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List of wave power projects

This article contains a list of proposed and prototype wave power devices.


Albatern WaveNET Albatern Scotland, UK Multi Point Absorber array Offshore Hydraulic / electric / DC 2010 Albatern are working with their third iteration devices with a 14-week deployment on a Scottish fishfarm site in 2014,[1] and a 6 unit array deployment for full characterisation at Kishorn Port in 2015.[2] Initially working with smaller devices and arrays, the company is targeting off grid markets where diesel generation is presently used in offshore fish farms, coastal communities and long endurance scientific platforms. Demonstration projects are under development for fishfarm sites and an island community.[3]
Anaconda Wave Energy Converter Checkmate SeaEnergy.[25] UK Surface-following attenuator Offshore Hydroelectric turbine 2008 In the early stages of development, the device is a 200 metres (660 ft) long rubber tube which is tethered underwater. Passing waves will instigate a wave inside the tube, which will then propagates down its walls, driving a turbine at the far end.[4][5]
AquaBuOY Finavera Wind Energy, later SSE Renewables Limited Ireland-Canada-Scotland Buoy Offshore Hydroelectric turbine 2003 In 2009 Finavera Renewables surrendered its wave energy permits from FERC.[27] In July 2010 Finavera announced that it had entered into a definitive agreement to sell all assets and intellectual property related to the AquaBuOY wave energy technology.[6][7][8][9]
Atmocean Atmocean Inc. USA Point Absorber array Nearshore & offshore Pump-to-shore 2006 The Atmocean array consists of 15, 3m diameter surface buoys. Instead of direct seafloor connections, the entire array is anchored at 6 points. Each buoy uses passing waves to pump seawater into the system and send it onshore where it goes directly into an R/O desalination process without the need for an external energy source. Advantages of smaller modular system include using standard shipping containers and small boat operations. Two full scale trials were deployed off the coast of Ilo Perú in 2015. Additional are set for 2017.[10]
Single Atmocean pump being deployed in Ilo, Perú (2015)
AWS-iii AWS Ocean Energy UK (Scotland) Surface-following attenuator? Offshore Air turbine 2010 The AWS-III is a floating toroidal vessel. It has rubber membranes on the outer faces which deform as waves pass, moving air inside chambers which in turn drive air-turbines to generate electricity. AWS Ocean tested a 1/9 scale model in Loch Ness in 2010, and are now working on a full sized version which will be 60m across and should generate 2.5 MW. It is envisage these will be installed in offshore farms moored in around 100m depth of water.[11][12][13][14]
CCell Zyba Renewables United Kingdom Oscillating wave surge converter Nearshore & offshore Hydraulic 2015 CCell is a directional WEC consisting of a curved flap operating mainly in the surge direction of wave propagation. Being curved gives the device two advantages over flat paddle oscillating wave surge converters: the energy is dissipated over a long arc reducing the wave height, and the shape cuts through the waves which reduces turbulence on the boundaries. In addition, unlike other oscillating wave surge converters, the latest version of CCell is designed to float just under the water surface, maximising the available wave energy. The developers claim this makes CCell the world's most efficient wave energy device.[15]
