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"Maamme" (Finnish: [ˈmɑːmːe]) or "Vårt land" (Finland Swedish: [ˈvoːrt ˈlanːd]; both meaning "Our Land") is Finland's national anthem. The music was composed by the German immigrant Fredrik Pacius, with (original Swedish) words by Johan Ludvig Runeberg, and with this music it was performed for the first time on 13 May 1848.[1] Originally it was written for the 500th anniversary of Porvoo and for that occasion it was Runeberg himself who wrote the music.[2] The poem has been influenced by the "Szózat" (Appeal) of Mihály Vörösmarty, both in style and content.[3]

Maamme
Vårt land
English: Our Land
Vänrikki Stoolin tarinat 3.jpg
The first stanza of "Maamme" from the Finnish translation of The Tales of Ensign Stål

National anthem of  Finland
Also known as"Vårt land" (English: "Our Land")
LyricsJohan Ludvig Runeberg, 1848
MusicFredrik Pacius, 1848
Audio sample
"Maamme" (instrumental, one verse)

The melody of "Maamme" is also used for the national anthem of Estonia with a similarly themed text, "Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm" ("My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy", 1869).[4] It is also considered to be the ethnic anthem for the Livonians as "Min izāmō" ("My Fatherland").

HistoryEdit

 
Frontpage of "Vårt land" by Johan Ludvig Runeberg
 
The Swedish words of the "Vårt Land" poem appear in Johan Ludvig Runeberg's monument in Helsinki. Sculptor Walter Runeberg.

The original poem, written in 1846 but not printed until 1848, had 11 stanzas and formed the prologue to the verse cycle The Tales of Ensign Stål ("Fänrik Ståhls Sägner"), a classic example of Romantic nationalism. The current Finnish language text is usually attributed to the 1889 translation of Ensign Stål by Paavo Cajander, but in fact originates from the 1867 translation by Julius Krohn.[5][6]

The Tales of Ensign Stål were much appreciated throughout all of Scandinavia. Up until the time of Finland's independence in 1917 and 1918, when the song began to be recognized as specifically applying to Finland, Pacius's tune and Runeberg's text were often also sung in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Note that in the original Swedish text there is no reference to Finland (except for in verses 4 and 10, which are rarely sung), only to a country in the north, but the Finnish text explicitly refers to Finland. The poem's theme is, furthermore, remarkably similar to that of the national anthems of Sweden ("Du gamla, Du fria") and Norway ("Ja, vi elsker dette landet").[citation needed]

There is no law regarding an official national anthem in Finland, in the way the coat of arms and flag of Finland are legally defined. Instead its position has been established gradually by convention over the years.[4]

Today, "Maamme" is firmly established by convention. Children learn it in school; in formal occasions it is sung both in Finnish and in Swedish. It is played at sporting events, such as the Olympics. In the 1880s and in the 1920s there were more attempts to replace it with a Finnish language version but these ceased by the 1930s.[7] Some Finns have proposed that the Finnish national anthem be changed to "Finlandia" by Jean Sibelius,[8] with lyrics by V.A. Koskenniemi (Finnish) and Joel Rundt (Swedish). There are also those who simply prefer "Finlandia" as a musical piece, although critics claim that it is difficult to sing.[citation needed]

It is said that Pacius composed the tune in four days. It was popular throughout the 19th century, but established as national anthem only after Pacius' death.[9]

The melody of "Maamme" has similarities with the German drinking song "Papst und Sultan". Many believe that Fredrik Pacius intentionally or unintentionally copied parts of the tune.[9] Another Finnish patriotic song, "Sotilaspoika", composed by Pacius, also includes similarities with "Papst und Sultan".[citation needed]

During 1993, an instrumental version of Maamme was used as professional wrestler Tony Halme's (under the ring name "Ludvig Borga") entrance theme [10]

