A Master of Philosophy (MPhil; Latin Magister Philosophiae or Philosophiae Magister) is a postgraduate degree. An MPhil may be awarded to postgraduate students after completing taught coursework and one to two years of original research, which may also serve as a provisional enrolment for a PhD programme.



In Australia, the Master of Philosophy is a research degree which mirrors a Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) in breadth of research and structure. Candidates are assessed on the basis of a thesis. A standard full-time degree often takes two years to complete.[1][2]



In Belgium, the MPhil is a special research degree, and is only awarded by selected departments of a university, mostly in the fields of arts, social sciences, archaeology, philosophy and theology. Admission to these programmes is highly selective and primarily aimed at those students aiming for an academic career. After finishing these programmes, students normally pursue a PhD programme.[citation needed]



The MPhil is offered at some Canadian universities as a two-year degree involving coursework, examinations, and practice at academic writing. At some institutions, successful completion leads to a guaranteed place on a PhD course with "advanced standing", reducing the length of the PhD by a year.[3]



Indian universities used to offer MPhil degrees as the most advanced master's degree in the fields of arts, science and humanities. The duration was typically two years long and included both a taught portion and an extensive research portion. Several universities offered enrolment in their integrated MPhil–PhD program and MPhil degree holders were usually exempted from some of the doctoral coursework requirement. In July 2020, the Government of India announced that, as part of its new National Education Policy, MPhils would be discontinued in India.[4] In 2023, University Grants Commission reiterated that fresh admissions should not be done for MPhil degree, as it is not valid anymore.[5]



In Finland, the regular master's degree filosofian maisteri translates to "Master of Philosophy". As in English, the term "philosophy" does not imply a specialization in theoretical philosophy. These degrees are regular master's degrees, not special "higher" degrees (cf. Licentiate and Doctor of Philosophy). In the past, filosofian maisteri signified that the degree was earned through actual studying, in contrast to honorary master's degrees that were granted upon application to bachelor's degree graduates.



In Malaysia, the MPhil degree is commonly offered in a number of older and more-established universities in Malaysia, including the University of Malaya, Multimedia University (MMU), Wawasan Open University, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC), Monash University Sunway Campus (MUSC) and Curtin Malaysia Campus. In most cases, the MPhil is largely a research degree, with only a minor taught component. On a case-by-case basis, candidates must pass a viva voce examination before the degree is awarded. For UNMC and MUSC, the Faculty of Engineering offers a standalone MPhil degree which will lead to the PhD.

Specifically for the University of Malaya, if the desired field of research does not belong to any of the specialized faculties, it is normally categorized under the MPhil supervised by the Postgraduate Institute.

In November 2012, the Malaysian Qualifications Agency issued programme standards for postgraduate studies in which MPhil is attributed to Master programme by research and mixed mode (coursework and research).[6][failed verification]



The Dutch Department of Education, Culture and Science decided in 2009 not to recognize the MPhil degree. Accordingly, Dutch universities stopped awarding this degree and now award the legally-recognized Master of Arts or Master of Science degrees instead.[7]



In Norway, the degree of MPhil was a master's degree (180 ECTS credits) at a level equivalent to an MA or MSc However, unlike a standard MA or MSc, which have a thesis worth 60 ECTS,[citation needed] the MPhil has a research workload of up to 180 ECTS.[8] Upon completion, the MPhil graduate usually qualifies for acceptance to a PhD program. Nevertheless, the MPhil is most often taken as a standalone qualification.

The MPhil degree was considered to be equivalent to US and UK PhD degrees and from the early 1900s the PhD established itself as the usual translation of Danish and Norwegian master's degrees into English. This must be seen in the context of the fact that the PhD originally designated research education in the US and eventually equivalent degrees in the UK which had a similar scope and fulfilled a similar function as the master's degree in Denmark and Norway, as the final degree taken at the beginning of a research career, while the doctorates in Denmark and Norway were often taken by middle-aged and well-established academics. In Denmark and Norway, PhD in the 20th century was therefore not necessarily or necessarily regarded as identical to a "doctorate" as understood in Denmark and Norway.[citation needed]



In Pakistan, the MPhil is one of the most advanced master's degrees offered by public and private universities in several different fields of study.[9][failed verification] This is usually a two-year full-time program which includes teaching and research that leads to the PhD. The degree of MPhil also served as a requirement to gain admission into a Doctoral program in Pakistan until early-2021.[citation needed]



In Spain, the MPhil degree is equivalent to the Diploma de Estudios Avanzados, or DEA.[according to whom?] In order to obtain it, the student has to complete a full year of doctoral courses and training in research methods, as well as doing original research towards a thesis.

