Martapura River

Martapura River (Indonesian: Sungai Martapura) is a river of southeast Borneo, Indonesia.[1][2] It is a tributary of the Barito River. Other names for the river are Banjar Kecil River[3][4][5][6] or Kayutangi River and due to many activities of Chinese merchants in the past in the downstream area also called China River.[7][8][9] It merges with Barito River in Banjarmasin, flowing from the source in Martapura, Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan.[10]

Martapura River
Sungai Banjar Kecil, Sungai Kayutangi
Sungai Cina, Sungai Tatas, Soengai Martapoera
Banks of Martapura River, South Kalimantan, 2018-07-28 01.jpg
Martapura River outside Banjarmasin
Native nameSungai Martapura  (Indonesian)
Location
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceSouth Kalimantan
Physical characteristics
Source 
 • locationMartapura, Banjar Regency
MouthBarito River

EtymologyEdit

The river name is taken from the city of Martapura, which was a capital of Banjar Kingdom in around 1630, specifically in the area of Kayu Tangi (hence also the name "Kayutangi River").[11] Another name is "Tatas River" (Indonesian: Sungai Tatas), pointing to the delta Tatas, which in 1787 was acquired by the Dutch East India Company (now the downtown of modern city Banjarmasin).[12]

HydrologyEdit

The watershed area (Indonesian: daerah aliran sungai) of Martapura has 453.88 square kilometers (175.24 sq mi), with the main river length of 36,566 meters (119,967 feet), and with all tributaries has a total length of 375.91 kilometers (233.58 mi), giving a river density level of 0.828 km/km2 (1.333 mi/sq mi).[13] The elevation difference between the upstream and downstream is 8.00 meters (26.25 ft), yielding a river gradient of 0.022%.[13] The upstream area is Riam Kanan Dam.[13]

GeographyEdit

The river flows in the southeast area of Borneo with predominantly tropical rainforest climate (designated as Af in the Köppen-Geiger climate classification).[14] The annual average temperature in the area is 25 °C (77 °F). The warmest month is October, when the average temperature is around 28 °C (82 °F), and the coldest is July, at 24 °C (75 °F).[15] The average annual rainfall is 2,767 millimeters (108.9 in). The wettest month is February, with an average of 366-millimeter (14.4 in) rainfall, and the driest is September, with a 75-millimeter (3.0 in) rainfall.[16]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993.
  2. ^ Sungai Martapura - Geonames.org.
  3. ^ Müller, Salomon (1857). Reizen en onderzoekingen in den Indischen archipel, gedaan op last der nederlandsche indische regering, tusschen de jaren 1828 en 1836: Nieuwe uitgave, met verbeteringen (in Dutch).
  4. ^ van Hoëvell, Wolter Robert (1838). Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië (in Dutch). Vol. 1. Ter Lands-drukkerij. p. 6.
  5. ^ Nederlandsch-Indië (1838). "Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indië" (in Dutch). 1–2. Lands-drukk.: 6. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. ^ Buddingh, Steven Adriaan (1861). Neêrlands-Oost-Indië: Reizen over Java, Madura, Makasser, Saleijer, Bima, Menado, Sangier-eilanden, Talau-eilanden, Ternate, Batjan, Gilolo en omliggende eilanden, Banda-eilanden, Amboina, Haroekoe, Saparoea, Noussalaut, Zuidkust van Ceram, Boeroe, Boano, Banka, Palembang, Riouw, Benkoelen, Sumatra's West-Kust, Floris, Timor, Rotty, Borneo's West-Kust, en Borneo's Zuid- en Oost-Kust; gedaan gedurende het tijdvak van 1852-1857 (in Dutch). M. Wijt. pp. 442. de kleine Banjersche rivier.
  7. ^ James Cook, A collection of voyages round the world: performed by royal authority. Containing a complete historical account of Captain Cook's first, second, third and last voyages, undertaken for making new discoveries, &c. ... To which are added genuine narratives of other voyages of discovery round the ... , Printed for A. Millar, W. Law, and R. Cater, 1790
  8. ^ Salmon, Thomas (9 March 1744). "Modern history or, the present state of all nations. Describing their respective situations, persons, habits, and buildings, manners, laws and customs ... plants, animals, and minerals". London : Printed for T. Longman [et al.] – via Internet Archive.
  9. ^ https://atlantisjavasea.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/1726-herman-moll.jpg[bare URL image file]
  10. ^ Eriza Islakul Ulmi, Nilna Amal. Kajian Ekohidraulik Sungai Martapura. Program Studi Teknik Sipil, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru.
  11. ^ (in Indonesian) Mohamad Idwar Saleh, Banjarmasih: sejarah singkat mengenai bangkit dan berkembangnya kota Banjarmasin serta wilayah sekitarnya sampai dengan tahun 1950, Museum Negeri Lambung Mangkurat Propinsi Kalimantan Selatan, Direktorat Permuseuman, Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1982
  12. ^ James Cook, A collection of voyages round the world: performed by royal authrity. Containing a complete historical account of Captain Cook's first, second, third and last voyages, undertaken for making new discoveries, &c. ... To which are added genuine narratives of other voyages of discovery round the ... , Printed for A. Millar, W. Law, and R. Cater, 1790
  13. ^ a b c Sobatnu, Ferry; Irawan, Faris Ade; Salim, Agus. Identifikasi dan Pemetaan Morfometri Daerah Aliran Sungai Martapura menggunakan teknologi GIS. Jurnal Gradasi Teknik Sipil. 2017. Vol 1, No. 2. Halaman 45-52.
  14. ^ Peel, M C; Finlayson, B L; McMahon, T A (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007.
  15. ^ "NASA Earth Observations Data Set Index". NASA. 30 January 2016.
  16. ^ "NASA Earth Observations: Rainfall (1 month - TRMM)". NASA/Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission. 30 January 2016.

Coordinates: 3°17′31″S 114°34′52″E / 3.2919°S 114.5811°E / -3.2919; 114.5811

External linksEdit

  Media related to River Martapura at Wikimedia Commons