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Malinao is a sacred[3] volcano located in the Bicol Region of the Philippines. The stratovolcano has no historical eruption but displays strong fumarolic activity which is harnessed for generating electricity. Located on its slope is Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant, one of the first geothermal energy plant commissioned in the country.[4]

Malinao Volcano
Mount Malinao
Mount Malinao.jpg
Mount Malinao with Tiwi Geothermal Field in the foreground
Highest point
Elevation1,548 m (5,079 ft) [1][2]
ListingPotentially active volcano
Coordinates13°24′58″N 123°36′30″E / 13.41611°N 123.60833°E / 13.41611; 123.60833Coordinates: 13°24′58″N 123°36′30″E / 13.41611°N 123.60833°E / 13.41611; 123.60833
Malinao Volcano is located in Luzon
Malinao Volcano
Malinao Volcano
Malinao Volcano is located in Philippines
Malinao Volcano
Malinao Volcano
RegionBicol Region
Age of rockQuaternary
Mountain typestratovolcano
Volcanic arc/beltBicol Volcanic Chain
Last eruptionUnknown



Malinao Volcano is situated between the provinces of Albay and Camarines Sur in the southeastern region of Luzon Island; about 20 km (12 mi) north-northwest of Mayon volcano, the most active volcano in the Philippines.

Physical featuresEdit

The mountain is forested with an elevation of 1,548 metres (5,079 ft) asl and a base diameter of 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi). On the summit of the volcano is a large crater with bare inner walls that is breached on the eastern side. On the lower flank this side of the predominantly andesitic volcano, is Luzon's largest solfataras and hot springs, some of which deposit siliceous sinter. Naglagbong and Jigabo are two thermal wells located on the volcano. Temperatures up to 108 °C (226 °F) were recorded on the fumaroles of Naglagbong.[1][2]

Tiwi Geothermal Power PlantEdit

This area was one of the first studied for generating electricity starting with a 250 kW power plant in 1967.[5] In 1979, the first of the three 110 MW geothermal power plant was commissioned that year; the other two, in 1980 and 1982. At its peak, the plant was producing a maximum of 330 MW output. Recently, the 1979 plant was decommissioned due to decrease in steam supply.[6][7]


The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), the government bureau that deals with volcanism in the country classifies Malinao as a potentially active volcano.[8][2]

Eruptions & activitiesEdit

There are no historical eruptions from Malinao which is believed to have been active from about 500,000 years ago until 60,000 years ago.[1]

1970 earthquake swarmsEdit

There was an increase in seismicity in 1970 accompanied by rumbling noises in Malinao prompting an issue of warning that the mountain might be reactivating. The tremors detected were ranging from 1 to 5 in intensity.[1]

Small explosion in 1980Edit

There was a minor phreatic explosion in the Naglagbong pool area in Tiwi on July 29, 1980, ejecting mud and rocks up to 23 metre (2 ft 2 in), reaching 150 metres (490 ft) in height and distances up to 350 metres (1,150 ft). One person was injured and two buildings were damaged by the explosion. Prior to the event, as early as July 6, the area was experiencing unusual microseisms recorded at seismic station of the Commission on Volcanology (COMVOL) - the predecessor of PHIVOLCS - in the area. Geysering was also observed on the pool, two hours before the explosion. One theory about the cause of the explosion was water drawdown during the development of the Tiwi geothermal field.[1]


The volcano is believed to be the home of the ancient Bicolano god of beasts, Asuang, who challenged the supreme god of the Bicolano, Gugurang. He is worshiped alongside his friend, Bulan, the boy-god of the moon.[3]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e "Malinao". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution.
  2. ^ a b c "Malinao". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Archived from the original on 5 Oct 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ (2009-01-20). "The Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant" Archived 2011-08-06 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.
  5. ^ (2009-01-20). "The History of Geothermal Energy Development and Production in the Philippines" Archived 2011-08-06 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.
  6. ^ (2008-06-17). "Geothermal Power Plants in the Philippines. Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2011-09-24.
  7. ^ (2008-02-24). "Geothermal Energy Resources in the Philippines". Retrieved on 2011-09-24.
  8. ^ "Potentially Active". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. 30 Jul 2008. Archived from the original on 13 Feb 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2019.

External linksEdit