List of cetaceans

Cetacea is an infraorder that comprises the 94 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises. It is divided into toothed whales (Odontoceti) and baleen whales (Mysticeti), which diverged from each other some time in the Eocene 26 to 17 million years ago (mya). Cetaceans are descended from land-dwelling hoofed mammals, and the now extinct archaeocetes represent the several transitional phases from terrestrial to completely aquatic.[1] Historically, cetaceans were thought to have descended from the wolf-like mesonychids, but cladistic analyses confirm their placement with even-toed ungulates in the order Cetartiodactyla.[2][3][4][5][6]

Whale populations were drastically reduced in the 20th century from intensive whaling, and the activity was globally banned in 1982.[7] Smaller cetaceans are at risk of accidentally getting caught by fishing vessels using, namely, seine fishing, drift netting, or gill netting operations.[8]

ConventionsEdit

IUCN Red List categories
Conservation status
 EX Extinct (0 species)
 EW Extinct in the wild (0 species)
 CR Critically Endangered (5 species)
 EN Endangered (11 species)
 VU Vulnerable (7 species)
 NT Near threatened (10 species)
 LC Least concern (50 species)
Other categories
 DD Data deficient (9 species)
 NE Not evaluated (3 species)

The following is a list of currently existing (or, in the jargon of taxonomy) 'extant' species of the infraorder cetacea (for extinct cetacean species, see the list of extinct cetaceans). The list is organized taxonomically into parvorders, superfamilies when applicable, families, subfamilies when applicable, genus, and then species. In tabular form, seven descriptors are given for each species: the common name; the scientific name; the IUCN Red List status; a global population estimate; a global map with its range; its weight with an image of its shape, and its size relative to a human; and a photograph.

Conservation status codes listed follow the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v. 2014.3; data current at 20 January 2015).[9]

Where available, the global population estimate has been listed. When not cited or footnoted differently, these are from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v. 2014.3; data current at 20 January 2015).[9]

Mysticeti: baleen whalesEdit

The baleen whales, also called whalebone whales or great whales, form the parvorder Mysticeti. Baleen whales are characterized by having baleen plates for filter feeding and two blowholes.[10]

Family Balaenidae: right whalesEdit

The family Balaenidae, the right whales, contains two genera and four species. All right whales have no ventral grooves; a distinctive head shape with a strongly arched, narrow rostrum, bowed lower jaw; lower lips that enfold the sides and front of the rostrum; and long, narrow, elastic baleen plates (up to nine times longer than wide) with fine baleen fringes.[11]

Genus Balaena Linnaeus, 1758 – one species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List status Global population estimate Range Size Picture
Bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN 10,000    
60 t (66 short tons)
 
Genus Eubalaena Gray, 1864 – three species
Common name Scientific name IUCN Red List status Global population estimate Range Size Picture
North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis
Müller, 1776
CR IUCN 350    
40–80 t (44–88 short tons)
 
North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica
Lacépède, 1818
EN IUCN 404-2,108[12]    
60–80 t (66–88 short tons)
 
Southern right whale Eubalaena australis
Desmoulins, 1822
LC IUCN 13,600 [13]    
40–80 t (44–88 short tons)
 


Family Balaenopteridae: rorqualsEdit

Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with eleven species in three genera. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale. They take their name from a Norwegian word meaning "furrow whale"; all members of the family have a series of longitudinal folds of skin running from below the mouth back to the navel (except the sei whale, which has shorter grooves). They allow the mouth to expand immensely when feeding.[14] All rorquals have these unique folds.[11]

Subfamily Balaenopteridae – one genus, nine species
Genus Balaenoptera – nine species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Blue whale Balaenoptera musculus
Linnaeus, 1758
EN IUCN 5,000-15,000    
50–150 t (55–165 short tons)
 
Bryde's whale Balaenoptera brydei
Olsen, 1913
LC IUCN 90,000–100,000    
14–30 t (15–33 short tons)
 
Eden's whale[a] Balaenoptera edeni
Anderson, 1879
LC IUCN Unknown   Unknown  
Common minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata
Lacépède, 1804
LC IUCN 200,000    
2–4 t (2.2–4.4 short tons)
 
Rice's whale[16] Balaenoptera ricei

Rosel et al., 2021

CR IUCN 30 – 100    
~13.9 t (15.3 short tons)
 
Fin whale Balaenoptera physalus
Linnaeus, 1758
VU IUCN 100,000    
30–80 t (33–88 short tons)
 
