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List of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System

  (Redirected from List of Solar System objects in hydrostatic equilibrium)

This is a list of gravitationally rounded objects of the Solar System, which are objects that have a rounded, ellipsoidal shape due to the forces of their own gravity (hydrostatic equilibrium). Their sizes range from dwarf planets and moons to the planets and the Sun. This list does not include any small Solar System bodies, but it does include a sample of planetary-mass objects whose shape has yet to be accurately determined. The Sun's orbital characteristics are listed in relation to the Galactic Center, while all other objects are listed in order of their distance from the Sun.

Contents

SunEdit

The Sun is a G-type main-sequence star. It contains almost 99.9 percent of all the mass in the Solar System.[1]

Sun[2]
 
Astronomical symbol[q]  
Mean distance
from the Galactic Center
km
light years
~2.5×1017
~26,000
Mean radius km
:E[f]
696,342
109.3
Surface area km2
:E[f]
6.0877×1012
11,990
Volume km3
:E[f]
1.4122×1018
1,300,000
Mass kg
:E[f]
1.9855×1030
332,978.9
Gravitational parameter m3/s2 1.327×1020
Density g/cm3 1.409
Equatorial gravity m/s2 274.0
Escape velocity km/s 617.7
Rotation period days[g] 25.38
Orbital period about Galactic Center[3] million years 225–250
Mean orbital speed[3] km/s ~220
Axial tilt[i] to the ecliptic deg. 7.25
Axial tilt[i] to the galactic plane deg. 67.23
Mean surface temperature K 5,778
Mean coronal temperature[4] K 1–2×106
Photospheric composition HHeOCFeS

PlanetsEdit

Key
*
Terrestrial planet
°
Gas giant

Ice giant

The 2006 International Astronomical Union (IAU) defines a planet as a body in orbit around the Sun that was large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium and to have "cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit".[5] The practical meaning of "cleared the neighborhood" is that a planet is comparatively massive enough for its gravitation to control the orbits of all objects in its vicinity. By the IAU's definition, there are eight planets in the Solar System; four terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars) and four giant planets, which can be divided further into two gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) and two ice giants (Uranus and Neptune). When excluding the Sun, the four giant planets account for more than 99 percent of the mass of the Solar System.

  *Mercury[6][7] *Venus[8][9] *Earth[10][11] *Mars[12][13] °Jupiter[14][15] °Saturn[16][17] Uranus[18][19] Neptune[20][21]
                 
