Louis III of France

Louis III (863/65—5 August 882) was King of West Francia (a precursor to the Kingdom of France) from 879 until his death in 882. He succeeded his father and ruled over West Francia in tandem with his brother Carloman II. Louis controlled the northern part of West Francia (Neustria), including the capital of Paris, while Carloman controlled the southern portion (Aquitania). Louis ruled from March 880 to 5 August 882, when he died and left the rest of West Francia to his brother. His short reign was profoundly influenced by his military success, including his defeating of Northern Vikings in August 881.[1]

Louis III
King of West Francia
An engraving of Louis III, unknown year
Reign879–882
CoronationSeptember 879
PredecessorLouis the Stammerer
SuccessorCarloman II
Born863/865
St Denis
Died5 August 882
St Denis, Île-de-France, Neustria
Burial
DynastyCarolingian
FatherLouis the Stammerer
MotherAnsgarde of Burgundy

Early lifeEdit

The eldest son of Louis the Stammerer and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy,[2] Louis was born while his father was King of Aquitaine and his grandfather Charles the Bald was ruling West Francia. Some doubts were raised about his legitimacy, mostly due to the fact that his parents had married secretly and Ansgarde was later repudiated at Charles' insistence. Fortunately for Louis, he was a legitimate offspring and managed to prove it.

When Charles died in 877, followed by Louis the Stammerer on 10 April 879, some Frankish nobles advocated electing Louis as the sole king, but another party favoured each brother ruling a separate part of the kingdom. In September 879, Louis was crowned at Ferrières Abbey.[1]

Military successEdit

On 2 February 880, Louis was defeated by the Viking Great Heathen Army at the Battle of Lüneburg Heath. But, in March 880 at Amiens, the brothers divided their father's kingdom, with Louis receiving the northern and western part, called Neustria. The other brother received the southern and eastern part, and Duke Boso, one of Charles the Bald's most trusted lieutenants, renounced his allegiance to both brothers and was elected King of Provence.

 
A map showing the divisions of the Carolingian Empire in 880. Louis and his brother Carloman divided the rule of West Francia along traditional lines, with Louis controlling Neustria (in purple) and Carloman controlling Aquitania (in blue).

In the summer of 880, Carloman II and Louis III marched against him and captured Mâcon and the northern part of Boso's kingdom. They united their forces with those of their cousin Charles the Fat, then ruling East Francia and Kingdom of Italy, and unsuccessfully besieged Vienne from August to November.

In 881, Louis III achieved a momentous victory against Viking raiders, whose invasions had been ongoing since his grandfather's reign, at the Battle of Saucourt-en-Vimeu. Within a year of the battle, an anonymous poet celebrated it and the king for both his prowess and piety in a short poem Ludwigslied, composed in Old High German.

Death and legacyEdit

Louis III, at the time of his great successes, was very young, at a mere 16 to 17 years of age. His colourful victories against the Vikings entertained the public, and he was loved by most of the Francian people. In Neustria, he was widely celebrated, and he was the most popular person in the realm.

Whilst mounting his horse, Louis III died on 5 August 882, aged around 17, at Saint-Denis in the centre of his realm. He was chasing after a girl, who was retreating to her father's house, when he hit his head on the lintel of a low door and fell, fracturing his skull and killing him instantly.[3][4] Because Louis III had no children, his brother Carloman II became the sole king of West Francia, and the young king was buried in the royal mausoleum of the Basilica of Saint-Denis.[1]

Despite his short reign, Louis III was remembered greatly during his time for military prowess, but in modern times, he is widely forgotten. It is likely due to the fact that his reign was short and his accomplishments were relatively minor when considered with other military successes.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Louis III | king of France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  2. ^ McKitterick 1999, p. 258.
  3. ^ Le Bas, Philippe (1843). L'Univers, histoire et description de tous les peuples - Dictionnaire encyclopédique de la France. 10. p. 339.
  4. ^ Nelson, Janet (1994). Charles le Chauve. Aubier. ISBN 2700722612.

SourcesEdit

  • McKitterick, Rosamond (1999). The Frankish Kingdoms under the Carolingians,. Pearson Education Limited.
  • Green, Dennis H. "The Ludwigslied and the Battle of Saucourt", in Judith Jesch (ed.), The Scandinavians from the Vendel Period to the Tenth Century (Oxford: Boydell Press, 2002), 281–302.
  • Fouracre, Paul. "The Context of the Old High German Ludwigslied", Medium Aevum, 46 (1985), 87–103.
  • MacLean, Simon. Kingship and Politics in the Late Ninth Century: Charles the Fat and the end of the Carolingian Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Louis III of France
Born: 863x65 Died: 5 August 882
Preceded by
Louis II
King of West Francia
10 April 879 – 5 August 882
with Carloman II
Succeeded by
Carloman II