LyricsEdit

The original lyrics consist of eleven verses but it is customary to sing the first verse and the last verse, unless the people gathered are mixed Finnish- and Swedish-speaking. In the later case, three verses are sung: the first in Finnish, the first in Swedish and the last in Finnish.[citation needed]

Finnish versionEdit

Finnish translation
English translation

Oi maamme, Suomi, synnyinmaa,
soi, sana kultainen!
𝄆 Ei laaksoa, ei kukkulaa,
ei vettä rantaa rakkaampaa,
kuin kotimaa tää pohjoinen,
maa kallis isien! 𝄇

On maamme köyhä, siksi jää,
jos kultaa kaivannet
Sen vieras kyllä hylkäjää,
mut meille kallein maa on tää,
sen salot, saaret, manteret,
ne meist on kultaiset.

Ovatpa meille rakkahat
koskemme kuohuineen,
ikuisten honkain huminat,
täht'yömme, kesät kirkkahat,
kaikk'kuvineen ja lauluineen
mi painui sydämeen.

Täss auroin, miekoin, miettehin
isämme sotivat,
kun päivä piili pilvihin
tai loisti onnen paistehin,
täss Suomen kansan vaikeimmat
he vaivat kokivat.

Tään kansan taistelut ken voi
ne kertoella, ken?
Kun sota laaksoissamme soi,
ja halla näläntuskan toi,
ken mittasi sen hurmehen
ja kärsimykset sen?

Täss on sen veri virrannut
hyväksi meidänkin,
täss iloaan on nauttinut
ja murheitansa huokaillut
se kansa, jolle muinaisin
kuormamme pantihin.

Tääll' olo meill on verraton
ja kaikki suotuisaa,
vaikk onni mikä tulkohon,
maa isänmaa se meillä on.
Mi maailmass on armaampaa
ja mikä kalliimpaa?

Ja tässä, täss' on tämä maa,
sen näkee silmämme.
me kättä voimme ojentaa
ja vettä rantaa osoittaa
ja sanoa: kas tuoss' on se,
maa armas isäimme.

Jos loistoon meitä saatettais
vaikk' kultapilvihin,
mis itkien ei huoattais,
vaan tärkein riemun sielu sais,
ois tähän köyhään kotihin
halumme kuitenkin.

Totuuden, runon kotimaa
maa tuhatjärvinen
miss' elämämme suojan saa,
sa muistojen, sa toivon maa,
ain ollos, onnees tyytyen,
vapaa ja iloinen.

Sun kukoistukses kuorestaan
kerrankin puhkeaa,
viel lempemme saa nousemaan
sun toivos, riemus loistossaan,
ja kerran, laulus synnyinmaa
korkeemman kaiun saa.

O our land Finland, our land of birth,
sound, the golden word!
𝄆 There's no valley, no hill
no water, shore more precious
than this northern homeland
the dear land of our fathers! 𝄇

Our land is poor, so it remains,
if you long for gold
A stranger sure abandons it,
but to us, the most precious land is this,
its wilds, islands, mainlands,
to us, they are golden.

They are dear to us
our rapids with their surges
the hummings of eternal pines
our starnights, the summers bright
all that with their pictures and songs
closed to heart.

Here with ploughs, swords, thoughts
our fathers fought,
when the day hid in the clouds
or shone with shines of happiness
here the nation of Finland, the most difficult
troubles they experienced.

This nation's battles who can
tell them, who?
When a war sounded in our valleys,
and frost brought the pain of hunger,
who measured the blood
and its sufferings?

Here has its blood flown
for our sake, too
here has it enjoyed its happiness
and sighed its worries
that nation, to which the most ancient
burden of ours was given.

Here we have a feeling excellent
and everything favourable,
although be it whatever luck
land fatherland is what we have.
What's sweeter in the world
and what's more precious?

And here is this land,
our eyes see it.
We can reach out a hand
and point at water, shore
and say: see, there's
our father's dearest land.

