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This is a list of models and meshes commonly used in 3D computer graphics for testing and demonstrating rendering algorithms and visual effects. Their use is important for comparing results, similarly to the way standard test images are used in image processing.


Models by year of creationEdit

Model name Year of creation Creator Origin Model size (vertices or triangles) Creation method Inspiration (if any) Comments
VW Bug[1] 1972 Ivan Sutherland University of Utah Measured by hand Volkswagen Beetle belonging to Ivan Sutherland's wife, Marsha Real car, measured by hand using yardsticks
Utah teapot, Newell teapot 1975 Martin Newell University of Utah Modeled Melitta teapot
Cornell box 1984 Cindy M. Goral, Kenneth E. Torrance, Donald P. Greenberg, Bennett Battaile Cornell University Modeled Many different versions of the Cornell Box exist, although one of them is considered the standard Cornell Box.
Stanford Bunny 1993-94[2] Greg Turk, Marc Levoy Stanford University 69,451 triangles[2] Scanned Clay bunny[3]
Happy Buddha 1996[4] Brian Curless, Marc Levoy[4] Stanford University 1,087,474 triangles and 543,524 vertices Scanned Budai statuette[5]
Stanford Dragon 1996[2] Stanford University 1,132,830 triangles Scanned Chinese dragon.
Armadillo 1996[2] Stanford University 345,944 triangles Scanned Armadillo toy.
Suzanne 2002 Willem-Paul van Overbruggen Blender (software) 500 faces Modeled Orangutan from the movie Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back Chimpanzee model; reached in blender by clicking AddMeshMonkey.
Phlegmatic Dragon[6] 2007 See comment Eurographics 2007 conference original: 667,214 faces; smoothed: 480,076 faces Scanned
Stanford Lucy Stanford University 14,027,872 vertices, 28,055,742 triangles Scanned[7] Scanned model of Christian angel.
Asian Dragon Stanford University 3,609,455 vertices, 7,218,906 triangles Scanned A different Chinese dragon.
Thai Statue Stanford University Original model: 19,400,000 vertices (38,800,000 triangles); model provided: 5,000,000 vertices (10,000,000 triangles) Scanned Scanned model of Thai statue
David[8][9] Stanford University About 1 billion polygons Scanned[7] Michelangelo's 5-meter statue of David Only available to established scholars and for non-commercial use only.[9]
Fertility 2009 AIM@SHAPE Repository (scanned at Utrecht University) 241,607 vertices, 483,226 triangles Scanned Small statue with two joined figures. Laser scanned from a stone sculpture.
Spot 2012 Keenan Crane The California Institute of Technology 2,930 vertices, 5,856 triangles Modeled A spotted cow homeomorphic to a sphere. Comes with Catmull-Clark control mesh, quadrangulation, triangulation, vector texture, and bitmap texture. All meshes are manifold, genus-0 embeddings.
Wooden Elk Toy 2000 Hans-Peter Seidel Max-Planck-Institut fuer Informatik, Computer Graphics Group Photogrammetry Often used as an example of a non-trivial object with high genus.
Bust of Max Planck 2001 Hans-Peter Seidel Max-Planck-Institut fuer Informatik, Computer Graphics Group Scanned
3DBenchy 2015 Creative Tools Specifically designed for testing the accuracy and capabilities of 3D printers
Nefertiti c. 1370 BC – c. 1330 BC Thutmose (sculptor) approx. 2 million triangles Scanned Nefertiti This archive contains a bust of the Egyptian queen Nefertiti, composed of about two million triangles. The mesh was scanned by Nora Al-Badri and Jan Nikolai Nelles from the Nefertiti bust, which was created in 1345 BC by Thutmose.


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Robert McDermot (2003). "Robert Remembers: the VW Bug" (PDF). Retrieved 17 Dec 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d "The Stanford 3D Scanning Repository". Stanford University. 22 Dec 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  3. ^ Greg Turk (2000). "The Stanford Bunny". Retrieved 18 July 2011.
  4. ^ a b "Happy Buddha". Stanford University. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  5. ^ Brian Curless and Marc Levoy (February 10, 1997). "Computer model and 3D fax of Happy Buddha". Stanford University. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  6. ^ "EG 2007 Phlegmatic Dragon". Eurographics 2007. 12 May 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  7. ^ a b Levoy, Marc (November 27, 1998). "The Stanford Large Statue Scanner". Stanford University. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  8. ^ Levoy, Marc (August 11, 2009). "The Digital Michelangelo Project". Stanford University. Retrieved 22 September 2014.
  9. ^ a b Levoy, Marc (August 19, 2014). "The Digital Michelangelo Project Archive of 3D Models". Stanford University. Retrieved 22 September 2014.

External linksEdit

Standard test models
Other repositories