Cetaceans () (from Latin: cetus, lit. 'whale', from Ancient Greek: κῆτος, romanized: kētos, lit. 'huge fish') are aquatic mammals constituting the infraorder Cetacea. There are around 89 living species, which are divided into two parvorders. The first is the Odontoceti, the toothed whales, which consist of around 70 species, including the dolphin (which includes killer whales), porpoise, beluga whale, narwhal, sperm whale, and beaked whale. The second is the Mysticeti, the baleen (from Latin: balæna, lit. 'whale') whales, which have a filter-feeder system, and consist of 15 species divided into 3 families, and include the right whale, bowhead whale, rorqual, pygmy right whale, and gray whale.
The ancient and extinct ancestors of modern whales (Archaeoceti) lived 53 to 45 million years ago. They diverged from even-toed ungulates; their closest living relatives are hippopotamuses and others such as camels and pigs. They were amphibious, and evolved in the shallow waters that separated India from Asia. Around 30 species adapted to a fully oceanic life. Baleen whales split from toothed whales around 34 million years ago.
The smallest cetacean is Maui's dolphin, at 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and 50 kg (110 lb); the largest is the blue whale, at 29.9 m (98 ft) and 173 t (381,000 lb). Baleen whales have a tactile system in the short hairs (vibrissae) around their mouth; toothed whales do not have vibrissae. Cetaceans have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to maintain body heat in cold water. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. Two external forelimbs are modified into flippers; two internal hindlimbs are vestigial. Cetaceans have streamlined bodies: they can swim very quickly, with the killer whale able to travel at 56 kilometres per hour (35 mph) in short bursts, the fin whale able to cruise at 48 kilometres per hour (30 mph), dolphins able to make very tight turns at high speeds, and some species diving to great depths.
Although cetaceans are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They spend their lives in the water of seas and rivers; having to mate, give birth, molt or escape from predators, like killer whales, underwater. This has drastically affected their anatomy to be able to do so. They feed largely on fish and marine invertebrates; but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals and birds, such as penguins and seals. Some baleen whales (mainly gray whales and right whales) are specialised for feeding on benthic creatures. Male cetaceans typically mate with more than one female (polygyny), although the degree of polygyny varies with the species. Cetaceans are not known to have pair bonds. Male cetacean strategies for reproductive success vary between herding females, defending potential mates from other males, or whale song which attracts mates. Calves are typically born in the fall and winter months, and females bear almost all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively short period of time, which is more typical of baleen whales as their main food source (invertebrates) aren't found in their breeding and calving grounds (tropics). Cetaceans produce a number of vocalizations, notably the clicks and whistles of dolphins and the moaning songs of the humpback whale. Read more...