Mastodon is an online, self-hosted social media, and social networking service. It allows anyone to host their own server node in the network, and its various separately operated user bases are federated across many different sites (called "instances"). These instances are connected as a federated social network, allowing users from different instances to interact with each other seamlessly. Mastodon is a part of the wider Fediverse, allowing its users to also interact with users on other platforms that support the same protocol, such as PeerTube, Misskey, Friendica and Pleroma.
|Developer(s)||Eugen Rochko, et. al|
|Initial release||5 October 2016|
v2.7.4 / March 5, 2019
|Operating system||Unix, Linux, BSD|
|Platform||Web, iOS, Android, Linux, BSD, Sailfish OS, macOS, Windows|
|Available in||Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Asturian, Basque, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese, Corsican, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Esperanto, Finnish, French, Galician, German, Greek, Galego, Hungarian, Ido, Italian, Indonesian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Occitan, Portuguese, Persian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Slovak, Slovenian, Swedish, Ukrainian, Kazakh, Korean, Japanese, Malay, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Hebrew, Turkish, Welsh|
|License||GNU Affero General Public License|
Mastodon has microblogging features similar to Twitter, or Weibo, although it is distinct from them, and unlike a typical software as a service platform, it is not centrally hosted. Each user is a member of a specific, independently operated instance. Users post short messages called "toots" for others to see, and can adjust each of their post's privacy settings. The specific privacy options may vary between sites, but typically include direct messaging, followers only, public but not listed in the public feed, and public and posted to the public feed. The Mastodon mascot is a brown or grey woolly mammoth, sometimes depicted using a tablet or smartphone.
Because there is no central server for Mastodon, each instance has its own code of conduct, terms of service, and moderation policies. This differs from traditional social networks by allowing users to choose an instance which has policies they agree with, or to leave an instance that has policies they disagree with, without losing access to Mastodon's social network.
Functionality and featuresEdit
Mastodon servers run social networking software that is capable of communicating either via the OStatus protocol, or also the newer ActivityPub standard. A Mastodon user can therefore interact with users on any other server in the Fediverse that supports these.
Mastodon approximates the microblogging user experience of TweetDeck, where users post short-form status messages for others to see. On Mastodon, these messages can include up to 500 text-based characters, an extension of Twitter's 280-character limit and posts are called "toots" instead of "tweets", as is the case on Twitter.
Users join a specific Mastodon server, known as an "instance", rather than a single website or application. The instances are connected as nodes in a network, and each server can administrate its own rules, account privileges, and whether to share messages to and from other instances. The largest operating instance hosts 446,000+ users as of February 2019. Other instances are based on communal interests, such as Internet memes, Minecraft, or technology.
The service includes a number of privacy features. Each message has a variety of privacy options available, and users can choose whether the post is public or private. Public messages display on a global feed, known as a timeline, and private messages are only shared on the timelines of the user's followers. Messages can also be marked as unlisted from timelines or direct between users. Users can also mark their accounts as completely private. In the timeline, messages can display with an optional "content warning" feature, which requires readers to click on the content to reveal the rest of the message. Mastodon instances have used this feature to hide spoilers, trigger warnings, and not safe for work (NSFW) content, though some accounts use the feature to hide links and thoughts others might not want to read.
Mastodon aggregates messages in local and federated timelines. The local timeline shows messages from users on a singular instance, while the federated timeline shows messages across all participating Mastodon instances. Users can communicate across connected Mastodon instances with usernames similar in format to full email addresses.
In early 2017, journalists[Like whom?] distinguished Mastodon from Twitter for its approach to combating harassment, one of Twitter's largest issues.[dubious ] Mastodon uses community-based moderation, in which each instance can limit, or filter out undesirable types of content. For example, the flagship instance, Mastodon.social, bans content that is illegal in Germany or France, including Nazi symbolism, Holocaust denial and discrimination. Several other instances do this too. Instances can also choose to limit, or filter out messages with disparaging content. Mastodon's founder Eugen Rochko believes that small, close communities would police toxic behavior more effectively than a large company's small safety team. Users can also block and report others to administrators, much like on Twitter. In September 2018, with the release of version 2.5, that features redesigned public profile pages, Mastodon marked its 100th release. Then, at the end of October, Mastodon 2.6 came out, introducing the possibilities of verified profiles and live, in-stream link previews for images and videos. Since January 2019, it is possible to search for multiple hashtags at once, instead of searching for just a single hastag, as was the case before the release of version 2.7. Version 2.7 also has more robust moderation capabilities for server administrators and moderators, while accessibility, such as contrast for users with sight issues, has also been improved.
This section needs expansion with: more details on technical information. You can help by adding to it. (November 2018)
Mastodon is written as open source, web-based software for federated microblogging, which anybody can contribute code to, and which anyone can run on their own server infrastructure, if they wish, or join servers run by other people within the fediverse network. Its server-side technology is powered by Ruby on Rails and Node.js, and its front end is written in React.js and Redux. The service is interoperable with the federated social network GNU social and other OStatus platforms, and since version 1.6 as well with those platforms that use the ActivityPub standard.
While Mastodon was first released in October 2016, the service began to expand in late March and early April 2017. The Verge wrote that the community at this time was small and that it had yet to attract the personalities that keep users at Twitter. The global use has risen from 766,500 users as of August 1, 2017, to 1 million users on December 1, 2017. In November 2017 artists, writers and entrepreneurs such as Chuck Wendig, John Scalzi, Melanie Gillman and later John O'Nolan joined in. Another spike in popularity came in March, through April 2018, due to the concerns about user privacy raised by the #deletefacebook effort.
Mastodon, along with a number of other alternative social media sites, saw a large uptick in membership, gaining thousands of new members in the period of a few hours compared to dozens in days prior, following Tumblr's announcement of intent in early December 2018 to ban all sensitive content from their site.
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