Maku (Persian: ماكو, Armenian: Մակու, Azerbaijani: ماكي, romanizedMakı, Kurdish: ماکۆ, romanized: Mako[2]) is a city in the West Azerbaijan Province, Iran and the capital of Maku County. At the 2006 census, its population was 41,865, in 10,428 families.[3]

Maku
ماکو
City
Panoramic view
Panoramic view
Maku is located in Iran
Maku
Maku
Coordinates: 39°17′43″N 44°31′00″E / 39.29528°N 44.51667°E / 39.29528; 44.51667Coordinates: 39°17′43″N 44°31′00″E / 39.29528°N 44.51667°E / 39.29528; 44.51667
CountryIran
ProvinceWest Azerbaijan
CountyMaku
BakhshCentral
Population
 (2016 Census)
 • Total46,581 [1]
Time zoneUTC+3:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+4:30 (IRDT)
WebsiteMake Free Trade Zone Official Portal

It is situated 22 kilometres (14 mi) from the Turkish border in a mountain gorge at an altitude of 1,634 metres. The Zangmar River cuts through the city.[4][5] Maku Free Trade and Industrial Zone is Iran's largest and the world's second largest free trade zone and will encompass an area of 5,000 square km when it was scheduled to open in 2011. Azeris are the majority while Kurds the minority of the city.[6]

HistoryEdit

Maku was a region of the old Armenia c. 300–800, previously known as Artaz according to Aziz Atiya's History of Eastern Christianity.[7]

The Castle of Maku, original Shavarshan, was the center of the domains of the princely family of Amatuni. The Artazian branch of Amatuni family was ruling the Maku region of Artaz still in the XVth century and successfully defended it against Timurleng, when he besieged the castle of Maku.[8][9] Maku was the capital of a Kangarli Khanate[10] one of numerous small, semi-independent Maku Khanates that resulted from the breakup of the Safavid empire in the 18th century.[11]

Maku served as the capital of the Kurdish Jalali dynasty into the 1860s when the centralizing Qajar government in Persia/Iran removed them, appointing a governor instead.

The city is well known in the history of the Baháʼí Faith for its fort where the Báb had been exiled to and imprisoned for nine months. At this fortress Mullá Husayn, the first Disciple of the Báb, arrived on Náw-Rúz of the year 1848 to see the Báb.

Today the city is mainly populated by Azerbaijanis and Kurds.

ClimateEdit

Maku has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) owing to its location in the rain shadow of the Zagros Mountains. The city is hot and dry in the summer, and cold with little snow in the winter. Most precipitation comes from spring thunderstorms.

Climate data for Maku, Iran
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.5
(52.7)
14.0
(57.2)
23.0
(73.4)
27.5
(81.5)
30.6
(87.1)
36.0
(96.8)
37.0
(98.6)
37.8
(100.0)
34.2
(93.6)
28.0
(82.4)
20.8
(69.4)
19.0
(66.2)
37.8
(100.0)
Average high °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
2.6
(36.7)
8.0
(46.4)
15.4
(59.7)
19.9
(67.8)
25.2
(77.4)
29.4
(84.9)
29.6
(85.3)
24.9
(76.8)
17.5
(63.5)
9.8
(49.6)
2.9
(37.2)
15.47
(59.85)
Average low °C (°F) −7.4
(18.7)
−5.8
(21.6)
−1
(30)
5.5
(41.9)
9.1
(48.4)
13.1
(55.6)
17.2
(63.0)
17.2
(63.0)
12.5
(54.5)
7.1
(44.8)
1.0
(33.8)
−4.3
(24.3)
5.35
(41.63)
Record low °C (°F) −22
(−8)
−23
(−9)
−22
(−8)
−8
(18)
0.0
(32.0)
4.0
(39.2)
8.0
(46.4)
9.4
(48.9)
2.4
(36.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
−15.3
(4.5)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−23
(−9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13.0
(0.51)
19.9
(0.78)
30.4
(1.20)
37.1
(1.46)
54.5
(2.15)
39.6
(1.56)
14.8
(0.58)
11.5
(0.45)
10.2
(0.40)
25.7
(1.01)
20.9
(0.82)
16.9
(0.67)
294.5
(11.59)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 3.5 4.0 5.7 7.1 9.8 6.8 3.2 2.0 1.9 5.0 4.6 3.9 57.5
Average relative humidity (%) 65 59 53 46 46 40 37 36 36 46 54 65 49
Mean monthly sunshine hours 126.5 146.2 181.2 185.7 230.4 290.2 327.0 322.5 274.8 199.9 162.6 119.7 2,566.7
Source: Synoptic Stations Statistics
 
