MAN SG 220

The MAN SG 220 was a VöV-Standard articulated bus designed and manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg (M.A.N.) in Germany between 1978 and 1983, available with two, three, or four doors in two different lengths. The bus was also exported to different countries, built locally in France, Slovenia, Turkey, and the United States.

M.A.N. SG 220
Seattle 1979 MAN articulated bus on Lenora St in 1994.jpg
1979 MAN SG 220-18-2 for Seattle Metro (photographed in 1994)
Overview
ManufacturerMAN SE
Body and chassis
ClassTransit bus
RelatedMAN SG 310
Powertrain
EngineM.A.N. D2566 MLUM/US, 696 cu in (11.4 L) I-6, 305 hp (227 kW) @ 2000 rpm[1][2]
Transmission4-speed automatic Renk Doromat 874A (SG 220)[1] or 874B (SG 310)[2]
Dimensions
Wheelbase222.4 in (5.65 m) (F, SG 220)
225.5 in (5.73 m) (R, SG 220-16.5)[1]
18 ft 6 in (5.64 m) (F, SG 310)
18 ft 8 in (5.69 m) (55' R, SG 310)
23 ft 9 in (7.24 m) (60' R, SG 310)[2]
Length54.1 or 59.1 ft (16.5 or 18 m)[2]
Width102 in (2.59 m)[2]
Height125 in (3.18 m)[2]
Curb weight37,800 lb (17,100 kg) SG 220[1]
52,650 lb (23,880 kg) GVWR, SG 220[1]
59,525 lb (27,000 kg) GAWR, SG 310[2]
Chronology
PredecessorMAN SG 192
SuccessorMAN SG 240 H

In the American market, in order to meet Urban Mass Transportation Administration "Buy America" requirements for federally-subsidized vehicles, the initial set of vehicles were shipped as driveable shells and finished in the United States by AM General in Texas until 1979. After the joint venture with AM General ended, M.A.N. opened its own assembly plant in Cleveland, North Carolina to produce the SG 220 and its closely related derivative SG 310 (starting in 1981) until it abruptly withdrew from the United States transit bus market in 1988.

DesignEdit

The full model number describes the type, generation, length, and number of doors:

Type Generation Length Doors
SG = Stadt Gelenke
("City Joints", articulated bus)
220
310
16.5 = 16.5 m (54 ft) long
18 = 18 m (59 ft) long
2 = 2 doors
3 = 3 doors
4 = 4 doors

Hence a SG 220-18-3 is an articulated bus 18 m (59 ft) long with three doors. Potential door locations are (from the front proceeding to the back):

  1. Ahead of the front axle, behind the windshield
  2. Ahead of the middle axle
  3. Behind the articulation, ahead of the rear axle
  4. Behind the rear axle

In the United States, the number of doors was limited to two or three, corresponding to locations 1-x-3-x or 1-2-3-x. The SG 310 was offered with two doors, in locations 1-x-3-x.

Both the SG 220 and 310 were high-floor "puller" type articulated buses, with the middle axle driven. The SG 220 and 310 were equipped with a M.A.N. D2566 MLUM/US inline-6 turbodiesel engine, rated at 305 hp (227 kW).[1][2]

HistoryEdit

United StatesEdit

The AC Transit District serving Alameda and Contra Costa counties in the San Francisco Bay Area began using an over-the-road articulated coach in Transbay service in 1966;[3] subsequently, AC Transit was one of six transit districts to develop a "super bus" specification in the early 1970s for a higher-capacity bus. A pooled purchase was intended to reduce per-unit development costs.[4] Two European-built articulated buses were tested by AC Transit and Seattle Metro in the summer of 1974: one based on the Volvo B58 chassis, and the MAN SG 192 [de].[1]:Table 1[5] Riders received the M.A.N. bus favorably, and the specification was released for bid in 1975;[6] the pooled purchase consortium, which by then had grown to encompass ten transit districts, awarded the order to AM General in August 1976.[7] Deliveries of the AM General/M.A.N. joint venture SG 220 articulated buses began in 1978.[8][9][10]

Buses were shipped from Germany as "driveable shells" and finished by AM General according to customer specifications. AM General terminated the joint venture agreement, taking effect after the delivery of the Seattle Metro buses, and MAN opened a manufacturing plant in Cleveland, North Carolina in October 1981, with an anticipated capacity of 400 buses per year.[1]:9,22 MAN withdrew from the US transit bus market in 1988 after an order of 40-ft buses for Chicago was blocked by an injunction.[11] The Cleveland plant was sold in 1989 to Daimler subsidiary Freightliner Trucks.

OperatorsEdit

United StatesEdit

Several operators in the United States formed a pooled purchase consortium and awarded the bid to AM General for over two hundred buses.[12] By March 15, 1982, 511 articulated buses from all manufacturers had been delivered in the United States; of these buses delivered, 399 were MAN/AM General buses. Orders had been placed for an additional 692 articulated buses; of those pending orders, 557 were MAN buses.[1]:Table 2

Although operating experience with the eleven initial operators showed the per-passenger labor costs of driving the articulated bus were reduced compared with conventional buses, the articulated bus cost was almost double that of a conventional bus, required maintenance was more frequent and more costly, and dwell times were increased.[13]