Omura's whale Balaenoptera omurai
Wada et al., 2003
DD IUCN Unknown Unknown Unknown  
Sei whale Balaenoptera borealis
Lesson, 1828
EN IUCN 80,000[17]    
20–25 t (22–28 short tons)
 
Antarctic minke whale Balaenoptera bonaerensis
Burmeister, 1867
NT IUCN 515,000 [18]    
6–10 t (6.6–11.0 short tons)
 
Genus Megaptera Gray, 1846 – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
Borowski, 1781
LC IUCN 84,000    
25–30 t (28–33 short tons)
 
Genus Eschrichtius Gray, 1864 – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Gray whale Eschrichtius robustus
Lilljeborg, 1861
LC IUCN 21,000 [19]    
15–40 t (17–44 short tons)
 

Family Cetotheriidae: pygmy right whaleEdit

The pygmy right whale shares several characteristics with the right whales, with the exception of having a dorsal fin. Also, pygmy right whales' heads are no more than one-fourth the size of their bodies, whereas the right whales' heads are about one-third the size of their bodies.[11] The pygmy right whale is the only extant member of its family.

Genus Caperea Gray, 1864 – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Pygmy right whale Caperea marginata
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown    
3–3.5 t (3.3–3.9 short tons)
 

Odontoceti: toothed whalesEdit

The toothed whales (parvorder Odontoceti), as the name suggests, are characterized by having teeth (rather than baleen). Toothed whales are active hunters, feeding on fish, squid, and in some cases other marine mammals.[20]

Family Delphinidae: oceanic dolphinsEdit

Oceanic dolphins are the members of the family Delphinidae. As the name implies, they tend to be found in the open seas, unlike the river dolphins, although a few species such as the Irrawaddy dolphin are coastal or riverine.

The Delphinidae are characterized by having distinct beaks (unlike the Phocoenidae), two or more fused cervical vertebrae and 20 or more pairs of teeth in their upper jaws. None is more than 4 m long.[11]

Genus Cephalorhynchus Gray, 1846 – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Chilean dolphin Cephalorhynchus eutropia
Gray, 1846
NT IUCN Unknown [b]    
60 kg (130 lb)
 
Commerson's dolphin Cephalorhynchus commersonii
Lacépède, 1804
LC IUCN 22,000 [21]    
35–60 kg (77–132 lb)
 
Heaviside's dolphin Cephalorhynchus heavisidii
Gray, 1828
NT IUCN Unknown    
40–75 kg (88–165 lb)
 
Hector's dolphin Cephalorhynchus hectori
Van Beneden, 1881
EN IUCN (subspecies Māui dolphin CR IUCN) 7,381 (subspecies Māui dolphin 57–75 in 2016)    
35–60 kg (77–132 lb)
 
Genus Delphinus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Common dolphin Delphinus delphis
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN Unknown [c]    
70–150 kg (150–330 lb)
 
Genus Feresa – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Pygmy killer whale Feresa attenuata
Gray, 1875
LC IUCN Unknown [d]    
160–350 kg (350–770 lb)
 
Genus Globicephala – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas
Traill, 1809
LC IUCN Unknown [e]  

(green)

 
1.8–3.5 t (2.0–3.9 short tons)
 
Short-finned pilot whale Globicephala macrorhynchus
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown [f]  

(dark blue)

 
1–4 t (1.1–4.4 short tons)
 
Genus Grampus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Risso's dolphin Grampus griseus
G. Cuvier, 1812
LC IUCN Unknown [g]    
300 kg (660 lb)
 
Genus Lagenodelphis – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Fraser's dolphin Lagenodelphis hosei
Fraser, 1956
LC IUCN Unknown [h]    
209 kg (461 lb)
 
Genus Lagenorhynchus Gray, 1846 – six species[i]
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
White-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN 100,000 [j]    
180 kg (400 lb)
 
Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus
Gray, 1828
LC IUCN 200,000 – 300,000[citation needed]    
235 kg (518 lb)
 
Dusky dolphin Lagenorhynchus obscurus
Gray, 1828
LC IUCN Unknown    
100 kg (220 lb)
 
Hourglass dolphin Lagenorhynchus cruciger
Quoy & Gaimard, 1824
LC IUCN 140,000    
90–120 kg (200–260 lb)
 
Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
Gill, 1865
LC IUCN 1,000,000    
85–150 kg (187–331 lb)
 
Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis
Peale, 1848
LC IUCN Unknown [k]    
115 kg (254 lb)
 
Genus Lissodelphis – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Northern right whale dolphin Lissodelphis borealis
Peale, 1848
LC IUCN 400,000 [l]    
115 kg (254 lb)
 
Southern right whale dolphin Lissodelphis peronii
Lacépède, 1804
LC IUCN Unknown [m]    
60–100 kg (130–220 lb)
 
Genus Orcaella Gray, 1866 – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Australian snubfin dolphin Orcaella heinsohni
Beasley, Robertson & Arnold, 2005
VU IUCN 9,000 - 10,000    
130–145 kg (287–320 lb)
 
Irrawaddy dolphin Orcaella brevirostris
Gray, 1866
EN IUCN Unknown    
130 kg (290 lb)
 
Genus Orcinus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Orca Orcinus orca
Linnaeus, 1758
DD IUCN 100,000 [n]    
4.5 t (5.0 short tons)
 
Genus Peponocephala – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Melon-headed whale Peponocephala electra
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown [o]    
225 kg (496 lb)
 
Genus Pseudorca – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
False killer whale Pseudorca crassidens
Owen, 1846
NT IUCN Unknown [p]    
1.5–2 t (1.7–2.2 short tons)
 
Genus Sousa – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic humpback dolphin Sousa teuszii
Kükenthal, 1892
CR IUCN 1,500    
100–150 kg (220–330 lb)
 
Australian humpback dolphin Sousa sahulensis
Jefferson & Rosenbaum, 2014
VU IUCN 10,000  
Indian Ocean humpback dolphin Sousa plumbea
Cuvier, 1829
EN IUCN Unknown [q]      
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis
Osbeck, 1765
VU IUCN Unknown    
250–280 kg (550–620 lb)
 
Genus Sotalia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis
Bénéden, 1864
NT IUCN Unknown  
Solid color
 
35–45 kg (77–99 lb)
 
Tucuxi Sotalia fluviatilis
Gervais & Deville, 1853
EN IUCN Unknown  
Hashed color
 
35–45 kg (77–99 lb)
 
Genus Stenella Gray, 1866 – five species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis
Cuvier, 1829
LC IUCN 100,000[citation needed]    
100 kg
 
Clymene dolphin Stenella clymene
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN Unknown    
75–80 kg (165–176 lb)
 
Pantropical spotted dolphin Stenella attenuata
Gray, 1846
LC IUCN 3,000,000[citation needed]    
100 kg (220 lb)
 
Spinner dolphin Stenella longirostris
Gray, 1828
LC IUCN Unknown    
90 kg (200 lb)
 
Striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba
Meyen, 1833
LC IUCN 2,000,000[citation needed]    
100 kg (220 lb)
 
Genus Steno – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Rough-toothed dolphin Steno bredanensis
Lesson, 1828
LC IUCN 150,000    
100–135 kg (220–298 lb)
 
Genus Tursiops – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus
Montagu, 1821
LC IUCN 600,000[22]    
150–650 kg (330–1,430 lb)
 
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin Tursiops aduncus
Ehrenberg, 1833
NT IUCN Unknown  
230 kg
 

Family Iniidae: river dolphinsEdit

This family contains one genus with two species.

Genus Inia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Amazon river dolphin Inia geoffrensis
Blainville, 1817
EN IUCN Unknown    
150 kg (330 lb)
 
Araguaian river dolphin[r] Inia araguaiaensis
Hrbek, Da Silva, Dutra, Farias, 2014
NE Unknown  
Araguaian river dolphin in blue
 
150 kg (330 lb)
 

Family Kogiidae: dwarf and pygmy sperm whalesEdit

The dwarf and pygmy sperm whales resemble sperm whales, but are far smaller. They have blunt, squarish heads with narrow, underslung jaws; the flippers are set far forward, close to the head and their dorsal fins are set far back down the body.[23]

Genus Kogia – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima
Owen, 1866
LC IUCN Unknown [s]    
250 kg (550 lb)
 
Pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps
Blainville, 1838
LC IUCN Unknown [t]    
400 kg (880 lb)
 

Family Lipotidae: baijiEdit

The family Lipotidae contains only the baiji. DNA evidence suggests it separated from oceanic dolphins about 25 million years ago.[24] The species was declared functionally extinct in 2006 after an expedition to estimate the population found none.

