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Ma Zhan’ao (1830–1886) (simplified Chinese: 马占鳌; traditional Chinese: 馬占鰲; pinyin: Mǎ Zhànáo; Wade–Giles: Ma Chan-ao, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ جً اَﻮْ‎) was a Chinese Muslim General who defected to the Qing Dynasty in 1872 during the Dungan revolt along with his General Ma Qianling and General Ma Haiyan who served under him during the revolt. He first sent Ma Chun (Ma Jun) to negotiate a surrender with General Zuo, but Zuo suspected a ruse. Ma then sent his son, Ma Anliang, to negotiate.[2] He then assisted General Zuo Zongtang in crushing the rebel Muslims.[3][4] In 1877 he and Ma Qianling expelled Muslim rebels who refused to give up from the hills surrounding Hezhou.[5] He had three sons, Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang,[6] and Ma Suiliang (Ma Sui-liang) 馬遂良.[7] The escape of Han people from Hezhou during the rebellion was assisted by Ma Zhan'ao.[8]

Ma Zhan’ao
Born1830 (1830)
Linxia County, Gansu
Died1886 (aged 55–56)
AllegianceFlag of the Qing dynasty Qing dynasty
Years of service1872-1877
Rankgeneral
Battles/warsDungan revolt
Awards華翎五品頂戴 "feathered cap of the fifth rank"[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 127, 230. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  2. ^ William Leslie Bales (1937). Tso Tsungt'ang, soldier and statesman of old China. Kelly and Walsh, Limited. p. 278. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  3. ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. pp. 68, 136. ISBN 0-7007-1026-4. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  4. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. pp. 127, 140. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  5. ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 0-295-97644-6. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  6. ^ 民国少数民族将军(组图)2 - 360Doc个人图书馆
  7. ^ 甘、寧、青三馬家族世系簡表
  8. ^ Lipman, Jonathan N. “Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu.” Modern China, vol. 10, no. 3, 1984, p. 294. JSTOR, JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/189017?seq=10#page_scan_tab_contents.