United States MAN operators[1]:Table 2 [11]
City System Award date[a] Fleet Nos Qty Model PPC[12]
Atlanta, GA MARTA September 24, 1976 1601-1610 10[b] 55'
(SG 220-16.5-2A)
Yes
Chicago, IL CTA February 14, 1977 7000-7019 20 55'
(SG 220-16.5-2A)
Yes
October 1980 7100-7124 125 55'
(SG 310-16.5-2L)
No
Denver, CO RTD July 1981 9001-9089 89 60'
(SG 310-18)
No
Indianapolis, IN IPTC July 1981 8401-8430 30[c] 60'
(SG 310-18)
No
Los Angeles, CA SCRTD August 27, 1976 9200-9229 30 60'
(SG 220-18-3A)
Yes
Memphis, TN MATA July 1981 500-519 20 60'
(SG 310-18)
No
Minneapolis, MN MTC August 30, 1976 1001-1020 20 60'
(SG 220-18-2A)
Yes
August 1981 1021-1082 62 60'
(SG 310-18-2L)
No
Nashville, TN KTRANS July 1981 101-115 15 55'
(SG 310-16.5-2A)
No
Oakland, CA AC Transit September 7, 1976 1600-1629 30 60'
(SG 220-18-2A)
Yes
Phoenix, AZ PTS October 12, 1976 7001-7020 20 60'
(SG 220-18-2A)
Yes
1983 7021-7056 36 55'
(SG 310-16.5-2A)
No
Pittsburgh, PA PA Transit February 28, 1977 3000-3019 30 55'
(SG 220-16.5-2A)
Yes
July 1981 3050-3079 30 55'
(SG 310-16.5-2L)
No
Rochester, NY RGRTA 1984 301-317 17 60'
(SG 310-18-2A)
No
San Diego, CA SDTC August 30, 1976 1001-1045 45 60'
(SG 220-18-2A)
Yes
San Francisco, CA Muni 1983 6000-6099 100 60'
(SG 310-18)
No
San Jose, CA SCCTD July 1981 2401-2415 15[d] 60'
(SG 310-18)
No
San Juan, PR AMA 1984 84801-84812 12 60'
(SG 310-18-?)
No
San Rafael, CA GGBHTD September 8, 1976 451-460 10[e] 60'
(SG 220-18-2A)
Yes
Seattle, WA METRO August 30, 1976 1400-1550 151 60'
(SG 220-18-2A)
Yes
May 1980 2000-2201 202[f][g] 60'
(SG 310-18-2L)
No
1983 4000-4045 46[h] 60'
(SG T310-18)
No
Spokane, WA STA 1986 210-219 10 60'
(SG 310-18-?)
No
Washington, DC WMATA August 30, 1976 5001-5043 43 55'
(SG 220-16.5-2A)
Yes
July 1981 5101-5133 32 60'
(SG 310-18)
No
Westchester County, NY RTD August 1981 600-661 62 60'
(SG 310-18)
No
Notes
  1. ^ Ten members of the Pooled Purchase Consortium placed orders with AM General for 234 buses in 1976.[14] This excludes the 151 buses ordered by Seattle Metro.
  2. ^ Sold to CATS in 1990.
  3. ^ 8 sold to Des Moines Area Regional Transit in 1994.
  4. ^ Sold to AC Transit in 1988.
  5. ^ Sold to SCRTD in 1984.
  6. ^ 114 sold to CTA in 2000.
  7. ^ 14 sold to Rutgers University in 2001.
  8. ^ Seattle Metro was the only operator of MAN trolleybuses in the US.

CompetitionEdit

  • Crown-Ikarus 286 — In 1982, the only other manufacturer that had delivered an articulated transit bus to a United States transit district was Crown-Ikarus.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gundersen, Richard G.; Hawkes, Ted (October 1982). Technology of Articulated Transit Buses (Report). Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Retrieved January 17, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "SG-310 Articulated Bus". M.A.N. Truck & Bus Corporation. 1983. Retrieved January 14, 2019.
  3. ^ "A New concept in Public Transit" (PDF). Transit-Times. Vol. 8 no. 11. AC Transit. March 1966.
  4. ^ "Super bus project: Design sought for future coach" (PDF). Transit-Times. Vol. 13 no. 1. AC Transit. July 1970. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  5. ^ "Riders may have chance To test two new articulated buses" (PDF). Transit-Times. Vol. 17 no. 1. AC Transit. July 1974. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  6. ^ "'Superbus' preliminary specifications Out to manufacturers for review" (PDF). Transit-Times. Vol. 17 no. 8. AC Transit. February 1975. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  7. ^ "Bending for Seattle". San Bernardino Sun. August 5, 1976. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  8. ^ "Articulated coaches will ease Space crunch on heavily-used lines" (PDF). Transit-Times. Vol. 20 no. 12. AC Transit. June 1978. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  9. ^ "Bendable buses due tomorrow". Coronado Eagle and Journal. September 21, 1978. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  10. ^ Tagliabue, John (December 27, 1980). "M.A.N.'s Bendable, Flexible Bus; U.S. Cities Climbing Aboard M.A.N.'s Bendable Bus U.S. Orders for 200 Buses 'Impressive Experience' Adaptable to New York?". New York Times. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  11. ^ a b Kristopans, Andre (October 3, 2014). "M.A.N. USA". Utah Rails. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Bendable bus — latest thing?". San Bernardino Sun. New York Times News Service. May 29, 1978. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
  13. ^ Albright, Richard; Cummings, Stephen; Jessiman, William; Slavin, Howard; Waksman, Robert (July 1982). Articulated Bus Report (Report). Urban Mass Transportation Administration. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  14. ^ "Momentum for new bus fleet speeds up" (PDF). Transit-Times. Vol. 19 no. 3. AC Transit. September 1976. Retrieved January 17, 2019.

External linksEdit