Astronomical symbol[q]                
Mean distance
from the Sun
km
AU
57,909,175
0.38709893
108,208,930
0.72333199
149,597,890
1.00000011
227,936,640
1.52366231
778,412,010
5.20336301
1,426,725,400
9.53707032
2,870,972,200
19.19126393
4,498,252,900
30.06896348
Equatorial radius km
:E[f]
2,439.64
0.3825
6,051.59
0.9488
6,378.1
1
3,397.00
0.53260
71,492.68
11.209
60,267.14
9.449
25,557.25
4.007
24,766.36
3.883
Surface area km2
:E[f]
75,000,000
0.1471
460,000,000
0.9020
510,000,000
1
140,000,000
0.2745
64,000,000,000
125.5
44,000,000,000
86.27
8,100,000,000
15.88
7,700,000,000
15.10
Volume km3
:E[f]
6.083×1010
0.056
9.28×1011
0.857
1.083×1012
1
1.6318×1011
0.151
1.431×1015
1,321.3
8.27×1014
763.62
6.834×1013
63.102
6.254×1013
57.747
Mass kg
:E[f]
3.302×1023
0.055
4.8690×1024
0.815
5.972×1024
1
6.4191×1023
0.107
1.8987×1027
318
5.6851×1026
95
8.6849×1025
14.5
1.0244×1026
17
Gravitational parameter m3/s2 2.203×1013 3.249×1014 3.986×1014 4.283×1013 1.267×1017 3.793×1016 5.794×1015 6.837×1015
Density g/cm3 5.43 5.24 5.52 3.940 1.33 0.70 1.30 1.76
Equatorial gravity m/s2 3.70 8.87 9.78 3.71 23.12 8.96 8.69 11.00
Escape velocity km/s 4.25 10.36 11.18 5.02 59.54 35.49 21.29 23.71
Rotation period[g] days 58.646225 243.0187 0.99726968 1.02595675 0.41354 0.44401 0.71833 0.67125
Orbital period[g] years 0.2408467 0.61519726 1.0000174 1.8808476 11.862615 29.447498 84.016846 164.79132
Mean orbital speed km/s 47.8725 35.0214 29.7859 24.1309 13.0697 9.6724 6.8352 5.4778
Eccentricity 0.20563069 0.00677323 0.01671022 0.09341233 0.04839266 0.05415060 0.04716771 0.00858587
Inclination[f] deg. 7.00 3.39 0[10] 1.85 1.31 2.48 0.76 1.77
Axial tilt[i] deg. 0.0 177.3[h] 23.44 25.19 3.12 26.73 97.86[h] 28.32
Mean surface temperature K 440–100 730 287 227 152 [j] 134 [j] 76 [j] 73 [j]
Mean air temperature[k] K 288 165 135 76 73
Atmospheric composition HeNa+
P+ 
CO2N2, SO2 N2O2, Ar, CO2 CO2, N2
Ar
H2, He H2, He H2, He
CH4
H2, He
CH4
Number of known moons[v] 0 0 1 2 79 62 27 14
Rings? No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Planetary discriminant[l][o] 9.1×104 1.35×106 1.7×106 1.8×105 6.25×105 1.9×105 2.9×104 2.4×104

Dwarf planetsEdit

Key

asteroid belt

trans-Neptunian

The IAU – the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies – defines dwarf planets as bodies that are large enough to have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium, but have not cleared their neighbourhoods of similar objects. Since 2008, there have been five dwarf planets recognized by the IAU. Ceres orbits in the asteroid belt, between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. All the others orbit beyond Neptune.

Ceres[22] Pluto[23][24] Haumea[25][26][27] Makemake[28][29] Eris[30]
         
Astronomical symbol[q]    
Minor planet number 1 134340 136108 136472 136199
Mean distance
from the Sun
km
AU
413,700,000
2.766
5,906,380,000
39.482
6,484,000,000
43.335
6,850,000,000
45.792
10,210,000,000
67.668
Mean radius km
:E[f]
473
0.0742
1,187[31]
0.186
816
(1161 × 852 × 569)
0.13[32][33]
715
0.11[34]
1,163
0.18[35]
Volume km3
:E[f]
4.21×108
0.00039[b]
6.99×109
0.0065
1.5×109
0.001
1.5×109
0.001[b]
6.59×109
0.0061[b]
Surface area km2
:E[f]
2,770,000
0.0054[a]
17,700,000
0.035
6,800,000
0.0133[z]
6,400,000
0.013[a]
17,000,000
0.0333[a]
Mass kg
:E[f]
9.39×1020
0.00016
1.305×1022
0.0022
4.01 ± 0.04×1021
0.0007[36]
< 4.4 ×1021

< 0.0007

1.7×1022
0.0028[37]
Gravitational parameter m3/s2 6.263 × 1010 8.710 × 1011 2.674 × 1011 < 2.9366 × 1011 1.108 × 1012
Density g/cm3 2.16 1.87 2.6[32] < 2.933 2.25[c]
Equatorial gravity m/s2 0.27[d] 0.62 0.63[d] < 0.57 ~0.8[d]
Escape velocity km/s[e] 0.51 1.21 0.91 < 0.91 1.37
Rotation period[g] days 0.95111 6.38723 0.16315 0.95111 1.0792
Orbital period[g] years 4.599 247.92065 285.4 309.9 557
Mean orbital speed km/s 17.882 4.7490 4.484[o] 4.4[o] 3.436[n]
Eccentricity 0.080 0.24880766 0.18874 0.159 0.44177
Inclination[f] deg. 10.587 17.14175 28.19 28.96 44.187
Axial tilt[i] deg. 4 119.59[h] ? ? ?
Mean surface temperature[w] K 167[38] 40[39] <50[40] 30 30
Atmospheric composition H2O N2, CH4, CO ? N2, CH4[41] N2, CH4[42]
Number of known moons[v] 0 5 2[43] 1[44] 1[45]
Planetary discriminant[l][o] 0.33 0.077 0.023 0.02 0.10

Most-likely additional dwarf planets with radius 450+ kmEdit

These trans-Neptunian objects are theoretically large enough to be dwarf planets. Dozens more could have been included.[46] Both Quaoar and Orcus have known moons that have allowed the mass of the systems to be determined. Both are more massive than the 5×1020 kg recommendation of the IAU 2006 draft proposal as sufficient for classification as a dwarf planet.[47] However, it is possible that dark, low-density objects like Salacia retain internal porosity from their formation, and are not planetary bodies.[48] In this case, only 2007 OR10, 2002 MS4, Quaoar, Orcus and Sedna are likely dwarf-planet candidates.

Orcus[49] 2002 MS4[50] Quaoar[51] 2007 OR10[52] Sedna[53]
         
Minor-planet number 90482 307261 50000 225088 90377
Semi-major axis km
AU
5,896,946,000
39.419
6,273,000,000
41.93
6,535,930,000
43.69
10,072,433,340
67.33
78,668,000,000
525.86
Mean radius[s] km
:E[f]
458.5[54]
0.0654
467[55]


0.0732

555[56]
0.0870
615[57]
0.0982
497.5[58]
0.0780
Surface area[a] km2
:E[f]
2,185,000
0.004285
2,741,000
0.005375
3,871,000
0.007590
4,932,300
0.009671
3,110,200
0.006098
Volume[b] km3
:E[f]
403,744,500
0.000373
426,618,000
0.000394
716,089,900
0.000661
1,030,034,600
0.000951
515,784,000
0.000476
Mass[t] kg
:E[f]
6.32×1020[59]
0.0001
? 1.4×1021[60][61]
0.0003
1.75×1021[57]
0.0003
?
Density[t] g/cm3 1.5±0.3[59] ? >2.8[60] 1.76 ?
Equatorial gravity[d] m/s2 0.27 ? 0.24 0.285 ?
Escape velocity[e] km/s 0.50 ? 0.45 0.604 ?
Rotation period[g] days 0.5495 ? 0.73662 0.93333 0.42804[62]
Orbital period[g] years 247.492 271.53 287.97 552.52 12,059.06
Mean orbital speed km/s 4.68 4.58 4.52 3.63 1.04
Eccentricity 0.22552 0.148 0.038 0.5064 0.855
Inclination[f] deg. 22.5 17.693 7.988 30.74 11.93
Mean surface temperature[w] K ~42 ~43 ~41 ~30 ~12
Number of known moons 1[63] 0 1[64] 1 0
Planetary discriminant[l][o] 0.003 <0.1 0.0015 <0.1 ?[x]
Absolute magnitude (H) 2.3 3.7 2.71 1.8 1.5

SatellitesEdit

Key
🜨
Satellite of Earth

Satellite of Jupiter

Satellite of Saturn

Satellite of Uranus

Satellite of Neptune

Satellite of Pluto

There are 19 natural satellites in the Solar System that are known to be massive enough to be close to hydrostatic equilibrium. Alan Stern calls these satellite planets, although the term major moon is more common.

Several of these were once in equilibrium but are no longer: these include all of the moons listed for Saturn apart from Titan and Rhea. Other moons that were once in equilibrium but are no longer very round, such as Saturn's Phoebe, are not included. Satellites are listed first in order from the Sun, and second in order from their parent body.

🜨Moon[65] Io[66] Europa[67] Ganymede[68] Callisto[69] Mimas[p] Enceladus[p] Tethys[p] Dione[p] Rhea[p]
                   
Astronomical symbol[q]  
Mean distance
from primary:
km 384,399 421,600 670,900 1,070,400 1,882,700 185,520 237,948 294,619 377,396 527,108
Mean radius km
:E[f]
1,737.1
0.272
1,815
0.285
1,569
0.246
2,634.1
0.413
2,410.3
0.378
198.30
0.031
252.1
0.04
533
0.084
561.7
0.088
764.3
0.12
Surface area[a] 1×106 km2 37.93 41.910 30.9 87.0 73 0.49 0.799 3.57 3.965 7.337
Volume[b] 1×109 km3 22 25.3 15.9 76 59 0.0033 0.67 6.3 0.4 1.9
Mass 1×1022 kg 7.3477 8.94 4.80 14.819 10.758 0.00375 0.0108 0.06174 0.1095 0.2306
Density[c] g/cm3 3.3464 3.528 3.01 1.936 1.83 1.15 1.61 0.98 1.48 1.23
Equatorial gravity[d] m/s2 1.622 1.796 1.314 1.428 1.235 0.0636 0.111 0.145 0.231 0.264
Escape velocity[e] km/s 2.38 2.56 2.025 2.741 2.440 0.159 0.239 0.393 0.510 0.635
Rotation period days[g] 27.321582
(sync)[m]
1.7691378
(sync)
3.551181
(sync)
7.154553
(sync)
16.68902
(sync)
0.942422
(sync)
1.370218
(sync)
1.887802
(sync)
2.736915
(sync)
4.518212
(sync)
Orbital period about primary days[g] 27.32158 1.769138 3.551181 7.154553 16.68902 0.942422 1.370218 1.887802 2.736915 4.518212
Mean orbital speed[o] km/s 1.022 17.34 13.740 10.880 8.204 14.32 12.63 11.35 10.03 8.48
Eccentricity 0.0549 0.0041 0.009 0.0013 0.0074 0.0202 0.0047 0.02 0.002 0.001
Inclination to primary's equator deg. 18.29–28.58 0.04 0.47 1.85 0.2 1.51 0.02 1.51 0.019 0.345
Axial tilt[i][u] deg. 6.68 0 0 0–0.33[70] 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mean surface temperature[w] K 220 130 102 110[71] 134 64 75 64 87 76
Atmospheric composition ArHe
NaKH
SO2[72] O2[73] O2[74] O2CO2[75] H2O, N2
CO2, CH4[76]
Rings? No No No No No No No No No Yes?
Titan[p] Iapetus[p] Miranda[r] Ariel[r] Umbriel[r] Titania[r] Oberon[r] Triton[77] Charon[23]
                 
Mean distance
from primary:
km 1,221,870 3,560,820 129,390 190,900 266,000 436,300 583,519 354,759 17,536
Mean radius km
:E[f]
2,576
0.404
735.60
0.115
235.8
0.037
578.9
0.091
584.7
0.092
788.9
0.124
761.4
0.119
1353.4
0.212
603.5
0.095
Surface area[a] 1×106 km2 83.0 6.7 0.70 4.211 4.296 7.82 7.285 23.018 4.580
Volume[b] 1×109 km3 71.6 1.67 0.055 0.81 0.84 2.06 1.85 10 0.92
Mass 1×1022 kg 13.452 0.18053 0.00659 0.135 0.12 0.35 0.3014 2.14 0.152
Density[c] g/cm3 1.88 1.08 1.20 1.67 1.40 1.72 1.63 2.061 1.65
Equatorial gravity[d] m/s2 1.35 0.22 0.08 0.27 0.23 0.39 0.35 0.78 0.28
Escape velocity[e] km/s 2.64 0.57 0.19 0.56 0.52 0.77 0.73 1.46 0.58
Rotation period days[g] 15.945
(sync)[m]
79.322
(sync)
1.414
(sync)
2.52
(sync)
4.144
(sync)
8.706
(sync)
13.46
(sync)
5.877
(sync)
6.387
(sync)
Orbital period about primary days 15.945 79.322 1.4135 2.520 4.144 8.706 13.46 5.877 6.387
Mean orbital speed[o] km/s 5.57 3.265 6.657 5.50898 4.66797 3.644 3.152 4.39 0.2
Eccentricity 0.0288 0.0286 0.0013 0.0012 0.005 0.0011 0.0014 0.00002 0.0022
Inclination to primary's equator deg. 0.33 14.72 4.22 0.31 0.36 0.14 0.10 157[h] 0.001
Axial tilt[i][u] deg. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ?
Mean surface temperature[w] K 93.7[78] 130 59 58 61 60 61 38[79] 53
Atmospheric composition N2, CH4[80] N2, CH4[81]

NotesEdit

Unless otherwise cited:[ac]Edit

  1. ^ The planetary discriminant for the planets is taken from material published by Stephen Soter.[82] Planetary discriminants for Ceres, Pluto and Eris taken from Soter, 2006. Planetary discriminants of all other bodies calculated from the Kuiper belt mass estimate given by Lorenzo Iorio.[83]
  2. ^ Saturn satellite info taken from NASA Saturnian Satellite Fact Sheet.[84]
  3. ^ Astronomical symbols for all listed objects except Ceres taken from NASA Solar System Exploration.[85] Symbol for Ceres was taken from material published by James L. Hilton.[86] The Moon is the only natural satellite with an astronomical symbol, and Pluto and Ceres the only dwarf planets.
  4. ^ Uranus satellite info taken from NASA Uranian Satellite Fact Sheet.[87]
  5. ^ Radii for plutoid candidates taken from material published by John A. Stansberry et al.[35]
  6. ^ Axial tilts for most satellites assumed to be zero in accordance with the Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac: "In the absence of other information, the axis of rotation is assumed to be normal to the mean orbital plane."[88]
  7. ^ Natural satellite numbers taken from material published by Scott S. Sheppard.[89]

Manual calculations (unless otherwise cited)Edit

  1. ^ Surface area A derived from the radius using  , assuming sphericity.
  2. ^ Volume V derived from the radius using  , assuming sphericity.
  3. ^ Density derived from the mass divided by the volume.
  4. ^ Surface gravity derived from the mass m, the gravitational constant G and the radius r: G*m/r2 .
  5. ^ Escape velocity derived from the mass m, the gravitational constant G and the radius r: sqrt((2*G*m)/r) .
  6. ^ Orbital speed is calculated using the mean orbital radius and the orbital period, assuming a circular orbit.
  7. ^ Assuming a density of 2.0
  8. ^ Calculated using the formula   where Teff =54.8 K at 52 AU,   is the geometric albedo, q=0.8 is the phase integral, and   is the distance from the Sun in AU. This formula is a simplified version of that in section 2.2 of Stansberry et al., 2007,[35] where emissivity and beaming parameter were assumed equal unity, and   was replaced with 4 accounting for the difference between circle and sphere. All parameters mentioned above were taken from the same paper.
  9. ^ Calculated using the formula  , where H is the absolute magnitude, p is the geometric albedo and D is the diameter in km, and assuming an albedo of 0.15, as per Dan Bruton.[90]
  10. ^ Mass derived from the density multipied by the volume.

Individual calculationsEdit

  1. ^ Derived from density
  2. ^ Surface area was calculated using the formula for a scalene ellipsoid:
      where   is the modular angle, or angular eccentricity;   and  ,   are the incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kind, respectively. The values 980 km, 759 km, and 498 km were used for a, b, and c respectively.