If we were accompanied to glory
even to golden clouds,
where we wouldn't cry
but most important joy the soul would get,
to this poor home
our will would be.

The homeland of truth and poet
the land with a thousand lakes
where our life gets protection,
you the land of memories and hopes,
always be, content with your luck,
free and joyful.

Your prosperity from its hide
shall break out once
yet our love it shall rise
your hope, joy in its brilliance,
and once, your song, the land of birth
shall get the highest echo.[11]

IPA transcriptions of the first and last verses sung
[ˈoj ˈmɑːmːe | ˈsuo̯mi | ˈsynːyjnˌmɑː |]

[ˈsoj | ˈsɑnɑ ˈkultɑjnen ‖|]
[ej ˈlɑːksoɑ | ej ˈkukːulɑː |]
[ej ˈʋetːæ ˈrɑntɑː ˈrɑkːɑːmpɑː |]
[ˈkujn ˈkotiˌmɑː ˈtæː ˈpoxjojnen |]
[ˈmɑː ˈkɑlːis ˈisi.en ‖]

[ˈsun ˈkukojstukses ˈkuo̯restɑːn]
[ˈkerːɑŋkim ˈpuxkeɑː |]
[ˈʋie̯l ˈlempemːe ˈsɑː ˈnowsemɑːn]
[ˈsun ˈtojʋos | ˈrie̯mus ˈlojstosːɑːn |]
[ˈjɑ ˈkerːɑn | ˈlɑwlus ˈsynːyjnˌmɑː]

[ˈkorkeːmːɑn ˈkɑjun ˈsɑː ‖]

Swedish versionEdit

Swedish original
English translation

Vårt land, vårt land, vårt fosterland,
Ljud högt, o dyra ord!
𝄆 Ej lyfts en höjd mot himlens rand,
Ej sänks en dal, ej sköljs en strand,
Mer älskad än vår bygd i nord,
Än våra fäders jord. 𝄇

Vårt land är fattigt, skall så bli
För den, som guld begär.
En främling far oss stolt förbi:
Men detta landet älska vi,
För oss med moar, fjäll och skär
Ett guldland dock det är.

Vi älska våra strömmars brus
Och våra bäckars språng.
Den mörka skogens dystra sus,
Vår stjärnenatt, vårt sommarljus.
Allt, allt, vad här som syn, som sång
Vårt hjärta rört en gång.

Här striddes våra fäders strid
Med tanke, svärd och plog.
Här, här, i klar som mulen tid.
Med lycka hård, med lycka blid.
Det finska folkets hjärta slog.
Här bars vad det fördrog.

Vem täljde väl de striders tal.
Som detta folk bestod.
Då kriget röt från dal till dal.
Då frosten kom med hungers kval.
Vem mätte allt dess spillda blod
Och allt dess tålamod?

Och det var här det blodet flöt,
Ja, här för oss det var,
Och det var här sin fröjd det njöt,
Och det var här sin suck det göt.
Det folk som våra bördor bar
Långt före våra dar.

Här är oss ljuvt, här är oss gott,
Här är oss allt beskärt;
Hur ödet kastar än vår lott.
Ett land, ett fosterland vi fått,
Vad finns på jorden mera värt
Att hållas dyrt och kärt?

Och här och här är detta land.
Vårt öga ser det här,
Vi kunna sträcka ut vår hand
Och visa glatt på sjö och strand
Och säga: se det landet där.
Vårt fosterland det är.

Och fördes vi att bo i glans
Bland guldmoln i det blå,
Och blev vårt liv en stjärnedans.
Där tår ej göts, där suck ej fanns.
Till detta arma land ändå
Vår längtan skulle stå.

O land, du tusen sjöars land,
Där sång och trohet byggt,
Där livets hav oss gett en strand,
Vår forntids land, vår framtids land.
Var för din fattigdom ej skyggt.
Var fritt, var glatt, var tryggt.

