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List of legendary monarchs of Korea

This article lists legendary monarchs of ancient Korea. They represent an invented tradition of Korean historians in the Joseon era (14th to 19th centuries) who claimed that the semi-legendary figures of Dangun (2nd millennium BCE) and Jizi (also Gija, 11th century BCE) were each followed by hereditary dynasties until Wiman erected his own short-lived kingdom in the 2nd century BC.

All dynasties that preceded Joseon were called Go-Joseon in these fictional accounts. The name is still in use for these supposed ancient dynasties. While archeology has found evidence of bronze age settlements in southern Manchuria and Northern Korea of that time, the actual names of the supposed kings are unlikely to be excavated. Dongguk Tonggam, Gyuwon Sahwa and Hwandan Gogi are examples of historical scriptures that were presented as evidence and proof for these rulers, while no mention of them can be found for earlier periods.

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GojoseonEdit

Gojoseon (c. 2333 – 108 BCE) was, according to this legend, the third Korean kingdom. It was preceded by the legendary states of Hwan-guk and Baedal-guk[1]. Gojoseon is said to have been founded by Dangun in 2333 BCE, and was the successor state to Baedal. Bronze age archeological evidence of Gojoseon culture is found in northern Korea and southern Manchuria. Earliest contemporary mention of Gojoseon is found in Chinese records of the seventh century BCE. By the fourth century BCE, various historical and archeological evidence prove Gojoseon was a flourishing state and a self-declared kingdom.

Its rulers used the title of "Tanje", which is translated into Birch Emperor.

"Samguk Yusa" described Dangun as a man. The 'Annals of the Danguns' are recorded in "Gyuwon Sahwa" (1675), which is described by its author as a collection of legendary rulers.

List of Dangun's heirs in GojoseonEdit

There are several accounts of the dynasty of Dangun, which are identical in the names and order but differ in the dates. The historians who compiled the chronology either took into account the dynasty of Gija that is said to have followed; or their chronology ignores Gija's dynasty and ends in the second century BCE.

