"Maamme" (Finnish: [ˈmɑːmːe]; Swedish: Vårt land, Finland Swedish: [ˈvoːrt ˈlɑnːd]; both meaning "Our Land") is the de facto national anthem of Finland. The music was composed by the German immigrant Fredrik Pacius, with original Swedish words by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, and with this music it was performed for the first time on 13 May 1848.[1] Originally, it was written for the 500th anniversary of Porvoo, and for that occasion it was Runeberg himself who wrote the music.[2] The poem was influenced by the "Szózat" (Appeal) of Mihály Vörösmarty, both in style and content.[3]

Maamme
Vårt land
English: Our Land
Vänrikki Stoolin tarinat 3.jpg
The first stanza of "Maamme" from the Finnish translation of The Tales of Ensign Stål

National anthem of Finland
Also known as"Vårt land" (English: "Our Land")
LyricsJohan Ludvig Runeberg, 1848
MusicFredrik Pacius, 1848
Audio sample
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version (one verse)

The melody of "Maamme" is also used for the national anthem of Estonia with a similarly themed text, "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy", 1869).[4] It is also considered to be the ethnic anthem for the Livonians as "Min izāmō" ("My Fatherland").

HistoryEdit

 
Frontpage of "Vårt land" by Johan Ludvig Runeberg
 
The Swedish words of the "Vårt Land" poem appear in Johan Ludvig Runeberg's monument in Helsinki. Sculptor Walter Runeberg.

The original poem, written in 1846 but not printed until 1848, had 11 stanzas and formed the prologue to the verse cycle The Tales of Ensign Stål ("Fänrik Ståhls sägner"), a classic example of Romantic nationalism. The current Finnish language text is usually attributed to the 1889 translation of Ensign Stål by Paavo Cajander, but in fact originates from the 1867 translation by Julius Krohn.[5][6]

There is no law regarding an official national anthem in Finland, in the way the coat of arms and flag of Finland are legally defined. Instead its position has been established gradually by convention over the years.[4]

Children learn it in school; in formal occasions it is sung both in Finnish and in Swedish. It is played at sporting events, such as the Olympics. In the 1880s and in the 1920s there were more attempts to replace it with a Finnish language version but these ceased by the 1930s.[7] Some Finns have proposed that the Finnish national anthem be set as "Finlandia" by Jean Sibelius,[8] with lyrics by V.A. Koskenniemi (Finnish) and Joel Rundt (Swedish).

It is said that Pacius composed the tune in four days. It was popular throughout the 19th century, but established as national anthem only after Pacius' death.[9]

LyricsEdit

The original lyrics consist of eleven verses but it is customary to sing the first verse and the last verse, unless the people gathered are mixed Finnish- and Swedish-speaking. In the latter case, three verses are sung: the first in Finnish, the first in Swedish and the last in Finnish.[citation needed]

Swedish original[10] Finnish translation[11] English translation[12]

I
Vårt land, vårt land, vårt fosterland,
Ljud högt, o dyra ord!
𝄆 Ej lyfts en höjd mot himlens rand,
Ej sänks en dal, ej sköljs en strand,
Mer älskad än vår bygd i nord,
Än våra fäders jord. 𝄇

II
Vårt land är fattigt, skall så bli
För den, som guld begär.
𝄆 En främling far oss stolt förbi:
Men detta landet älska vi,
För oss med moar, fjäll och skär
Ett guldland dock det är. 𝄇

III
Vi älska våra strömmars brus
Och våra bäckars språng.
𝄆 Den mörka skogens dystra sus,
Vår stjärnenatt, vårt sommarljus.
Allt, allt, vad här som syn, som sång
Vårt hjärta rört en gång. 𝄇

IV
Här striddes våra fäders strid
Med tanke, svärd och plog.
𝄆 Här, här, i klar som mulen tid.
Med lycka hård, med lycka blid.
Det finska folkets hjärta slog.
Här bars vad det fördrog. 𝄇

V
Vem täljde väl de striders tal.
Som detta folk bestod.
𝄆 Då kriget röt från dal till dal.
Då frosten kom med hungers kval.
Vem mätte allt dess spillda blod
Och allt dess tålamod? 𝄇

VI
Och det var här det blodet flöt,
Ja, här för oss det var,
𝄆 Och det var här sin fröjd det njöt,
Och det var här sin suck det göt.
Det folk som våra bördor bar
Långt före våra dar. 𝄇

VII
Här är oss ljuvt, här är oss gott,
Här är oss allt beskärt;
𝄆 Hur ödet kastar än vår lott.
Ett land, ett fosterland vi fått,
Vad finns på jorden mera värt
Att hållas dyrt och kärt? 𝄇

VIII
Och här och här är detta land.
Vårt öga ser det här,
𝄆 Vi kunna sträcka ut vår hand
Och visa glatt på sjö och strand
Och säga: se det landet där.
Vårt fosterland det är. 𝄇