Genus Lipotes – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Baiji Lipotes vexillifer
Miller, 1918
CR IUCN 0-13 [u]    
130 kg (290 lb)
 

Family Monodontidae: narwhal and belugaEdit

The Monodontidae lack dorsal fins, which have been replaced by tough, fibrous ridges just behind the midpoints of their bodies and are probably an adaptation to swimming under ice, as both do in their Arctic habitat. The flippers are small, rounded and tend to curl up at the ends in adulthood. All, or almost all, the cervical vertebrae are unfused, allowing their heads to be turned independently of their bodies.[11]

Genus Delphinapterus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Beluga Delphinapterus leucas
Pallas, 1776
LC IUCN 136,000 [v]    
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
 
Genus Monodon – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Narwhal Monodon monoceros
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN 123,000    
900–1,500 kg (2,000–3,300 lb)
 

Family Phocoenidae: porpoisesEdit

Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae. They are distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small dolphin, especially by sailors and fishermen. The most obvious visible differences between the two groups are that porpoises have a less pronounced beak, and have spade-shaped teeth as opposed to conical.[25]

Porpoises, divided into seven species, live in all oceans. They span from species that live almost exclusively coastal and in rivers (finless porpoises) to species that are entirely oceanic (spectacled porpoise).

Genus Neophocaena – two or three species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Indo-Pacific finless porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides
Cuvier, 1829
VU IUCN[w] Unknown[x]    
30–45 kg (66–99 lb)
 
Narrow-ridged finless porpoise Neophocaena asiaeorientalis
Cuvier, 1829
EN IUCN (subspecies Yangtze finless porpoise CR IUCN)[y] Unknown (subspecies Yangtze finless porpoise 1012 in 2018[26][27])    
30–45 kg (66–99 lb)
 
Genus Phocoena – four species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Burmeister's porpoise Phocoena spinipinnis
Burmeister, 1865
NT IUCN Unknown[z]    
50–75 kg (110–165 lb)
 
Harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena
Linnaeus, 1758
LC IUCN 700,000 [28]    
75 kg (165 lb)
 
Spectacled porpoise Phocoena dioptrica
Lahille, 1912
LC IUCN Unknown[aa]    
60–84 kg (132–185 lb)
 
Vaquita Phocoena sinus
Norris & McFarland, 1958
CR IUCN 12 [29]    
50 kg (110 lb)
 
Genus Phocoenoides – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Dall's porpoise Phocoenoides dalli
True, 1885
LC IUCN 1,100,000[ab]    
130–200 kg (290–440 lb)
 

Family Physeteridae: sperm whaleEdit

The sperm whale characteristically has a large, squarish head one-third the length of its body; the blowhole is slightly to the left hand side; the skin is usually wrinkled; and it has no teeth on the upper jaw.

Genus Physeter – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus
Linnaeus, 1758
VU IUCN 200,000–2,000,000 [ac]    
25–50 t (28–55 short tons)
 

Family Platanistidae: South Asian river dolphinsEdit

The Platanistidae were originally thought to hold only one species (the South Asian river dolphin), but, based on differences in skull structure, vertebrae and lipid composition, it was split into two separate species in the early 1970s, before being demoted back to subspecies in 1988.[30] However, more recent studies support them being distinct species.[31]

Genus Platanista – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Ganges river dolphin Platanista gangetica
(Lebeck, 1801)
EN IUCN 3,500[32]  

(dark blue)

 
200 kg (440 lb)
 
Indus river dolphin Platanista minor

Owen, 1853

EN IUCN 1450[33]  

(light blue)

 
200 kg (440 lb)
 

Family Pontoporiidae: La Plata dolphinEdit

The La Plata dolphin is the only species of the family Pontoporiidae and genus Pontoporia. These dolphins are known for their long beak in relation to their relatively small body size. They have a small geographic range and are mainly found in the waters along the east coast of South America. La Plata dolphins are exclusively marine organisms, however, they are grouped with river-dolphins due to the fact that they reside in the La Plata River which is a salt-water estuary. With their white or sometimes pale brown coloration, fishermen tend to call them "the white ghost", as they also tend to stray away from any human interaction.[34]

Genus Pontoporia – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
La Plata dolphin Pontoporia blainvillei
Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1844
VU IUCN 4,000–4,500    
50 kg (110 lb)
 

Family Ziphiidae: beaked whalesEdit

A beaked whale is any of at least 22 species of whale in the family Ziphiidae. Several species have only been described in the last two decades. Six genera have been identified.