The beauty of Maku- Shirzadeh
 
Kakh Muzeh Maku, near Maku, built by one of the commanders of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah, is a popular attraction.

PopulationEdit

According to the 2006 census, the city has a population of 42,500. The languages in Maku are Azerbaijani, Kurdish, and Persian.

  1. Baqcheh Jooq Palace: dates back to the end of the Qajar period. It used to be the house of the local governor until 1974. It is 7 km northwest of central Maku and presently functions as a museum displaying some carpets and local handicrafts.
  2. Farhad's Home: A place near Baqcheh Jooq Palace. A small home with a hall and two rooms that carved into the rock. The saying comes form the story Farhad and Shirin.
  3. Ruins of a fortress are folded into a ledge of the high cliff that towers above the town centre.[12]
  4. Hiking: it is advisable to have a guide or stay within eyesight of the town. Due to its proximity to the Turkish border, it is easy to cross the border unintentionally.
  5. Rock climbing: There are numerous rock climbing sites at the northern part of the city, some exceeding 200 meters.
  6. Panj Cheshmeh – This bridge is located 5 km. from Maku on the Zangmar River, and is a monument from the Safavid era. This bridge was constructed in order to facilitate communications between Tabriz and Maku, and the surrounding rural areas.[4]

TourismEdit

Visa-freeEdit

Holders of normal passports travelling as tourists can enter Maku, Iran without a visa with maximum stay of 2 weeks (extendable) as of September 2017.[13][14][15]

Admission refusedEdit

Admission is refused to holders of passports or travel documents containing an Israeli visa or stamp or any data showing that visitor has been to Israel or indication of any connection with the state of Israel during the last 12 months.[16]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Statistical Center of Iran > Home".
  2. ^ "خۆکوشتنی کچێکی لاو لە ماکۆ". Hengaw (in Kurdish). 26 October 2019. Retrieved 3 August 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)" (Excel). Statistical Center of Iran. Archived from the original on 2011-11-11.
  4. ^ a b "Pol-e Panj Cheshmeh (Five spans bridge)" Gardesh Yaran International Tour Operator Co.
  5. ^ Satellite view
  6. ^ Hamidreza Akhavan, Hassan Zeynalnejad & Abdollah Handiani. "بررسي راه هاي همگرايي قوميتي با تاکيد بر اقوام ترک و کرد در شهرستان ماکو". Center for the Great Islamic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  7. ^ As quoted in The Search for the Twelve Apostles by William Steuart McBirnie
  8. ^ Clavijo, Ruy González de (1859). Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the Court of Timour at Samarcand, A.D. 1403-6. ISBN 9780833722348.
  9. ^ "Vida y hazañas del Gran Tamorlán, con la descripción de las tierras de su imperio y señorío / Ruy González de Clavijo".
  10. ^ Iran
  11. ^ Imranova, K. and Bayramov, E. "Historical formation of the Azerbaijani political culture and national consciousness" Azerigenocide.org Archived 2006-02-25 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Lonely Planet Iran, 4th edition, p124
  13. ^ "Removal of entry visa for Arvand Free Zone". Arvand Free Zone Organization. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  14. ^ "مزایای ثبت شرکت در مناطق آزاد".
  15. ^ "No Visa required for Iran free trade zones". 30 June 2015.
  16. ^ Visa information on the site of IRI Embassy in Moscow

External linksEdit