United Kingdom


In most UK universities, the MPhil is a research degree.[10] The completion of an MPhil typically requires two years of full-time (or five years or more of part-time study) and the submission of coursework and a thesis comprising a body of original research undertaken by the candidate (typically 25,000 to 50,000 words).[citation needed] It is common for students admitted into a PhD program at a UK university to be initially registered for the degree of MPhil, and then to transfer (or upgrade) to the PhD upon successful completion of the first (or sometimes the second) year of study: this will often involve the submission of a report or dissertation by the student, and possibly an oral examination or presentation.[10][11] Conversely, a PhD candidate may transfer to an MPhil programme or be awarded the degree of MPhil if they do not meet the requirements for the award of a PhD.

Usage can be different at the ancient universities. The MPhil at Oxford and Cambridge can be either a taught degree or a research degree, and may take one or two years, depending on the course. Cambridge University offers one- and two-year-long MPhil degree programs across all of its departments and faculties, although in most cases the Cambridge MPhil is a one-year taught degree.[12] This takes the place of the MA at other universities, as the Oxbridge MA is awarded to BA graduates after a certain period without any further study. At Oxford University, the MPhil is usually a two-year master's degree.[13] The Oxford MPhil requires a lengthy thesis in the second year and more examinations than a one-year master's degree (such as the MSc or MSt). The ancient Scottish universities, who for historical reasons award the Scottish MA upon completion of four-year first degree programs in arts and humanities subjects, differ in their use of MPhil or MLitt for postgraduate research degrees, but are slowly standardizing to the MPhil as a research degree and the MLitt as a taught degree.[citation needed]

United States


Most American universities do not award the Master of Philosophy degree. A few institutions, such as Yale University,[14] Columbia University,[15] New York University, George Washington University,[16] The New School, and the CUNY Graduate Center, award it under certain circumstances, such as to PhD candidates when they complete their required coursework and qualifying examinations but have not yet completed and defended their doctoral dissertation.[17][18][19] This formalizes the more colloquial "All But Dissertation" status; as such, defense of a dissertation proposal is sometimes required for conferral. Other colleges and universities, such as the University of Michigan and the University of Pennsylvania, offer a standalone MPhil as an advanced graduate degree in various fields.[20][21]

See also



  1. ^ "Master of Philosophy - Research: Future Students". Archived from the original on 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  2. ^ "Master of Philosophy - Future Students - the University of Queensland". Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-22.
  3. ^ "Master of Philosophy Program". Queens University. Queens University Canada. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  4. ^ "MPhil to be discontinued, other key changes in new National Education Policy". Mint. 29 July 2020.
  5. ^ "M.Phil degrees recognised no more reiterates UGC". The Hindu. 27 Dec 2023.
  6. ^ "Quality Assurance Documents". Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  7. ^ De MPhil graad wordt niet meer verleend, Leiden University. Archived July 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Fossen, Christian. "Programme components – Master of Philosophy in English Linguistics and Language Acquisition". www.ntnu.edu. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  9. ^ "HEC Recognized Universities and Degree Awarding Institutions". Archived from the original on 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
  10. ^ a b Master's Degree Characteristics Statement (PDF) (Report). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2019-02-09.
  11. ^ University, The Open. "MPhil - Research Degrees - Open University". www.open.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  12. ^ "Qualifications". Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  13. ^ "Oxford law - postgraduate research". Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved 2009-05-13.
  14. ^ "Philosophy Program Description". Yale University. Retrieved 2023-02-19.
  15. ^ "Master of Philosophy". Columbia Business School. Retrieved 2023-02-19.
  16. ^ "PhD in Economics". Columbian College of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 2023-02-19.
  17. ^ "New York University Bulletin of the Graduate School of Arts and Science" (PDF). New York University Graduate School of Arts and Science. 2019–2021.
  18. ^ "Milano School of Policy, Management, and Environment". The New School. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  19. ^ "Awarding of Degrees". CUNY Graduate Center. Archived from the original on 2021-10-18. Retrieved 2023-03-17.
  20. ^ "Department of Philosophy". College of Literature, Science, and the Arts. University of Michigan. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  21. ^ "Master of Philosophy in Liberal Arts". College of Liberal and Professional Studies. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 4 April 2019.