London Underground S7 and S8 Stock
The London Underground S7 and S8 Stock, commonly referred to as S Stock, is a type of subsurface rolling stock used on the London Underground since 2010. Manufactured by Bombardier Transportation's Derby Litchurch Lane Works, the S Stock was ordered to replace the A60, A62, C69, C77 and D78 stock on the Metropolitan, District, Hammersmith & City, and Circle lines, which all date back to the 1960s and 1970s. The order consists of a total of 191 trains (1,395 cars), and consists of two types, S7 Stock for the Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines, and S8 Stock for the Metropolitan line, with differences in the arrangement of seating and number of cars. Both types have air-conditioning and low floors to ease accessibility for disabled people, and also have open gangways to allow passengers to move from one car to another whilst the train is moving.
|S7 and S8 Stock|
A Metropolitan line S8 Stock at Amersham
The interior of a Circle line S7 Stock
|In service||31 July 2010 − present|
|Built at||Derby Litchurch Lane Works|
|Number built||191 trains (S8: 58, S7: 133)|
|Number in service||191 trains|
|Line(s) served||S7: |
Hammersmith & City line
|Car body construction||Aluminium|
|Width||2.92 m (9 ft 7 in)|
|Doors||Six per carriage|
|Maximum speed||100 km/h (62 mph)|
|Electric system(s)||750 V DC fourth rail|
|Current collection method||Contact shoe|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
|London transport portal|
Passenger service began on the Metropolitan line in July 2010, the Hammersmith & City line in July 2012, and the Circle and District lines in September 2013. The S Stock completely replaced the A Stock on the Metropolitan line in September 2012, and the C Stock on the Circle and Hammersmith & City lines in February 2014, and started operating on the District line in June 2014; it fully replaced the D Stock on the rest of the District line in April 2017.
The S designation stands for suburban, following the London Underground tradition of designating surface stock with a letter associated with its intended route—A Stock on the Metropolitan line to Amersham, the C Stock on the Circle line and Hammersmith & City line, and D Stock on the District line.
Part of Bombardier's Movia family, the stock consists of 133 S7 seven-car trains for the Circle, District and Hammersmith & City lines, and 58 S8 eight-car trains for the Metropolitan line. There were also three additional eight-car trains called an S7+1 in use on the Metropolitan Line while the eight-car S8 trains were returned for engineering modifications and ATC fitment. These trains were formed of a seven-car S7 and an additional car from another S7, forming an eight-car train. These trains, however, retained the all-longitudinal seating of the S7, and thus could be distinguished from the remaining S8s. These trains were modified back to seven-car trains and transferred for service on the Circle, District and Hammersmith & City Lines in 2018. The S8 Stock entered service between 2010 and 2012, operating all services by September 2012.
The S Stock has faster acceleration than previous trains, at 1.3 m/s2 (2.9 mph/s), but its top speed is 100 km/h (62 mph), 13 km/h (8 mph) slower than A Stock but faster than C and D Stocks. During the period of dual operation with both old and new trains, the stock had its performance capped to match that of the older trains in order to comply with signalling constraints and avoid bunching of the service. S8 stock trains seat 306 passengers compared with 448 for A Stock, a reduction of 32%, but can accommodate 25% more standing passengers (1,226 compared with 976) and have dedicated space for wheelchairs.
The voltage has been increased from nominal 630 volts to 750 volts. This allows for better performance and also for the increased power demands of air-conditioned, fully motored-axle trains, and allow the trains to return energy to the network through regenerative braking.
Currently, the S Stock is manually operated on the Metropolitan and District lines, and most of the Hammersmith & City and Circle lines. The section between Latimer Road and Hammersmith was switched over to automatic operation in March 2019.
The S Stock is air-conditioned throughout: the sub-surface tunnels (unlike deep-level tube lines) allow the exhausted hot air to disperse, and two-thirds of the sub-surface network is in the open air. The stock has regenerative brakes, returning around 20% of their energy to the network and thus increasing energy efficiency.
End external displays show two lines of text: the top line for the destination, and the bottom for the line. Internally, it has larger dot matrix indicators (DMIs) than D Stock (A and C Stock lacked DMIs). The DMIs show destination and line, and can display other messages such as safety notices. There are also DMIs on the exterior, with text alternating between destination and line, and on S8 Stock the stopping pattern (fast, semi-fast or all stations). The S8 Stock is the first on the Metropolitan line with dot-matrix indicators and automated voice announcements.
The air-conditioning system, the first on London Underground trains, is supplied by Mitsubishi and has two circuits so that if one fails there is still 50% capacity. Through gangways from car to car, similar to London Overground's Class 378 allow passengers to move from crowded cars to ones with more room, provide extra room for standing, and create a sense of security. CCTV enables the driver to see into every car, while track-to-train video links give the driver a view of the train exterior before leaving a station. There is a fold-out set of steps in each driver's cab to allow fast evacuation in an emergency.
The S stock has cantilevered seating for easy cleaning and accessible storage of bags. The seating configurations are different between the two models of trains. S7 Stock, used on inner city lines with higher passenger traffic, has longitudinal seating throughout. S8 Stock, used for longer journeys from the outer suburbs, has a mix of transverse and longitudinal seating, with four wheelchair spaces per train. S7 Stock trains are 117.45 metres (385 ft 4 in) long, S8 133.68 m (438 ft 7 in).
To prevent accidental pressing of emergency alarms there are flaps over the alarm buttons next to wheelchair spaces.
All S Stock trains can operate on all sub-surface lines, with selective door operation used at stations that are shorter than the train. S7 Stock has seven cars per train, while S8 Stock has eight.