# Personal Name Hangul Reign (short) Reign (long)
1 Dangun Wanggeom 왕검 BCE 2333-BCE 2240 BCE 2333-BCE 2240
2 Buru 부루 BCE 2240-BCE 2206 BCE 2240-BCE 2182
3 Gareuk 가륵 BCE 2206-BCE 2155 BCE 2182-BCE 2137
4 Osa/Osagu 오사 BCE 2155-BCE 2106 BCE 2137-BCE 2099
5 Gueul 구을 BCE 2106-BCE 2071 BCE 2099-BCE 2083
6 Dalmun 달문 BCE 2071-BCE 2039 BCE 2083-BCE 2047
7 Hanyul 한율 BCE 2039-BCE 2014 BCE 2047-BCE 1993
8 Seohan/Usuhan 서한 BCE 2014-BCE 1957 BCE 1993-BCE 1985
9 Asul/Aseul 아술 BCE 1957-BCE 1929 BCE 1985-BCE 1950
10 Noeul/Noul 노을 BCE 1929-BCE 1906 BCE 1950-BCE 1891
11 Dohae 도해 BCE 1906-BCE 1870 BCE 1891-BCE 1834
12 Ahan 아한 BCE 1870-BCE 1843 BCE 1834-BCE 1782
13 Heuldal/Holdal 흘달 BCE 1843-BCE 1800 BCE 1782-BCE 1721
14 Gobul 고불 BCE 1800-BCE 1771 BCE 1721-BCE 1661
15 Beoreum/Daeum 벌음 BCE 1771-BCE 1738 BCE 1661-BCE 1610
16 Wina 위나 BCE 1738-BCE 1720 BCE 1610-BCE 1552
17 Yeoeul/Yeoul 여을 BCE 1720-BCE 1657 BCE 1552-BCE 1484
18 Dongeom/Dongum 동엄 BCE 1657-BCE 1637 BCE 1484-BCE 1435
19 Gumoso 구모소 BCE 1637-BCE 1612 BCE 1435-BCE 1380
20 Gohol/Goheul 고홀 BCE 1612-BCE 1601 BCE 1380-BCE 1337
21 Sotae 소태 BCE 1601-BCE 1568 BCE 1337-BCE 1285
22 Saekbullu 색불루 BCE 1568-BCE 1551 BCE 1285-BCE 1237
23 Amul/Aheul 아물 BCE 1551-BCE 1532 BCE 1237-BCE 1161
24 Yeonna 연나 BCE 1532-BCE 1519 BCE 1161-BCE 1150
25 Sullna/Solla/Solna 솔나 BCE 1519-BCE 1503 BCE 1150-BCE 1062
26 Churo 추로 BCE 1503-BCE 1494 BCE 1062-BCE 997
27 Dumil 두밀 BCE 1494-BCE 1449 BCE 997-BCE 971
28 Haemo 해모 BCE 1449-BCE 1427 BCE 971-BCE 943
29 Mahyu/Mahew 마휴 BCE 1427-BCE 1418 BCE 943-BCE 909
30 Nahyu/Naehew 내휴 BCE 1418-BCE 1365 BCE 909-BCE 874
31 Deungol 등올 BCE 1365-BCE 1359 BCE 874-BCE 849
32 Chumil 추밀 BCE 1359-BCE 1351 BCE 849-BCE 819
33 Gammul 감물 BCE 1351-BCE 1342 BCE 819-BCE 795
34 Orumun 오루문 BCE 1342-BCE 1322 BCE 795-BCE 772
35 Sabeol 사벌 BCE 1322-BCE 1311 BCE 772-BCE 704
36 Maereuk 매륵 BCE 1311-BCE 1293 BCE 704-BCE 646
37 Mamul 마물 BCE 1293-BCE 1285 BCE 646-BCE 590
38 Damul 다물 BCE 1285-BCE 1266 BCE 590-BCE 545
39 Duhol 두홀 BCE 1266-BCE 1238 BCE 545-BCE 509
40 Dareum/Dalum 달음 BCE 1238-BCE 1224 BCE 509-BCE 491
41 Eumcha 음차 BCE 1224-BCE 1205 BCE 491-BCE 471
42 Euruji/Uleuji 을우지 BCE 1205-BCE 1196 BCE 471-BCE 461
43 Mulli 물리 BCE 1196-BCE 1181 BCE 461-BCE 425
44 Gumul 구물 BCE 1181-BCE 1174 BCE 425-BCE 396
45 Yeoru 여루 BCE 1174-BCE 1169 BCE 396-BCE 341
46 Boeul 보을 BCE 1169-BCE 1158 BCE 341-BCE 295
47 Goyeolga 고열가 BCE 1158-BCE 1128 BCE 295-BCE 237

List of Gija's heirs in GojoseonEdit

The Dangun Go-Joseon dynasty was succeeded by the Gija Go-Joseon dynasty.[2] Weilüe recorded the last two kings. The king names are recorded in the Genealogy of the Royal Han Clan of Cheongju. Korean scholars deny its existence for various reasons.

