalson. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 28 July 2013.
- Navalny: Integration with Belarus – Main Task for Russia Archived 28 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Telegraf.by. 13 February 2012.
- Anna Dolgov (16 October 2014) "Navalny Wouldn't Return Crimea, Considers Immigration Bigger Issue Than Ukraine | News". The Moscow Times.
- "‘Putin is destroying Russia. Why base his regime on corruption?’ asks Navalny ". The Guardian. 17 October 2014.
- "Navalny Defies House Arrest Terms in Online Condemnation of Russia's Actions in Ukraine". The Moscow Times. 21 March 2014.
- Выборы мэра Москвы. Gazeta.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- Вера Кичанова. "Навальный будет претендентом на второе место в президентской гонке". Slon.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Svolik, Milan (12 October 2013). "The best way to demoralize the opposition in Russia? Beat them in a fair election". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- Ioffe, Julia (18 July 2013). "Aleksei Navalny Trial: Blogger Gets Five Years in Jail". New Republic. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Песков: Путин не произносит имени Навального, чтобы не делать его популярнее". Mk.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Meyer, Henry (23 July 2015). "Murder, Poisoning, Raids: It's Election Season in Russia". Bloomberg.
- "Песков опроверг запрет на упоминание имени Навального, не произнеся имени оппозиционера". Vedomosti. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
- Volkov, Dennis (5 April 2013). "Analysis of Navalny's Ratings". Levada Center. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Stepan Kravchenko (5 April 2013). "Putin, Allies Threatened With Jail as Navalny to Seek Presidency". Bloomberg. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- "Protests on March 26 and Navalny". Levada Center. 6 April 2017.
- "Poll: Number Of Russians Who Would Vote For Putin Slips Below 50 Percent". RFERL - Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. 4 May 2017.
- "Mr. Putin Tries to Crush Another Rival". The New York Times (Press release). 31 May 2015. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- "Reaction to Russia's Jailing of Alexei Navalny". The Wall Street Journal. 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (18 July 2013). "Russian Court Convicts Opposition Leader". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- Sudakov, Dmitry (19 July 2013). "Navalny verdict is a warning to the fifth column". Pravda.ru. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- "On the Conviction and Sentencing of Alexey Navalniy and Pyotr Ofitserov". U.S. State Department. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Statement by the Spokesperson of High Representative Catherine Ashton on the sentencing of Alexey Navalny and Pyotr Ofitserov" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 18 July 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
- "Germany criticizes verdict against Navalny | DW.COM | 19.07.2013". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Новости NEWSru.com :: Венедиктов объяснил смысл вердикта братьям Навальным: Олега сделали заложником Алексея". Newsru.com. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Реакция на приговор братьям Навальным". Tass.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Вендик, Юри (30 December 2014). Олег Навальный приговорён к 3,5 годам по делу "Ив Роше" (in Russian). BBC Russian. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- "РОССИЙСКИЙ МЕДИА-ЛАНДШАФТ: ТЕЛЕВИДЕНИЕ, ПРЕССА, ИНТЕРНЕТT" (PDF). Levada.ru. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Навальный, "Болотное дело", Стрелков: знание и отношение". Levada.ru. 19 October 1926. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- Персоны года – 2009: Частное лицо года. Vedomosti (in Russian). 30 December 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "The World Fellows: Alexey Navalny". Yale University. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. December 2011. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- "The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers". Foreign Policy. 28 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Garry Kasparov (18 April 2012). "Alexei Navalny". Time. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "The results of Prospect's world thinkers poll". Prospect. April 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Alexei and Oleg Navalny to receive Prize of the Platform of European Memory and Conscience 2015 | Platform of European Memory and Conscience". Memoryandconscience.eu. 2 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "The 25 Most Influential People on the Internet". time.com. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2017.