As part of the Transported by Design programme of activities, on 15 October 2015, after two months of public voting, the walk-through S Stock train was elected by Londoners as one of the 10 favourite transport design icons.
Entry into serviceEdit
S8 Stock was initially tested overnight between Amersham and Watford via the Watford North Curve from 9 November 2009. Driver training began in early January 2010, and the first train entered revenue service on 31 July 2010, shuttling between Wembley Park and Watford.
By 27 June 2011, S8 Stock was running along the whole Metropolitan line. Deliveries were suspended by Transport for London in November 2011 due to concerns over reliability. A number of trains were delivered to London Underground's Neasden Depot, but were not accepted to enter service. Deliveries resumed in mid-December 2011.
By 15 September 2012, all 58 S8 trains had been delivered to Neasden Depot. The A Stock trains were completely withdrawn 11 days later. In November 2012, it was reported that 37 of the new trains would be sent back to Bombardier for urgent modification at Bombardier's cost, and that drivers were unhappy with their cabs.
Hammersmith & City lineEdit
The first trains entered service on 6 July 2012, from Hammersmith to Moorgate. S7 trains are longer than the C69 and C77 trains they replaced (seven cars and 117 m long instead of six cars and 93 m long), so some station platforms had to be lengthened to allow for S7 operations. For stations where this has proved physically impossible, such as Baker Street, the trains have a selective-door-opening capability whereby the doors at the end of the train will not open.
On 4 December 2012, an S7 train went east of Moorgate to Barking for testing. This was the first time an S7 train had been seen in peak hours. S7 Stock began operating a full service from Hammersmith to Barking on 9 December 2012. The line was completely operated with S7 stock by 10 February 2014.
The Circle line's C Stock were replaced ahead of the District line's D Stock, as they were described by London Underground as being "in an increasingly poor state", and the D Stock had been extensively refurbished between 2005 and 2008.
The District line was the last line to be fully served by the S7 Stock, due to its existing D78 Stock being newer than other trains that the S7 Stock was ordered to replace, as well as its recent refurbishment. The first S7 Stock train entered passenger service on the line between Olympia and West Ham on 2 September 2013.
On 6 February 2014, the S7 Stock started running between Wimbledon and Edgware Road. The S7 Stock started services to Ealing Broadway on 13 June 2014, and on 17 June saw the start of commercial service to Richmond. On 16 January 2015, the S7 Stock began running to Upminster. Withdrawal of the D78 Stock began on 19 January.
The D78 Stock was completely replaced by the S7 with the withdrawal of the final unit from service on 21 April 2017.
List of carsEdit
Each car has a five-digit number: the second digit identifies the type of car, the last three digits the set number (001–116, 301–566). A-end cars have odd numbers; D-end even numbers. 25nnn cars replace 23nnn cars on trains equipped with de-icing equipment.
|Set type||odd sets||A-end||D-end||even sets|
- "S stock | Transport for London". 29 December 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2018.
- "Metro — London, United Kingdom". Bombardier. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
- "Metropolitan Line air-conditioned Tube trains launched". BBC News. 2 August 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "Research Guide no 19: A brief history on the Hammersmith and City line" (PDF). Transport for London. 4 September 2013. p. 4. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- Bruce, J. Graeme (1983) . Steam to Silver: A history of London Transport Surface Rolling Stock. Harrow Weald: Capital Transport. p. 110. ISBN 0-904711-45-5.
- Bruce 1983, p. 114
- Bruce 1983, p. 118
- "ATO, a Go-go: Signalling the SSR". London Reconnections.
- "'S' stock making its mark". Modern Railways. London. December 2010. p. 46.
- "Transforming the Tube" (PDF). Transport for London. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
- "Evacuation system for the Tube presents tight brief for DCA". Product Design + Innovation. 16 December 2010.
- "London Underground Metropolitan Line S8 Vehicle Stock — Rail Vehicle Accessibility (Non-Interoperable Rail System) Regulations 2010 – Application for Exemption from Schedule 1 Part 1 – Boarding Devices". Department for Transport. 4 August 2010. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- "Technical Data". Bombardier. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Goldstein, Danielle (4 August 2015). "Transported By Design: Vote for your favourite part of London transport". Timeout.com. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- "London's transport 'Design Icons' announced". London Transport Museum. Archived from the original on 31 March 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- Connor, Piers (12 December 2011). "S Stock Deliveries Suspended" (PDF). Modern Railways. London. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- Gray, Jenny (9 August 2012). "New handles to be fitted on Met Line trains". Uxbridge Gazette. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "A Stock last day on the Metropolitan Line". Railways Today. 26 September 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012.
- Murray, Dick (21 November 2012). "Half of new Tube fleet sent back to factory for repair work". London Evening Standard.
- Johnson, Marc (13 December 2012). "First S Stock train runs on Hammersmith & City line". Rail.co. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2012.
- "S Stock trains take to Circle line". Global Rail News. 3 September 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "District pips Circle to the post". Modern Railways. vol. 70 (issue 781). October 2013. p. 12.
- Mark Chandler (21 April 2017). "Catch the D: Train buffs descend on Tube to catch last old-style D stock District line service". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
- "S Stock information sheet July 2010" (PDF). Transport for London on WhatDoTheyKnow. 27 April 2011. p. 2. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Rolling Stock Unit formations and Asset list" (PDF).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to London Underground S7 and S8 Stock.|
- S Stock data sheet
- Vehicle 21100 on its way for testing at Old Dalby Test Track – part of the first set completed
- Article about the new S7 trains entering service onto the Hammersmith and City Line