# Throne name (Hanja/Hangul) Personal name (Hanja/Hangul) Period of reign
1 Munseong (?/문성대왕) Gija (箕子/기자) 1122(?)–1082 BCE
2 Janghye (莊惠王/장혜왕 Song (松/송) 1082-1057BCE
3 Gyeonghyo (敬孝王/경효왕 Sun (詢/순) 1057-1030BCE
4 Gongjeong (恭貞王/공정왕 Baek (伯/백) 1030-1000BCE
5 Munmu (文武王/문무왕 Chun (椿/춘) 1000-972BCE
6 Taewon (太原王/태원왕 Ye (禮/예) 972-968BCE
7 Gyeongchang (景昌王/경창왕 Jang (莊/장) 968-957BCE
8 Heungpyeong (興平王/흥평왕 Chak (捉/착) 957-943BCE
9 Cheorwi (哲威/철위왕 Jo (調/조) 943-925BCE
10 Seonhye (宣惠王/선혜왕 Sak (索/색) 925-896BCE
11 Uiyang (誼襄王/의양왕 Sa (師/사) 896-843BCE
12 Munhye (文惠王/문혜왕 Yeom (炎/염) 843-793BCE
13 Seongdeok (盛德王/성덕왕 Wol (越/월) 793-778BCE
14 Dohoe (悼懷王/도회왕 Jik (職/직) 778-776BCE
15 Munyeol (文烈王/문열왕 U (優/우) 776-761BCE
16 Changguk (昌国王/창국왕 Mok (睦/목) 761-748BCE
17 Museong (武成王/무성왕 Pyeong (平/평) 748-722BCE
18 Jeonggyeong (貞敬王/정경왕 Gwol (闕/궐) 722-703BCE
19 Nakseong of Gojoseon (樂成王/낙성왕 Hoe (懷/회) 703-675BCE
20 Hyojong (孝宗王/효종왕 Jon (存/존) 675-658BCE
21 Cheonhyo/Cheollo (天老王/천효왕 Hyo (孝/효) 658-634BCE
22 Sudo (修道王/수도왕 Yang (襄/양) 634-615BCE
23 Hwiyang (徽襄王/휘양왕 Tong (通/통) 615-594BCE
24 Bongil (奉日王/봉일왕 Cham (參/참) 594-578BCE
25 Deokchang (德昌王/덕창왕 Geun (僅/근) 578-560BCE
26 Suseong (寿聖王/수성왕 Sak (朔/삭) 560-519BCE
27 Yeonggeol (英傑王/영걸왕 Ryeo (藜/려) 519-503BCE
28 Ilmin (逸民王/일민왕 Gang (岡/강) 503-486BCE
29 Jese (濟世王/제세왕 Hon (混/혼) 486-465BCE
30 Cheongguk (清国王/청국왕)) Byeok (璧/벽) 465-432BCE
31 Doguk (導国王/도국왕 Jing (澄/징) 432-413BCE
32 Hyeokseong (赫聖王/혁성왕 Jun ( /준) 413-385BCE
33 Hwara (和羅王/화라왕 Wi (謂/위) 385-369BCE
34 Seolmun (說文王/설문왕 Ha (賀/하) 369-361BCE
35 Gyeongsun (慶順王/경순왕 Hwa (華/화) 361-342BCE
36 Gadeok (嘉德王/가덕왕 Hu (詡/후) 342-315BCE
37 Samhyo/Samno (三老王/삼효왕 Uk (煜/욱) 315-290BCE
38 Hyeonmun (顯文王/현문왕 Seok (釋/석) 290-251BCE
39 Jangpyeong (章平王/장평왕 Yun (潤/윤) 251-232BCE
40 Bu (宗統王/종통왕); Posthumous Name: Jong Tong (宗統王/종통왕) Gibu (基否/기부) 232-220BCE
41 Jun (哀王(애왕 Gijun (基準/기준) 220-195BCE

Further monarchs that are deemed fictionalEdit

MahanEdit

This Confederacies genealogy degree still is not the position which is official.

  1. 기준 (箕準) or King Mugang 무강왕 武康王 (220–194BCE)
  2. 기탁 (箕卓) or King Gang 강왕 康王 (193–189BCE)
  3. 기감 (箕龕) or King An 안왕 安王 (189–157BCE)
  4. 기식 (箕寔) or King Hye 혜왕 惠王 (157–144BCE)
  5. 기무 (箕武) or King Myung 명왕 明王 (144–113BCE)
  6. 기형 (箕亨) or King Hyo 효왕 孝王 (113–73BCE)
  7. 기섭 (箕燮) or King Yang 양왕 襄王 (73–58BCE)
  8. 기훈 (箕勳) or King Won 원왕 元王 (58–32BCE)
  9. 기정 (箕貞) or King Gye 계왕 稽王 (32–17BCE)

BukbuyeoEdit

  1. Haemosu of Bukbuyeo 해모수 (239–195 BCE)
  2. Mosuri of Bukbuyeo 모수리 (195–170 BCE)
  3. Go Haesa of Bukbuyeo 고해사 (170–121 BCE)
  4. Go Uru of Bukbuyeo 고우루 (121–86 BCE)

Later Bukbuyeo (Jolbonbuyeo, Dongmyung)Edit

  1. Go Dumak of Bukbuyeo 고두막 (108–60 BCE)
  2. Go Musoe of Bukbuyeo 고무서 (59–58 BCE)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 여운건, 오재성, 과학으로 밝혀진 우리 고대사 (The Scientifically Proved Korean Ancient History), 한국우리민족사연구회, ISBN 6000105485 Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN.
  2. ^ 김황, Daedong Sagang(대동사강, 大東史綱), 대동사강사, 경성 (1929)