List of Chaldean Catholic Patriarchs of Babylon
This is a list of the Chaldean Catholicoi-Patriarchs of Babylon, the leaders of the Chaldean Catholic Church and one of the Patriarchs of the east of the Catholic Church starting from 1553 following the schism of 1552 which caused a break in the Church of the East, which later led to the founding of the Chaldean Catholic Church.
This list continues from the List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East that traces itself back from the Church founded in Mesopotamia in the 1st century and which became known as the Church of the East.
Biblical Aramaic was until recently called Chaldaic or Chaldee, and East Syrian Christians, whose liturgical language was and is a form of Aramaic, were called Chaldeans, as an ethnic, not a religious term. Hormuzd Rassam (1826–1910) still applied the term "Chaldeans" no less to those not in communion with Rome than to the Catholic Chaldeans and stated that "the present Chaldeans, with a few exceptions, speak the same dialect used in the Targum, and in some parts of Ezra and Daniel, which are called 'Chaldee'."
Catholicoi and Patriarchs of Babylon for the ChaldeansEdit
The Shimun lineEdit
In 1553, Mar Yohannan Sulaqa, willing to separate from the Church of the East's Patriarchal See of Alqosh, an Assyrian town in the Assyrian homeland, went to Rome asking for his appointment as Patriarch. He was consecrated in St. Peter's Basilica on 9 April 1553.
- 90 Shimun VIII Yohannan Sulaqa (1553–1555) — fixed the See in Amid
- 91 Abdisho IV Maron (1555–1570) — moved the See near Siirt
- Vacant (1570–1572)
- 92 Yahballaha V (1572–1580)
- 93 Shimun IX Dinkha (1580–1600) — moved the see to Urmia, was the last patriarch of the Shimun line to be formally recognized by Rome, reintroduced the hereditary succession
- 94 Shimun X Eliyah (1600–1638) — moved the see to Salmas
- 95 Shimun XI Eshuyow (1638–1656)
- 96 Shimun XII Yoalaha (1656–1662)
- 97 Shimun XIII Dinkha (1662–1692; died in 1700) — moved the see to Qochanis, formally broke full communion with Rome in 1692, while continuing as patriarch to be independent of the Alqosh patriarchal line. His successors in the Shimun line eventually became the sole line remaining within what later adopted the name Assyrian Church of the East
The Josephite line of AmidEdit
The Catholic Patriarchs based in Amid, now Diyarbakır in southeastern Turkey, began with Joseph I who in 1667 became Catholic, obtained civil recognition of his independence from the patriarchal see of Alqosh in 1677, and in 1681 was recognized by Rome as "patriarch of the Chaldean nation deprived of its patriarch".
- 98 Joseph I (1681–1696)
- 99 Joseph II Sliba Maruf (1696–1713)
- 100 Joseph III Timothy Maroge (1713–1757)
- 101 Joseph IV Lazare Hindi (1757–1780)
- 102 Joseph V Augustine Hindi (1780–1827), never patriarch, but patriarchal administrator from 1802, apostolic delegate for the Patriarchate of Babylon from 1812.
The Alqosh/Mosul lineEdit
In the 17th and 18th centuries, Alqosh was the seat of what, until the setting up of the Shimun line, had been the only patriarchal line, tracing its origins from the Apostle Thomas in the 1st century. This line is called the Eliyya line, because of the name that each of its successive patriarchs assumed. In 1771, the Alqosh Patriarch Eliyya XII Denkha (1722–1778) entered communion with the Catholic Church. However, on his death in 1778, his successor Eliyya XIII Ishoʿyahb, after obtaining recognition by Rome, quickly repudiated the union and returned to the traditional doctrine. His cousin Yohannan VIII Hormizd professed the Catholic faith and won others to the same faith. When Eliyya IX Ishoʿyahb died in 1804, no successor was elected and Yohannan Hormizd remained the only representative of the line. Rome recognized him in 1783 as metropolitan bishop of Mosul and administrator of the Alqosh/Mosul patriarchate. Only in 1830, after the death in 1827 of Augustine Hindi, the representative of the Josephite line, who had also been under consideration for recognition as the Catholic patriarch, was he acknowledged by Rome as patriarch.
- 103 Yohannan VIII Hormizd (1830–1838) — had his see in Mosul
- 104 Nicholas I Zaya (1839–1846)
- 105 Joseph VI Audo (1847–1878)
- 106 Eliya XIV Abulyonan (1878–1894)
- 107 Audishu V Khayyath (1894–1899) (Georges Ebed-Iesu)
- 108 Yousef VI Emmanuel II Thomas (1900–1946)
- 109 Yousef VII Ghanima (1946–1958) — moved the see to Baghdad
- 110 Paul II Cheikho (1958–1989)
- 111 Raphael I Bidawid (1989–2003)
- 112 Emmanuel III Delly (2003–2012) (retired on 19 December 2012)
- 113 Louis Raphaël I Sako (31 January 2013–present)
- Assemani, Giuseppe Luigi (1775). De catholicis seu patriarchis Chaldaeorum et Nestorianorum commentarius historico-chronologicus. Roma.
- Assemani, Giuseppe Luigi (2004). History of the Chaldean and Nestorian Patriarchs. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press.
- Wilmshurst, David (2000). The Ecclesiastical Organisation of the Church of the East, 1318–1913. Louvain: Peeters Publishers.
- Wilmshurst, David (2011). The martyred Church: A History of the Church of the East. London: East & West Publishing Limited.
- Braun, Wilhelm; Winkler, Dietmar W. (2000). The Church of the East: A Concise History (PDF). Routledge.
- Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures (1857)
- Lexicon manuale hebraicum et chaldaicum in Veteris Testamenti libros (1847)
- Kristian Girling, The Chaldean Catholic Church: Modern History, Ecclesiology and Church-State Relations (Routledge 2017); cf. William Ainsworth, "An Account of a Visit to the Chaldeans ..." in The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 11 (1841), e.g., p. 36; Austen Henry Layard, Nineveh and its Remains (Murray 1850), p. 260; Richard Simon, Histoire critique de la créance et des coûtumes des nations du Levant (Francfort 1684), p. 83
- Hormuzd Rassam, "Biblical Nationalities Past and Present" in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, vol. VIII, part 1, p. 377
- Hormuzd Rassam, "Biblical Nationalities Past and Present" in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, vol. VIII, part 1, p. 378
- Wilhelm Braun, Dietmar W. Winkler, The Church of the East: A Concise History (Routledge 2000), p. 119