IX
Och fördes vi att bo i glans
Bland guldmoln i det blå,
𝄆 Och blev vårt liv en stjärnedans.
Där tår ej göts, där suck ej fanns.
Till detta arma land ändå
Vår längtan skulle stå. 𝄇

X
O land, du tusen sjöars land,
Där sång och trohet byggt,
𝄆 Där livets hav oss gett en strand,
Vår forntids land, vår framtids land.
Var för din fattigdom ej skyggt.
Var fritt, var glatt, var tryggt. 𝄇

XI
Din blomning, sluten än i knopp,
Skall mogna ur sitt tvång;
𝄆 Se, ur vår kärlek skall gå opp
Ditt ljus, din glans, din fröjd, ditt hopp.
Och högre klinga skall en gång
Vår fosterländska sång. 𝄇

I
Oi maamme, Suomi, synnyinmaa,
soi, sana kultainen!
𝄆 Ei laaksoa, ei kukkulaa,
ei vettä rantaa rakkaampaa,
kuin kotimaa tää pohjoinen,
maa kallis isien! 𝄇

II
On maamme köyhä, siksi jää,
jos kultaa kaivannet
𝄆 Sen vieras kyllä hylkäjää,
mut meille kallein maa on tää,
sen salot, saaret, manteret,
ne meist on kultaiset. 𝄇

III
Ovatpa meille rakkahat
koskemme kuohuineen,
𝄆 ikuisten honkain huminat,
täht'yömme, kesät kirkkahat,
kaikk'kuvineen ja lauluineen
mi painui sydämeen. 𝄇

IV
Täss auroin, miekoin, miettehin
isämme sotivat,
𝄆 kun päivä piili pilvihin
tai loisti onnen paistehin,
täss Suomen kansan vaikeimmat
he vaivat kokivat. 𝄇

V
Tään kansan taistelut ken voi
ne kertoella, ken?
𝄆 Kun sota laaksoissamme soi,
ja halla näläntuskan toi,
ken mittasi sen hurmehen
ja kärsimykset sen? 𝄇

VI
Täss on sen veri virrannut
hyväksi meidänkin,
𝄆 täss iloaan on nauttinut
ja murheitansa huokaillut
se kansa, jolle muinaisin
kuormamme pantihin. 𝄇

VII
Tääll' olo meill on verraton
ja kaikki suotuisaa,
𝄆 vaikk onni mikä tulkohon,
maa isänmaa se meillä on.
Mi maailmass on armaampaa
ja mikä kalliimpaa? 𝄇

VIII
Ja tässä, täss' on tämä maa,
sen näkee silmämme.
𝄆 me kättä voimme ojentaa
ja vettä rantaa osoittaa
ja sanoa: kas tuoss' on se,
maa armas isäimme. 𝄇

IX
Jos loistoon meitä saatettais
vaikk' kultapilvihin,
𝄆 mis itkien ei huoattais,
vaan tärkein riemun sielu sais,
ois tähän köyhään kotihin
halumme kuitenkin. 𝄇

X
Totuuden, runon kotimaa
maa tuhatjärvinen
𝄆 miss' elämämme suojan saa,
sa muistojen, sa toivon maa,
ain ollos, onnees tyytyen,
vapaa ja iloinen. 𝄇

XI
Sun kukoistukses kuorestaan
kerrankin puhkeaa,
𝄆 viel lempemme saa nousemaan
sun toivos, riemus loistossaan,
ja kerran, laulus synnyinmaa
korkeemman kaiun saa. 𝄇

I
Our land, our land, our Fatherland!
Ring out, dear word, oh sound!
𝄆 No rising hill, or mountain grand,
No sloping dale, no northern strand,
There is, more loved, to be found,
Than this — our fathers' ground. 𝄇

II
Our land is poor, and so shall be
To him who gold will crave.
𝄆 The strangers proudly pass, but we
Shall ever love this land, we see,
In moor, and fell, and isle and wave,
A golden land, so brave. 𝄇

III
We love our rippling brooks, so bright,
Our gushing streams, so strong,
𝄆 The whisper of dark woods, at night,
Our starry skies, our summer light,
All, all that we, in sight and song,
Have felt and lived among. 𝄇

IV
Here fought our fathers, without fear,
With sword, and plough, and thought.
𝄆 And here, in clouded times, and clear,
With fortune in their front or rear,
Their Finnish hearts have beat, and wrought
And borne what bear they ought. 𝄇

V
Who tells, of all the fights, the tale,
In which this folk withstood,
𝄆 When war did rage from dale to dale,
When frost set in, with hunger's wail?
Who measured all their pouring blood,
And all their patience good? 𝄇

VI
And it was here their blood was shed,
For us, here, on this shore;
𝄆 And it was here their joys were bred,
Here, that their sighs were heaved and fled,
That people's who our burdens bore
Before us, long before. 𝄇

VII
Here it is sweet and good, we wot,
All, too, is giv'n us here;
𝄆 However fate may cast our lot,
A land, a fatherland, we've got.
Will there a thing on earth appear
More worthy, to hold dear? 𝄇