Din blomning, sluten än i knopp,
Skall mogna ur sitt tvång;
Se, ur vår kärlek skall gå opp
Ditt ljus, din glans, din fröjd, ditt hopp.
Och högre klinga skall en gång
Vår fosterländska sång.[12]

Our land, our land, our Fatherland!
Ring out, dear word, oh sound!
𝄆 No rising hill, or mountain grand,
No sloping dale, no northern strand,
There is, more loved, to be found,
Than this — our fathers’ ground. 𝄇

Our land is poor, and so shall be
To him who gold will crave.
The strangers proudly pass, but we
Shall ever love this land, we see,
In moor, and fell, and isle and wave,
A golden land, so brave.

We love our rippling brooks, so bright,
Our gushing streams, so strong,
The whisper of dark woods, at night,
Our starry skies, our summer light,
All, all that we, in sight and song,
Have felt and lived among.

Here fought our fathers, without fear,
With sword, and plough, and thought.
And here, in clouded times, and clear,
With fortune in their front or rear,
Their Finnish hearts have beat, and wrought
And borne what bear they ought.

Who tells, of all the fights, the tale,
In which this folk withstood,
When war did rage from dale to dale,
When frost set in, with hunger’s wail?
Who measured all their pouring blood,
And all their patience good?

And it was here their blood was shed,
For us, here, on this shore;
And it was here their joys were bred,
Here, that their sighs were heaved and fled,
That people’s who our burdens bore
Before us, long before.

Here it is sweet and good, we wot,
All, too, is giv’n us here;
However fate may cast our lot,
A land, a fatherland, we’ve got.
Will there a thing on earth appear
More worthy, to hold dear?

And here’s, and here’s this fatherland,
Here every eye it sees;
And we can stretch a pointing hand,
To show, with joy, its sea and strand,
And say, “Behold this country, this,
Our Fatherland it is.”

And if we once were made to rise
To gold clouds, from below,
And if we moved in starry skies,
Where no one weeps, where no one sighs,
To this poor lonely country, though,
Our longing hearts would go.

Oh land, the thousand lakes’ own land,
Of faith, and lay, and glee,
Where life’s main sea gave us a strand,
Our fore-time’s land, our future’s land,
Shy of thy poorness, never be,
Be calm, be glad, be free!

Thy blossom, hidden now from sight,
Shall burst its bud ere long.
Lo! from our love, shall rise aright,
Thy sun, thy hope, thy joy, thy light,
And higher, once, more full and strong,
Shall ring Our Country’s song.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The Finnish national anthem". This Is Finland. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  2. ^ Gábor, Richly (2010). "A finn nemzeti himnusz" [The Finnish national anthem]. Kortárs (in Hungarian). 54 (2).
  3. ^ Leffler Béla. (1918). "A Szózat hatása Runeberg " Vårt land " c. költeményére" (PDF). Irodalomtörténet. 7 (2): 218–221.
  4. ^ a b Lassander, Uolevi (1998). "Vårt land - Maamme - Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm". Tuglas Society (in Finnish). Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  5. ^ Käännökset (Translations) - Runeberg Museum site (in Finnish)
  6. ^ J. L. Runeberg Archived 2007-03-15 at the Wayback Machine - Finnish Literature Society site (in Finnish)
  7. ^ Richly Gábor (2010). "A finn nemzeti himnusz". Kortárs. 54 (2).
  8. ^ Gronow, Pekka. ""Maamme" (Our country), brief history of the Finnish national anthem". Europeana. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  9. ^ a b Holmqvist, Christian. "The Story of Vårt Land". Pacius 200 years. Retrieved 2016-05-08.
  10. ^ TheEaglesfan01 (2010-01-26), Ludvig Borga titantron (RIP), retrieved 2019-02-18
  11. ^ "Finland - National Anthem". csridentity.com. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
  12. ^ http://www.nykarlebyvyer.nu/sidor/texter/poesi/jlr/vartland.htm

External linksEdit