The mountain range is located in the northern region of Haiti, in the departments of the Nord and in Artibonite. The range's altitude varies from 600–1,210 metres (1,970–3,970 ft). The Plaine du Nord lies along the northern border with the Dominican Republic, between the Massif du Nord and the North Atlantic Ocean. This lowland area of 2,000 square kilometers is about 150 kilometers long and 30 kilometers wide.
It is the western extension of the Cordillera Central that runs through the Dominican Republic. This channel extends to the northwest under the name of the Chaîne du Haut-Piton.
A narrow northern coastal plain lies north of the range on the Caribbean Sea. The Guayamouc River flows south from the range.
The Massif du Nord separates the city of Cap-Haïtien from the capital Port-au-Prince.