VIII
And here's, and here's this fatherland,
Here every eye it sees;
𝄆 And we can stretch a pointing hand,
To show, with joy, its sea and strand,
And say, "Behold this country, this,
Our Fatherland it is." 𝄇

IX
And if we once were made to rise
To gold clouds, from below,
𝄆 And if we moved in starry skies,
Where no one weeps, where no one sighs,
To this poor lonely country, though,
Our longing hearts would go. 𝄇

X
Oh land, the thousand lakes' own land,
Of faith, and lay, and glee,
𝄆 Where life's main sea gave us a strand,
Our fore-time's land, our future's land,
Shy of thy poorness, never be,
Be calm, be glad, be free! 𝄇

XI
Thy blossom, hidden now from sight,
Shall burst its bud ere long.
𝄆 Lo! from our love, shall rise aright,
Thy sun, thy hope, thy joy, thy light,
And higher, once, more full and strong,
Shall ring Our Country's song. 𝄇

International Phonetic Alphabet transcriptionsEdit

Swedish IPA transcription[a] Finnish IPA transcription[b]

1
[voːrt lɑnːd | voːrt lɑnːd | voˑrt ˈfos.tær.lɑnd |]
[jʉːd høkt | uː ˈdyː.rɑ uːrd ‖]
𝄆 [ej lyfts en højd muːt ˈhim.lens rɑnːd |]
[ej seŋks en dɑːl | ej ɕøls en strɑnːd |]
[meːr ˈel.skɑd en voːr byɡd iː nuːrd |]
[en ˈvoː.rɑ ˈfeː.dærs juːrd ‖] 𝄇

11
[din ˈblum.niŋ | ˈslʉː.ten en iː knopː |]
[skɑlː ˈmuːɡ.nɑ ʉːr sitː tvoŋ ‖]
𝄆 [seː | ʉːr voːr ˈtɕæːr.lek skɑlː ɡoː opː]
[ditː jʉːs | din ɡlɑns | din frøjd | ditː hopː ‖]
[ok ˈhøːɡ.re ˈkliŋ.ŋɑ skɑlː en ɡoŋ]
[voːr ˈfos.tær.lend.skɑ soŋ ‖] 𝄇

1
[oi̯ ˈmɑːm.me | ˈsuo̯.mi | ˈsyn.nyi̯n.mɑː |
[soj | ˈsɑ.nɑ ˈkul.tɑi̯.nen ‖
𝄆 [ei̯ ˈlɑːk.so.ɑ | ej ˈkuk.ku.lɑː |
[ei̯ ˈʋet.tæ ˈrɑn.tɑː ˈrɑk.kɑːm.pɑː |
ˈkui̯n ˈko.ti.mɑː tæː ˈpoh.joi̯.nen |
[mɑː ˈkɑl.lis ˈi.si.en ‖] 𝄇

11
[sun ˈku.koi̯s.tuk.ses ˈkuo̯.res.tɑːn]
[ˈker.rɑŋ.kim ˈpuh.ke.ɑː |]
𝄆 [ˈʋie̯l ˈlem.pem.me sɑː ˈnou̯.se.mɑːn]
[sun ˈtoi̯.ʋos | ˈrie̯.mus ˈloi̯s.tos.sɑːn |]
[jɑ ˈker.rɑn | ˈlɑu̯.lus ˈsyn.nyi̯n.mɑː]
[ˈkor.keːm.mɑn ˈkɑi̯.un ˈsɑː ‖] 𝄇

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Finnish national anthem". This Is Finland. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  2. ^ Gábor, Richly (2010). "A finn nemzeti himnusz" [The Finnish national anthem]. Kortárs (in Hungarian). 54 (2).
  3. ^ Leffler Béla. (1918). "A Szózat hatása Runeberg " Vårt land " c. költeményére" (PDF). Irodalomtörténet. 7 (2): 218–221.
  4. ^ a b Lassander, Uolevi (1998). "Vårt land - Maamme - Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm". Tuglas Society (in Finnish). Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  5. ^ Käännökset (Translations) - Runeberg Museum site (in Finnish)
  6. ^ J. L. Runeberg Archived 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine - Finnish Literature Society site (in Finnish)
  7. ^ Richly Gábor (2010). "A finn nemzeti himnusz". Kortárs. 54 (2).
  8. ^ Gronow, Pekka. ""Maamme" (Our country), brief history of the Finnish national anthem". Europeana. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  9. ^ Holmqvist, Christian. "The Story of Vårt Land". Pacius 200 years. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  10. ^ "Vårt land, Finlands nationalsång av Johan Ludvig Runeberg".
  11. ^ Runeberg, Johan Ludvig (1919) [1889]. Vänrikki Stoolin tarinat (in Finnish). Translated by Cajander, Paavo.
  12. ^ (Trans. from Swedish by Anna Krook, 1904.)
    "Finland - National Anthem". csridentity.com. Archived from the original on 13 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2014.

External linksEdit