They possess a unique feeding mechanism among cetaceans known as suction feeding. They are characterized by having a lower jaw that extends at least to the tip of the upper jaw, a shallow or non-existent notch between the tail flukes, a dorsal fin set far backwards, three of four fused neck vertebrae, extensive skull asymmetry and two conspicuous throat grooves forming a 'V' pattern (which aid in sucking).[11]

Genus Berardius – three species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Arnoux's beaked whale Berardius arnuxii
Duvernoy, 1851
LC IUCN Unknown [ad]    
8 t (8.8 short tons)
 
Baird's beaked whale Berardius bairdii
Stejneger, 1883
LC IUCN Unknown [ae]    
12 t (13 short tons)
 
Sato's beaked whale Berardius minimus
Yamada et al., 2019
NT IUCN Unknown North Pacific  
Unknown
 
Genus Tasmacetus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Shepherd's beaked whale Tasmacetus shepherdi
Oliver, 1937
DD IUCN Unknown [af]    
2–2.5 t (2.2–2.8 short tons)
 
Genus Ziphius – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris
G. Cuvier, 1823
LC IUCN 100,000 [ag]    
2–3 t (2.2–3.3 short tons)
 
Subfamily Hyperoodontinae – three genera, 17 species
Genus Hyperoodon – two species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Northern bottlenose whale Hyperoodon ampullatus
Forster, 1770
NT IUCN 10,000 [ah]    
7 t (7.7 short tons)
 
Southern bottlenose whale Hyperoodon planifrons
Flower, 1882
LC IUCN 500,000    
6 t (6.6 short tons)
 
Genus Indopacetus – one species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Tropical bottlenose whale Indopacetus pacificus
Longman, 1926
LC IUCN Unknown [ai]    
3.5–4 t (3.9–4.4 short tons)
 
Genus Mesoplodon Gervais, 1850 – 15 species
Common name Scientific name Status Population Distribution Size Picture
Andrews' beaked whale Mesoplodon bowdoini
Andrews, 1908
DD IUCN Unknown    
1 t (1.1 short tons)
 
Blainville's beaked whale Mesoplodon densirostris
Blainville, 1817
LC IUCN Unknown      
Deraniyagala's beaked whale Mesoplodon hotaula
P. E. P. Deraniyagala, 1963
DD IUCN Unknown [cetacean needed]
Gervais' beaked whale Mesoplodon europaeus
Gervais, 1855
LC IUCN Unknown    
1.2 t (1.3 short tons)
 
Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale Mesoplodon ginkgodens
Nishiwaki & Kamiya, 1958
DD IUCN Unknown    
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
 
Gray's beaked whale Mesoplodon grayi
von Haast, 1876
LC IUCN Unknown    
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
 
Hector's beaked whale Mesoplodon hectori
Gray, 1871
DD IUCN Unknown    
1 t (1.1 short tons)
 
Hubbs' beaked whale Mesoplodon carlhubbsi
Moore, 1963
DD IUCN Unknown    
1.4 t (1.5 short tons)
 
Perrin's beaked whale Mesoplodon perrini
Dalebout, Mead, Baker, Baker, & van Helding, 2002
EN IUCN 500-1,164  
1.3–1.5 t (1.4–1.7 short tons)
[cetacean needed]
Pygmy beaked whale Mesoplodon peruvianus
Reyes, Mead, and Van Waerebeek, 1991
LC IUCN Unknown    
800 kg (1,800 lb)
[cetacean needed]
Ramari's beaked whale[aj] Mesoplodon eueu
Carroll et al., 2021
NE Unknown  

(red circle)

Unknown  
Sowerby's beaked whale Mesoplodon bidens
Sowerby, 1804
LC IUCN Unknown    
1–1.3 t (1.1–1.4 short tons)
 
Spade-toothed whale Mesoplodon traversii, syn. Mesoplodon bahamondi
Gray, 1874
DD IUCN Unknown    
1.2 t (1.3 short tons)
 
Stejneger's beaked whale Mesoplodon stejnegeri
True, 1885
NT IUCN Unknown    
1.5 t (1.7 short tons)
 
Strap-toothed whale Mesoplodon layardii
Gray, 1865
LC IUCN Unknown    
2 t (2.2 short tons)
 
True's beaked whale Mesoplodon mirus
True, 1913
LC IUCN Unknown  

(North Atlantic only; map includes range of M. eueu in Indian Ocean)

