Lope K. Santos (born Lope Santos y Canseco, September 25, 1879 – May 1, 1963) was a Filipino Tagalog-language writer and former senator of the Philippines. He is best known for his 1906 socialist novel, Banaag at Sikat and for his contributions to the development of Filipino grammar and Tagalog orthography.

Lope K. Santos
Undated studio photo of Lope K. Santos
Senator of the Philippines from the 12th District
In office
July 1, 1920 – November 15, 1921
Appointed byFrancis Burton Harrison
Preceded byJoaquin Luna
Succeeded byHadji Butu
3rd Governor of Nueva Vizcaya
In office
Preceded byTomas Maddela Sr.
Succeeded byDomingo Maddela
4th Governor of Rizal
In office
Preceded byJosé Tupaz
Succeeded byMariano Melendres
Personal details
Lope Santos y Canseco

(1879-09-25)September 25, 1879
Pasig, Manila, Captaincy General of the Philippines
DiedMay 1, 1963(1963-05-01) (aged 83)
Resting placeManila South Cemetery[1]
Political partyNacionalista Party
Alma materEscuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation)
Occupationwriter, lawyer, politician
Known forBanaag at Sikat
Ako'y Si Wika
Aḡ Paḡgiḡera
Ano Ang Babae?
Nickname"Father of the Filipino Grammar"

Biography edit

Lope K. Santos was born in Pasig, Province of Manila (now a part of Metro Manila) as Lope Santos y Canseco to Ladislao Santos, a native of Pasig, and Victorina Canseco, a native of San Mateo, on September 25, 1879. He was raised in Pandacan.[2] His father was imprisoned during Philippine Revolution because Spanish authorities found copies of José Rizal's Noli Me Tangere and Ang Kalayaan in his possession.

Santos was sent to Escuela Normal Superior de Maestros (Higher Normal School for Teachers) for education and later finished schooling at Colegio Filipino. During the Philippine Revolution of 1896, Santos joined the revolutionaries. By the time of the death of his mother, she requested Lope to marry Simeona Salazar. The marriage happened on February 10, 1900, and they had three children namely Lakambini, Luwalhati and Makaaraw.

He pursued law at the Academia de la Jurisprudencia then at Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1912. In late 1900, Santos started writing his own newspaper Ang Kaliwanagan. This was also the time when socialism became an emerging idea in world ideology. When José Ma. Dominador Goméz was charged and sentenced by the Supreme Court of sedition and illegal association against the government in 1903, Goméz's labor group Union Obrera Democratica Filipina (Philippine Democratic Labor Union) was absorbed by Santos. The group was renamed as Union del Trabajo de Filipinas, but was later dissolved in 1907.

Lope K. Santos from a 1906 publication of "Banaag at Sikat"

In 1903, Santos started publishing fragments of his first novel, Banaag at Sikat (From Early Dawn to Full Light) on his weekly labor magazine Muling Pagsilang (The Rebirth) and was completed in 1906. When published in book form, Santos' Banaag at Sikat was then considered the first socialist-oriented book in the Philippines that expounded principles of socialism and sought labor reforms from the government. The book later became an inspiration for the assembly of the 1932 Socialist Party of the Philippines and then the 1946 group Hukbalahap.

Santos became an expert in dupluhan, a form of poetical debate during that time. Dupluhan can be compared to balagtasan, which became popular half a century before Santos' time. He also founded Sampaguita, a weekly lifestyle magazine.

In the early 1910s, he started a campaign to promote a '"national language for the Philippines", where he organized various symposia and lectures and headed numerous departments for national language in leading Philippine universities. In 1910, he was elected governor of the province of Rizal under the Nacionalista Party. In 1918, he was appointed as the governor of the newly resurveyed Nueva Vizcaya until 1920. Consequently, he was appointed to the 5th Philippine Legislature as senator from the twelfth senatorial district representing provinces having a majority of non-Christian population. He was the primary author of Philippine Legislature Act No. 2946 which enacted November 30 every year as Bonifacio Day, honoring Andrés Bonifacio.[3] He resigned from the Senate in 1921.

In 1940, Santos published the first grammar book of the "national language", Balarila ng Wikang Pambansa (Grammar of the National Language) which was commissioned by the Surian ng Wikang Pambansa (SWF). The next year, he was appointed by President Manuel L. Quezon as director of SWF until 1946. When the Philippines became a member of the United Nations he was selected to translate the 1935 Constitution for UNESCO. He was also appointed to assist in the translation of inaugural addresses of presidents Jose P. Laurel and Manuel A. Roxas.

In the early 1960s, he underwent liver operations due to complication. Santos died on May 1, 1963.

Works edit

The works of Santos include the following:

  • Banaag at Sikat (From Early Dawn to Full Light), 1903–06, first literary novel in Tagalog that incorporates socialist ideas and the works of the united associations of laborers.[4]
  • Ag̃ "Pag̃gig̃gera" (Tulag̃ Handog sa Kababaiga'g̃ Tagalog) (The "Paḡgiḡgera" (A Poem for Tagalog Women)), 1912, paḡgiḡgera is a form of early 20th century gambling.[5]
  • Kundanḡan...!: Nobelang Tagalog Katha (Deference...!: A Tagalog Novel), 1927, Santos' second literary novel.[6]
  • Tinḡíng Pahapáw sa Kasaysayan ñg Pámitikang Tagalog (Few Points in the History of Tagalog Literature), 1938[7]
  • Puso't Diwa (Heart and Spirit), three volume book collection of chosen poems of Santos during American period.
  • Sino Ka? Ako'y Si... 60 Sagot na mga Tulá (Who Are You? I am... 60 Answering Poems), 1946, collection of philosophical poems.[8]
  • Mga Hamak na Dakilà: 60 Tulâ (Mean Magnificent: 60 poems), 1950, humorous collection of war-period poems.[9]
  • "Makábagong" Balarilà?: Mga Puná at Payo sa "Sariling Wikà" ("Modern" Grammar?: Views and Advices for "National Language"), 1951, written in cooperation with Surian ng Wikang Pambansa director Cirilo H. Panganiban.[10]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Our Heritage and the Departed: A Cemeteries Tour". Presidential Museum & Library (Philippines). Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved September 27, 2015.
  2. ^ Reyes, Isidra (September 24, 2019). "This Pandacan house was a 1930s movie studio, birthplace of the Pinoy talking picture". ABS-CBN News. ABS-CBN News Channel (ANCX). Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  3. ^ Why Celebrate Bonifacio Day?[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ Quindoza-Santiago, Lilia (Dr.) Philippine Culture during the American Period), Publications about Culture and Arts, About Culture and Arts, ncca.gov.ph, 2002
  5. ^ 'Ag̃ "Pag̃gig̃gera" (Tulag̃ Handog sa Kababaiga'g̃ Tagalog)
  6. ^ Kundanḡan...!: Nobelang Tagalog Katha
  7. ^ Ting̃íng Pahapáw sa Kasaysayan ñg Pámitikang Tagalog
  8. ^ Sino Ka? Ako'y Si...
  9. ^ Mga Hamak na Dakila
  10. ^ "Makábagong" Balarilà?: Mga Puná at Payo sa "Sariling Wikà"

External links edit