CETO Wave Power Carnegie Australia Buoy Offshore Pump-to-shore 1999 As of 2008, the device is being tested off Fremantle, Western Australia,[35] the device consists of a single piston pump attached to the sea floor with a float (buoy) tethered to the piston. Waves cause the float to rise and fall, generating pressurized water, which is piped to an onshore facility to drive hydraulic generators or run reverse osmosis water desalination.[16][17]
Crestwing Crestwing ApS Denmark Surface-following attenuator Offshore Mechanical 2011 The device consists of two floats connected by a hinge and uses the atmospheric pressure acting on its large surface to stick to the ocean. This allows it to follow the waves, using the motion of the two floats to convert both kinetic and potential energy to electricity by a mechanical power take-off system. In 2014, there was a 1:5 scale model being tested in the sea near Frederikshavn. In 2017 the successor, a full-scale prototype is ready to be tested. This will be the last test before Crestwing is going commercial. This technology has multiple benefits over comparable wave energy technologies. The device will break the waves and draw the power from it in such a way, it gives it an extra function as a coastal protection device in exposed coastal areas.[18]
Cycloidal Wave Energy Converter Atargis Energy Corporation USA Fully Submerged Wave Termination Device Offshore Direct Drive Generator 2006 In the tank testing stage of development, the device is a 20 metres (66 ft) diameter fully submerged rotor with two hydrofoils. Numerical studies have shown greater than 99% wave power termination capabilities.[19] These were confirmed by experiments in a small 2D wave flume[20] as well as a large offshore wave basin.
Energen Wave Power South Africa Attenuating Wave Device Offshore
FlanSea (Flanders Electricity from the Sea) FlanSea Belgium Buoy Offshore Hydroelectric turbine 2010 A point absorber buoy developed for use in the southern North Sea conditions.[31][32][33] It works by means of a cable that due to the bobbing effect of the buoy, generates electricity.[21][22][23]
Islay LIMPET Islay LIMPET Scotland oscillating water column Onshore Air turbine 1991 500 kW shoreline device uses an oscillating water column to drive air in and out of a pressure chamber through a Wells turbine.[24][25][26]
Lysekil Project Uppsala University Sweden Buoy Offshore Linear generator 2002 Direct driven linear generator placed on the seabed, connected to a buoy at the surface via a line. The movements of the buoy will drive the translator in the generator.[27][28]
Ocean Grazer University of Groningen The Netherlands Buoy Offshore hydraulic multi-piston pump 2011 Wave energy is captured with multiple hydraulic pistons placed on a floater. Main advantages it has over other systems is that it adapts itself to any wave, and thus has very high efficiency (70%).[29]
Oceanlinx Oceanlinx Australia OWC Nearshore & Offshore air turbine 1997 Wave energy is captured with an Oscillating Water Column and electricity is generated by air flowing through a turbine. The third medium scale demonstration unit near Port Kembla, NSW, Australia, a medium scale system that was grid connected in early 2010.[30]

In May 2010, the wave energy generator snapped from its mooring lines in extreme seas and sank on Port Kembla's eastern breakwater.[31]

A full scale commercial nearshore unit, greenWAVE, with a capacity of 1MW will be installed off Port MacDonnell in South Australia before the end of 2013.[32]

Oceanus 2 Seatricity Ltd UK Buoy Nearshore and Offshore Pump-to-shore 2007 The Oceanus 2 device is the first and only device yet to have been deployed and tested at the UK's WaveHub test site as a full-scale prototype (2014-2016). The 3rd generation device consists of a single piston patented pump mounted on a gimbal and supported by an aluminium 12m diameter buoy/float. The pump is then tethered to the seabed. Vertical wave motion is used to pump seawater to hydraulic pressures which is then piped to an onshore facility to drive hydraulic generators or run reverse osmosis water desalination. Multiple devices deployed in arrays provide modularity, resilience and redundancy.
OE buoy Ocean Energy Ireland Buoy Offshore Air turbine 2006 In September 2009 completed a 2-year sea trial in one quarter scale form. The OE buoy has only one moving part.[33]
OWEL Ocean Wave Energy Ltd UK Wave Surge Converter Offshore Air turbine 2013 The surging motion of long period waves compresses air in a tapered duct which is then used to drive an air turbine mounted on top of the floating vessel.[34] The design of a full scale demonstration project was completed in Spring 2013, ready for fabrication.[35]
Oyster wave energy converter Aquamarine Power UK (Scots-Irish) Oscillating wave surge converter Nearshore Pump-to-shore (hydro-electric turbine) 2005 A hinged mechanical flap attached to the seabed captures the energy of nearshore waves. It drives hydraulic pistons to deliver high pressure water to an onshore turbine which generates electricity. In November 2009, the first full-scale demonstrator Oyster began producing power at the European Marine Energy Centre's wave test site at Billia Croo in Orkney. In 2015, Aquamarine entered administration.[36]
Pelamis Wave Energy Converter Pelamis Wave Power UK (Scottish) Surface-following attenuator Offshore Hydraulic 1998 As waves pass along a series of semi-submerged cylindrical sections linked by hinged joints, the sections move relative to one another. This motion activates hydraulic cylinders which pump high pressure oil through hydraulic motors which drive electrical generators.[37] The first working Pelamis machine was installed in 2004 at the European Marine Energy Center (EMEC) in Orkney. Here, it became the world's first offshore wave energy device to generate electricity into a national grid anywhere in the world.[38] The later P2, owned by E.ON, started grid connected tests off Orkney in 2010.[39] The company went into administration in November 2014[40] and the device is no longer being developed.
Agucadoura Wave Farm in Portugal, first commercial application of the Pelamis design (2008)
Penguin Wello Oy Finland Rotating mass Offshore Direct Conversion 2008 First 0.5 MW device deployed at EMEC test site in Summer 2012.[41] The unit has been modified and has been reinstalled early 2017 at Billia Croo as part of the Horizon 2020 funded Clean Energy From Ocean Waves (CEFOW) research project.[42] CEFOW is a 5-year project, targeting to deploy 3 MW (three 1 MW units) Penguin wave energy converters in real world offshore conditions in a grid-connected testing environment. The project is coordinated by utility company Fortum.
Wello penguin deployed at Orkney waters 2014.
PowerBuoy Ocean Power Technologies US Buoy Offshore Hydroelectric turbine 1997 The Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative is funding construction of a commercial wave-power park at Reedsport, Oregon using buoys.[43] The rise and fall of the waves moves a rack and pinion within the buoy and spins a generator.[44] The electricity is transmitted by a submerged transmission line. The buoys are designed to be installed one to five miles (8.0 km) offshore in water 100 to 200 feet (30 to 61 m) deep.[45]
R38/50 kW, R115/150 kW 40South Energy UK Underwater attenuator Offshore Electrical conversion 2010 These machines work by extracting energy from the relative motion between one Upper Member and one Lower Member, following an innovative method which earned the company one UKTI Research & Development Award in 2011.[46] A first generation full-scale prototype for this solution was tested offshore in 2010,[47][48] and a second generation full-scale prototype was tested offshore during 2011.[49] In 2012 the first units were sold to clients in various countries, for delivery within the year.[50][51] The first reduced scale prototypes were tested offshore during 2007, but the company decided to remain in a "stealth mode" until May 2010[52] and is now recognized as one of the technological innovators in the sector.[53] The company initially considered installing at Wave Hub in 2012,[54] but that project is on hold for now. The R38/50 kW is rated at 50 kW while the R115/150 kW is rated at 150 kW.
Sea Power (company) Seapower Ltd. Ireland Surface-following attenuator Offshore or Nearshore RO Plant or Direct Drive 2008 Sea Power carry out ongoing tank testing and development. Currently reducing LCOE targets further.][55][56]|
SDE Sea Waves Power Plant SDE Energy Ltd. Israel Buoy Nearshore Hydraulic ram 2010 A breakwater-based wave machine, this device is close to the shore and utilizes the vertical pumping motion of the buoys for operating hydraulic rams, thereby powering generators. One version ran from 2008 to 2010, at peak producing 40KWh.[57]
Seabased Seabased AB. Sweden Buoy Offshore Linear generator on seabed 2015 Seabased Industry AB in cooperation with Fortum and the Swedish Energy Agency is developing its first wave power park, northwest of Smögen on the Swedish West coast. The first phase of the wave power park was deployed during the week commencing 23 March 2015 and comprises 36 wave energy converters and one substation.r.[55][58]
SeaRaser Alvin Smith (Dartmouth Wave Energy)\Ecotricity UK Buoy Nearshore Hydraulic ram 2008 Consisting of a piston pump(s) attached to the sea floor with a float (buoy) tethered to the piston. Waves cause the float to rise and fall, generating pressurized water, which is piped to resoviors onshore which then drive hydraulic generators.[59][60]

It is currently "undergoing extensive modelling ahead of a sea trial" [61]

SINN Power wave energy converter SINN Power GmbH | Wave Energy Germany Buoy Nearshore Linear generator 2014
SINN Power wave energy converter (single module) on Crete in August 2016
The SINN Power WEC consists of a variable number of buoys which are attached to an inflexible steel frame. Electricity is generated when the up-and-down motion of the waves lifts the buoys. The floating bodies lift a rod that runs through a generator unit.[62]

Since 2015, SINN Power is testing a single wave energy converter module on the Greek island Crete.[63] A floating wave energy converter will be deployed in 2018, market entry with single module WECs is planned for 2017.

Unnamed Ocean Wave-Powered Generator SRI International US Buoy Offshore Electroactive polymer artificial muscle 2004 A type of wave buoys, built using special polymers, is being developed by SRI International.[64][65]
Wavebob Wavebob Ireland Buoy Offshore Direct Drive Power Take off 1999 Wavebob have conducted some ocean trials, as well as extensive tank tests. It is an ocean-going heaving buoy, with a submerged tank which captures additional mass of seawater for added power and tunability, and as a safety feature (Tank "Venting")
WaveEL Waves4Power Sweden Buoy Offshore Hydroelectric turbine 2010 Waves4Power is a developer of buoy based OWEC (Offshore Wave Energy Converter) systems. There are plans to install a demonstration plant in 2015 at Runde test site (Norway). This will be connected via subsea cable to the shore based power grid.[66][67]
Wavepiston Wavepiston ApS Denmark Oscillating wave surge converter Nearshore Pump-to-shore (hydro-electric turbine) 2013 The idea behind this concept is to reduce the mooring means for wave energy structures. Wavepiston systems use vertical plates to exploit the horizontal movement in ocean waves. By attaching several plates in parallel on a single structure the forces applied on the structure by the plates will tend to neutralize each other. This neutralization reduces the required mooring means. “Force cancellation” is the term used by the inventors of the technology to describe the neutralization of forces. Test and numerical models prove that force cancellation reduces the means for mooring and structure to 1/10. The structure is a steel wire stretched between two mooring points. The wire is a strong and flexible structure well suited for off shore use. The mooring is slack mooring. When the vertical plates move back and forth they produce pressurized water. The pressurized water is transported to a turbine through PE pipes. A central turbine station then converts it to electric power. Calculations on the current design show capital cost of EUR 0,89 per installed watt.
Wave Dragon Erik Friis-Madsen Denmark Overtopping device Offshore Hydroelectric turbine 2003 With the Wave Dragon wave energy converter large wing reflectors focus waves up a ramp into an offshore reservoir. The water returns to the ocean by the force of gravity via hydroelectric generators.
Wave Dragon seen from reflector, prototype 1:4½
WaveRoller AW-Energy Oy Finland Oscillating wave surge converter Nearshore Hydraulic 1994 The WaveRoller is a plate anchored on the sea bottom by its lower part. The back and forth movement of surge moves the plate. The kinetic energy transferred to this plate is collected by a piston pump. Full-scale demonstration project built off Portugal in 2009.[68][69]
WaveRoller farm installation in Peniche, Portugal. August 2012
Waveplane Denmark Overtopping device Offshore Scrapped in 2012[70]
Wave Star Wave Star A/S Denmark Multi-point absorber Offshore Hydroelectric turbine 2000 The Wavestar machine draws energy from wave power with floats that rise and fall with the up and down motion of waves. The floats are attached by arms to a platform that stands on legs secured to the sea floor. The motion of the floats is transferred via hydraulics into the rotation of a generator, producing electricity. Wave Star has been testing a 1:10 machine since 2005 in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, it was taken out of duty in November 2011. A 1:2 Wave Star machine is in place in Hanstholm which has produced electricity to the grid since September 2009.[71] Scrapped in 2016.[72]
Wave Star machine in Hanstholm.


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