 
1.4 t (1.5 short tons)
 

See alsoEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ The Society for Marine Mammalogy considers Eden's whale a smaller morph of the more widespread Bryde's whale based on current research.[15]
  2. ^ Population estimated to be in the low thousands at the highest
  3. ^ There are estimated to be at least several million common dolphins worldwide, but several large portions of its range have not been surveyed
  4. ^ The only population estimate is of 38,900 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean
  5. ^ Total population is not known. There are estimated to be in excess of 200,000 in the Southern Ocean. The North Atlantic population is not known
  6. ^ Total population not known. There are 150,000 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. There are estimated to be more than 30,000 animals in the western Pacific, off the coast of Japan
  7. ^ The population around the continental shelf of the United States has been recorded to be in excess of 60,000. In the Pacific, a census recorded 175,000 individuals in eastern tropical waters and 85,000 in the west. No global estimate of population exists
  8. ^ There are estimated to be at least 320,000 Fraser's dolphins worldwide, but several large portions of its range have not been surveyed
  9. ^ The genus Lagenorhynchus is under revision and likely to be split into several different genera
  10. ^ Estimates of various stocks throughout the North Atlantic give an overall value into the high tens or low hundreds of thousands
  11. ^ Total population unknown but thought to be locally common – it is the most common dolphin found around the Falkland Islands
  12. ^ Varying population estimates for areas around California and the North Pacific give a total of up to 400,000
  13. ^ Surveys suggest this is the most common dolphin off of Chilean waters
  14. ^ Local estimates include 70–80,000 in the Antarctic, 8,000 in the tropical Pacific (although tropical waters are not the orca's preferred environment, the sheer size of this area — 19 million square kilometres — means there are thousands of orcas), up to 2,000 off Japan, 1,500 off the cooler northeast Pacific and 1,500 off Norway
  15. ^ Estimates for eastern tropical Pacific are 45,000 and another recent survey estimates population to be 1,200 for the eastern Sulu Sea, no global estimate is known
  16. ^ The total population is unknown. The eastern Pacific was estimated to have in excess of 40,000 individuals and is probably the home of the largest grouping
  17. ^ Population estimated to be in the low tens of thousands
  18. ^ As of November 2021, the Araguaian river dolphin is not recognized by the Society for Marine Mammalogy, which cites small sample size[15]
  19. ^ No global population estimates have been made. One survey estimated a population of about 11,000 in the eastern Pacific
  20. ^ No global population estimates have been made. One survey estimated a population of about 11,000 in the eastern Pacific
  21. ^ A survey from November–December 2006 failed to find any individuals. Another survey, from 1997, counted only 13 individuals. In 1986, surveys estimated the number to be at about 300
  22. ^ There are estimated to be 40,000 individuals in the Beaufort Sea, 25,000 in Hudson Bay, 18,000 in the Bering Sea and 28,000 in the Canadian High Arctic. The population in the St. Lawrence estuary is estimated to be around 1000
  23. ^ There is not enough data to place finless porpoises on the endangered species list
  24. ^ There are no good estimates of the animals' abundance. However a comparison of two surveys, one from the late 1970s and the other from 1999/2000 shows a decline in population and distribution.
  25. ^ In China, they are endangered. Their propensity for staying close to shore places them in great danger from fishing.
  26. ^ There are no quantitative data on abundance.
  27. ^ Nothing is known of the abundance of this porpoise. It was the most commonly encountered species during preliminary beach surveys undertaken on Tierra del Fuego.
  28. ^ The most recent estimate for the North Pacific and Bering Sea is 1,186,000.
  29. ^ The total number of sperm whales throughout the world is unknown. Crude estimates, obtained by surveying small areas and extrapolating the result to all the world's oceans, range from 200,000 to 2,000,000 individuals
  30. ^ Arnoux's beaked whales seem to be relatively abundant in Cook Strait during summer
  31. ^ Virtually nothing is known about the abundance of Baird's beaked whales, except they are not rare as was formerly thought
  32. ^ Nothing is known about the relative abundance of this species or its population composition
  33. ^ Because of the difficulty of identifying the species the total global population is unknown
  34. ^ Total population is unknown but likely to be of the order of 10,000
  35. ^ A 2002 survey estimates there are 766 animals around Hawaii. No other population estimates exist for other locales
  36. ^ As of November 2021, the Ramari's beaked whale is not recognized by the Society for Marine Mammalogy[15]

ReferencesEdit

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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit