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List of Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics

The announcement of the 2008 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in Stockholm. The winner of the prize was Paul Krugman.

The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, officially known as The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (Swedish: Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is an award funded by Sveriges Riksbank and is annually awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to researchers in the field of economic sciences.[1] The first prize was awarded in 1969 to Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen.[2] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[3] In 1969, Frisch and Tinbergen were given a combined 375,000 SEK, which is equivalent to 2,871,041 SEK in December 2007. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[4]

As of the awarding of the 2019 prize, 51 Nobel Memorial Prizes in Economic Sciences have been given to 84 individuals.[5] Up to 2007, nine awards had been given for contributions to the field of macroeconomics, more than any other category.[6] As of October 2018, the institution with the most affiliated laureates in economic sciences is the University of Chicago, which has 32 affiliated laureates.[7]

LaureatesEdit

Year Laureate Country Rationale Ph.D. alma mater Institution (most significant tenure/at time of receipt) Key contributions (non-exhaustive)
1969   Ragnar Frisch   Norway           "for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"[2] University of Oslo University of Oslo Frisch–Waugh–Lovell theorem, Conjectural variation
  Jan Tinbergen   Netherlands Leiden University Erasmus University Econometrics, Policy instruments
1970   Paul Samuelson   United States "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"[8] Harvard University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Revealed preference, Samuelson condition, Social Welfare Function, Efficient-market hypothesis, Turnpike theory, Balassa–Samuelson effect, Stolper–Samuelson theorem, Overlapping generations model
1971    Simon Kuznets   United States "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[9] Columbia University Harvard University Gross domestic product, Capital formation, Kuznets cycle, Kuznets curve
1972   John Hicks   United Kingdom   "for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory."[10] University of Oxford University of Oxford IS–LM model, Hicksian demand function, substitution effect, income effect, Kaldor–Hicks efficiency
  Kenneth Arrow   United States Columbia University Harvard University Fundamental theorems of welfare economics, Arrow's impossibility theorem, Arrow–Debreu model, Endogenous growth theory,
1973    Wassily Leontief   Soviet Union
  United States
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[11] University of Berlin Harvard University Input–output model, Leontief paradox
 1974   Gunnar Myrdal   Sweden  "for their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena."[12] Stockholm University Stockholm University Circular cumulative causation
  Friedrich Hayek   Austria
  United Kingdom
University of Vienna London School of Economics, University of Chicago Austrian business cycle theory, Economic calculation problem, Spontaneous order, Information economics
1975   Leonid Kantorovich   Soviet Union "for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[13] Leningrad State University Novosibirsk State University Linear programming, Kantorovich theorem, Kantorovich inequality, Kantorovich metric
  Tjalling Koopmans   Netherlands
  United States
University of Leiden University of Chicago, Yale University Linear programming
1976   Milton Friedman   United States "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilisation policy"[14] Columbia University University of Chicago Monetarism, Permanent income hypothesis, Natural rate of unemployment, Sequential analysis,Helicopter money, Great Contraction, Friedman rule, Friedman–Savage utility function, Friedman test
1977   Bertil Ohlin   Sweden "for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"[15] Stockholm University Stockholm School of Economics Heckscher–Ohlin model
  James Meade   United Kingdom University of Cambridge University of Cambridge Nominal income target
1978   Herbert A. Simon   United States "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[16] University of Chicago Carnegie Mellon University Bounded rationality, satisficing, preferential attachment
 1979   Theodore Schultz   United States  "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries."[17] University of Wisconsin-Madison University of Chicago Human Capital Theory
Arthur Lewis   Saint Lucia
  United Kingdom
London School of Economics


Princeton University Lewis model, Lewis turning point
1980 Lawrence Klein   United States "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[18] Massachusetts Institute of Technology University of Pennsylvania Macroeconomics forecasting
1981   James Tobin   United States "for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"[19] Harvard University Yale University Tobin tax, Tobit model, Tobin's q, Baumol–Tobin model
1982 George Stigler   United States "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"[20] University of Chicago University of Chicago Regulatory capture
1983   Gérard Debreu   France "for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"[21] École Normale Supérieure
University of Paris
University of California, Berkeley Arrow–Debreu model, Sonnenschein–Mantel–Debreu theorem
1984   Richard Stone   United Kingdom "for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"[22] University of Cambridge University of Cambridge National accounts
1985   Franco Modigliani   Italy "for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[23] The New School for Social Research Massachusetts Institute of Technology Modigliani–Miller theorem, Life-cycle hypothesis
1986   James M. Buchanan   United States "for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"[24] University of Chicago George Mason University Constitutional economics
1987   Robert Solow   United States "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth"[25] Harvard University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Solow–Swan model
1988   Maurice Allais   France "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"[26] École Polytechnique École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, Paris Nanterre University OLG model, Allais paradox, Golden Rule savings rate
1989   Trygve Haavelmo   Norway "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"[27] University of Oslo University of Oslo Balanced budget multiplier
1990 Harry Markowitz   United States "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"[28] University of Chicago City University of New York Modern portfolio theory, Markowitz model, Efficient frontier
Merton Miller Johns Hopkins University Carnegie Mellon University, University of Chicago Modigliani–Miller theorem
  William F. Sharpe University of California, Los Angeles Stanford University Sharpe Ratio, Binomial options pricing model, Returns-based style analysis
1991   Ronald Coase   United Kingdom "for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"[29] London School of Economics University of Chicago, London School of Economics Transaction costs, Coase theorem, Coase conjecture
1992   Gary Becker   United States "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including non-market behaviour"[30] University of Chicago University of Chicago Human Capital Theory
1993   Robert Fogel   United States "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[31] Johns Hopkins University University of Chicago Cliometrics
  Douglass North University of California, Berkeley Washington University in St Louis
 1994 John Harsanyi   Hungary
  United States
"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games."[32] Stanford University University of California, Berkeley Bayesian game, Preference utilitarianism, Equilibrium selection
  John Forbes Nash   United States Princeton University Princeton University Nash equilibrium, Nash embedding theorem, Nash functions, Nash–Moser theorem
  Reinhard Selten   Germany Goethe University Frankfurt University of Bonn Experimental economics
1995 Robert Lucas, Jr.   United States "for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"[33] University of Chicago University of Chicago Rational expectations, Lucas critique, Lucas paradox, Lucas aggregate supply function, Uzawa–Lucas model
1996 James Mirrlees   United Kingdom "for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"[34] University of Cambridge University of Oxford, University of Cambridge
William Vickrey   Canada
  United States
Columbia University Columbia University Vickrey auction, Revenue equivalence, Congestion pricing
1997   Robert C. Merton   United States "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives."[35] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Black–Scholes–Merton model, ICAPM, Merton's portfolio problem
  Myron Scholes   Canada
  United States
University of Chicago Massachusetts Institute of Technology Black–Scholes–Merton model
1998   Amartya Sen   India "for his contributions to welfare economics"[36] University of Cambridge Harvard University, University of Cambridge Human development theory, Capability approach
1999   Robert Mundell   Canada "for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"[37] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Columbia University Optimum currency area, Supply-side economics, Mundell–Fleming model, Mundell–Tobin effect
2000   James Heckman   United States "for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"[38] Princeton University University of Chicago Heckman correction
  Daniel McFadden   United States "for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"[38] University of Minnesota University of California Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Discrete choice models
2001   George Akerlof   United States "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[39] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Georgetown University, University of California Berkeley Adverse selection (The Market for Lemons), Efficiency wage, Identity economics
  Michael Spence Harvard University Harvard University Signalling theory
  Joseph E. Stiglitz Massachusetts Institute of Technology Princeton University, Columbia University Screening theory, Henry George theorem, Shapiro–Stiglitz theory
2002   Daniel Kahneman   Israel
  United States
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[40] University of California, Berkeley Princeton University, University of British Columbia Behavioral economics, Prospect theory, loss aversion, cognitive biases
  Vernon L. Smith   United States "for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"[40] Harvard University University of Arizona Experimental economics, Combinatorial auction
2003   Robert F. Engle   United States "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"[41] Cornell University University of California, San Diego ARCH
  Clive Granger   United Kingdom "for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"[41] University of Nottingham University of California, San Diego Cointegration, Granger causality
2004   Finn E. Kydland   Norway "for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles."[42] Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University RBC theory, Dynamic inconsistency in monetary policy
  Edward C. Prescott   United States Carnegie Mellon University Carnegie Mellon University, Arizona State University
2005   Robert J. Aumann   United States
  Israel
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis."[43] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Hebrew University of Jerusalem Correlated equilibrium,Aumann's agreement theorem
  Thomas C. Schelling   United States Harvard University Yale University, Harvard University Schelling point, Egonomics
2006   Edmund S. Phelps   United States "for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"[44] Yale University Columbia University Golden Rule savings rate, Natural rate of unemployment, Statistical discrimination
2007   Leonid Hurwicz   Poland
  United States
"for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[45] London School of Economics University of Minnesota, Iowa State University Mechanism design
  Eric S. Maskin   United States Harvard University Harvard University
  Roger B. Myerson Harvard University Northwestern University
2008   Paul Krugman   United States "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[46] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Princeton University New trade theory, New Economic Geography, Home market effect
2009   Elinor Ostrom   United States "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"[47] University of California, Los Angeles Indiana University Institutional Analysis and Development framework
  Oliver E. Williamson "for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"[47] Carnegie Mellon University University of Pennsylvania, University of California Berkeley New institutional economics
2010   Peter A. Diamond   United States "for their analysis of markets with search frictions"[48] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology Diamond–Mirrlees efficiency theorem, Diamond coconut model
  Dale T. Mortensen Carnegie Mellon University Northwestern University Matching theory
  Christopher A. Pissarides   Cyprus London School of Economics London School of Economics Matching theory
2011   Thomas J. Sargent   United States "for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"[49] Harvard University Hoover Institution, University of Minnesota Policy-ineffectiveness proposition
  Christopher A. Sims Harvard University University of Minnesota Vector Autoregression in macroeconomics, Fiscal theory of the price level, Rational inattention
2012   Alvin E. Roth   United States "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design."[50] Stanford University Stanford University, Harvard University Stable marriage problem, Repugnancy costs
  Lloyd S. Shapley Princeton University University of California, Los Angeles Shapley value, stochastic game, Potential game, Shapley–Shubik power index, Bondareva–Shapley theorem, Gale–Shapley algorithm, Shapley–Folkman lemma
2013   Eugene F. Fama   United States "for their empirical analysis of asset prices."[51] University of Chicago University of Chicago Fama–French three-factor model, Weak, semi-strong, and strong efficient-market hypothesis
  Lars Peter Hansen University of Minnesota University of Chicago Generalized method of moments
  Robert J. Shiller Massachusetts Institute of Technology Yale University Case–Shiller index
2014   Jean Tirole   France "for his analysis of market power and regulation".[52] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Toulouse School of Economics
École des hautes études en sciences sociales
Markov perfect equilibrium, Two-sided market
2015   Angus Deaton   United Kingdom
  United States
"for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare".[53] University of Cambridge University of Bristol, Princeton University Almost ideal demand system, Pseudo panels, Household surveys in developing countries
2016   Oliver Hart   United Kingdom
  United States
"for their contributions to contract theory".[54] Princeton University Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard University Moral Hazard, Incomplete contracts
  Bengt Holmström   Finland Stanford University Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Yale University
2017    Richard Thaler   United States "for his contributions to behavioural economics".[55] University of Rochester Cornell University, University of Chicago Nudge Theory, Mental Accounting, Choice Architecture
2018   William Nordhaus   United States         "for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis"[56] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Yale University DICE model
  Paul Romer "for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis" University of Chicago New York University Incorporation of R&D to the Endogenous growth theory
2019   Abhijit Banerjee   India
  United States
"for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty"[57] Harvard University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Use of RCTs in development economics
  Esther Duflo   France
  United States
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Michael Kremer   United States Harvard University Harvard University

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

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External linksEdit