Other notesEdit

  1. ^ Relative to Earth
  2. ^ Sidereal
  3. ^ Retrograde
  4. ^ The inclination of the body's equator from its orbit.
  5. ^ At pressure of 1 bar
  6. ^ At sea level
  7. ^ The ratio between the mass of the object and those in its immediate neighborhood. Used to distinguish between a planet and a dwarf planet.
  8. ^ This object's rotation is synchronous with its orbital period, meaning that it only ever shows one face to its primary.
  9. ^ Objects' planetary discriminants based on their similar orbits to Eris. Sedna's population is currently too little-known for a planetary discriminant to be determined.
  10. ^ Proteus average diameter: 210 km;[77] Mimas average diameter: 199 km[84]
  11. ^ "Unless otherwise cited" means that the information contained in the citation is applicable to an entire line or column of a chart, unless another citation specifically notes otherwise.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Woolfson, Michael Mark (2000). "The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System". Astronomy & Geophysics. 41 (1): 1.12–1.19. Bibcode:2000A&G....41a..12W. doi:10.1046/j.1468-4004.2000.00012.x.
  2. ^ NASA Solar System exploration Sun factsheet Archived 2008-01-02 at the Wayback Machine and NASA Sun factsheet Archived 2010-07-15 at the Wayback Machine NASA Retrieved on 2008-11-17 (unless otherwise cited)
  3. ^ a b Leong, Stacy (2002). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Period of the Sun's Orbit around the Galaxy (Cosmic Year)". The Physics Factbook (self-published). Retrieved 2008-06-26.
  4. ^ Aschwanden, Markus J. (2007). "The Sun". In McFadden, Lucy Ann; Weissman, Paul R.; Johnsson, Torrence V. (eds.). Encyclopedia of the Solar System. Academic Press. p. 80.
  5. ^ "IAU 2006 General Assembly: Result of the IAU Resolution votes" (Press release). International Astronomical Union. 24 August 2006. news release IAU0603. Archived from the original on 3 January 2007. Retrieved 31 December 2007. ("original IAU news release link".)
  6. ^ "NASA Mercury Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  7. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  8. ^ "NASA Venus Factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  9. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 29 September 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  10. ^ a b "NASA Earth factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  11. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  12. ^ "NASA Mars Factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  13. ^ "NASA Mars Solar System Exploration Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  14. ^ "NASA Jupiter factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  15. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  16. ^ "NASA Saturn factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 21 August 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  17. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Saturn Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  18. ^ "NASA Uranus Factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  19. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Uranus Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  20. ^ "NASA Neptune Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  21. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Neptune Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  22. ^ "NASA Asteroid Factsheet". NASA. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  23. ^ a b "NASA Pluto factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  24. ^ "NASA Solar System Exploration Pluto Factsheet". NASA. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  25. ^ Lockwood, Alexandra C.; Brown, Michael (Mike) E.; Stansberry, John A. (2014). "The Size and Shape of the Oblong Dwarf Planet Haumea". Earth, Moon, and Planets. 111 (3–4): 127–137. arXiv:1402.4456. Bibcode:2014EM&P..111..127L. doi:10.1007/s11038-014-9430-1.
  26. ^ Rabinowitz, David L.; Barkume, Kristina M.; Brown, Michael (Mike) E.; Roe, Henry G.; Schwartz, Michael; Tourtellotte, Suzanne W.; Trujillo, Chadwick A. (2006). "Photometric Observations Constraining the Size, Shape, and Albedo of 2003 EL61, a rapidly rotating, Pluto-sized object in the Kuiper Belt". The Astrophysical Journal. 639 (2): 1238–1251. arXiv:astro-ph/0509401. Bibcode:2006ApJ...639.1238R. doi:10.1086/499575.CS1 maint: display-authors (link)
  27. ^ "Jet Propulsion Laboratory Small-Body Database Browser: 136108 Haumea". NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 13 November 2008. 2008-05-10 last obs.
  28. ^ Buie, Marc W. (5 April 2008). "Orbit fit and astrometric record for 136472". Space Science Department. SwRI. Retrieved 13 July 2008.
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See alsoEdit