List of Atlantic hurricane records

As of September 2020 there have been 1,616 tropical cyclones of at least tropical storm intensity and 926 of at least hurricane intensity since the reliable record keeping of tropical cyclone data within the Atlantic Ocean began with the 1851 Atlantic hurricane season. Though a majority of these cyclones have fallen within climatological averages, prevailing atmospheric conditions occasionally lead to anomalous tropical systems which at times reach extremes in statistical record-keeping including in duration and intensity.[1] The scope of this list is limited to tropical cyclone records solely within the Atlantic Ocean and is subdivided by their reason for notability.

Tropical cyclogenesisEdit

Earliest / latest formations for each categoryEdit

 
Radar image of Hurricane Alice (1954–55), the only Atlantic tropical cyclone on record to span two calendar years at hurricane strength

Climatologically speaking, approximately 97 percent of tropical cyclones that form in the North Atlantic develop between the dates of June 1 and November 30 – dates which delimit the modern-day Atlantic hurricane season. Though the beginning of the annual hurricane season has historically remained the same, the official end of the hurricane season has shifted from its initial date of October 31. Regardless, on average once every few years a tropical cyclone develops outside the limits of the season;[2] as of May 2020 there have been 89 tropical cyclones in the off-season, with the most recent being Tropical Storm Bertha in 2020. The first tropical cyclone of the 1938 Atlantic hurricane season, which formed on January 3, became the earliest forming tropical storm and hurricane after reanalysis concluded on the storm in December 2012.[3] Hurricane Able in 1951 was initially thought to be the earliest forming major hurricane,[nb 1] however, following post-storm analysis it was determined that Able only reached Category 1 strength, which made Hurricane Alma of 1966 the new record holder as it became a major hurricane on June 8.[5] Though it developed within the bounds of the Atlantic hurricane season,[2][5] Hurricane Audrey in 1957 was the earliest developing Category 4 hurricane on record after it reached the intensity on June 27.[6] However, reanalysis [5] 1956 to 1960 by NOAA downgraded Audrey to a Category 3, making Hurricane Dennis of 2005 the earliest Category 4 on record on July 8, 2005.[7] The earliest-forming Category 5 hurricane, Emily, reached the highest intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on July 17, 2005.[8]

Though the official end of the Atlantic hurricane season occurs on November 30, the dates of October 31 and November 15 have also historically marked the official end date for the hurricane season.[2] December, the only month of the year after the hurricane season, has featured the cyclogenesis of fourteen tropical cyclones.[5] The second Hurricane Alice in 1954 was the latest forming tropical storm and hurricane, reaching these intensities on December 30 and 31, respectively. Hurricane Alice and Tropical Storm Zeta were the only two storms to exist in two calendar years – the former from 1954 to 1955 and the latter from 2005 to 2006.[9] No storms have been recorded to exceed Category 1 hurricane intensity in December.[5] In 1999, Hurricane Lenny reached Category 4 intensity on November 17 as it took an unusual west to east track across the Caribbean; its intensity made it the latest developing Category 4 hurricane, though this was well within the bounds of the hurricane season.[10] In 2020, Hurricane Iota intensified to Category 5 on November 16, becoming the latest in any Atlantic hurricane season to reach this intensity.[11]

Earliest and latest forming Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes by Saffir–Simpson classification
Storm
classification
Earliest formation Latest formation
Season Storm Date reached Season Storm Date reached
Tropical storm 1938 One[5] January 3 1954 Alice[5] December 30[nb 2]
Category 1 1938 One[5] January 4 1954 Alice[5] December 31
Category 2 1908 One[5] March 7 2016 Otto[5] November 24
Category 3 1966 Alma[5] June 8 2016 Otto[5] November 24
Category 4 2005 Dennis[12] July 8 1999 Lenny[5] November 17
Category 5 2005 Emily[8][13] July 17 2020 Iota[11] November 16

Earliest formation records by storm numberEdit

Earliest and next earliest forming Atlantic tropical / subtropical storms by storm number
Storm
number
Earliest Next earliest
Name Date of formation Name Date of formation
1 One[5] January 3, 1938 One[5] January 4, 1951
2 Able[5] May 16, 1951 Two[5] May 17, 1887
3 Cristobal[14] June 2, 2020 Colin[14] June 5, 2016
4 Danielle[15] June 20, 2016 Debby[15] June 23, 2012[nb 3]
5 Edouard[15] July 6, 2020 Emily[15] July 11, 2005
6 Fay[15] July 9, 2020 Franklin July 21, 2005
7 Gonzalo[16] July 22, 2020 Gert[16] July 24, 2005
8 Hanna[15] July 24, 2020 Harvey[15] August 3, 2005
9 Isaias[15] July 30, 2020 Irene[15] August 7, 2005
10 Josephine[15] August 13, 2020 Jose[15] August 22, 2005
11 Kyle[15] August 14, 2020 Katrina[15] August 24, 2005
12 Laura[15] August 21, 2020 Luis[15] August 29, 1995
13 Marco[17] August 22, 2020 Maria[17] September 2, 2005[nb 4]
Lee[17] September 2, 2011[nb 5]
14 Nana[18] September 1, 2020 Nate[18] September 5, 2005
15 Omar[19] September 1, 2020 Ophelia[19] September 7, 2005[nb 6]
16 Paulette[20] September 7, 2020 Philippe[20] September 17, 2005
17 Rene[20] September 7, 2020 Rita[20] September 18, 2005
18 Sally[21] September 12, 2020 Stan[21] October 2, 2005
19 Teddy[22] September 14, 2020 "Azores"[22] October 4, 2005
20 Vicky[23] September 14, 2020 Tammy[23] October 5, 2005
21 Wilfred[24] September 18, 2020 Vince[24] October 9, 2005
22 Alpha[25] September 18, 2020 Wilma October 17, 2005
23 Beta[25] September 18, 2020 Alpha October 22, 2005
24 Gamma[26] October 2, 2020 Beta[26] October 27, 2005
25 Delta[27] October 5, 2020 Gamma[27] November 15, 2005
26 Epsilon[28] October 19, 2020 Delta[28] November 22, 2005
27 Zeta[29] October 25, 2020 Epsilon[30] November 29, 2005
28 Eta[31] November 1, 2020 Zeta[32] December 30, 2005
29 Theta[33] November 10, 2020 Earliest formation by virtue of
being the only of that number
30 Iota[34] November 13, 2020

IntensityEdit

Most intenseEdit

Generally speaking, the intensity of a tropical cyclone is determined by either the storm's maximum sustained winds or lowest barometric pressure. The following table lists the most intense Atlantic hurricanes in terms of their lowest barometric pressure. In terms of wind speed, Allen from 1980 was the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record, with maximum sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h). For many years, it was thought that Hurricane Camille also attained this intensity, but this conclusion was changed in 2014. The original measurements of Camille are suspect since wind speed instrumentation used at the time would likely be damaged by winds of such intensity.[35] Nonetheless, their central pressures are low enough to rank them among the strongest recorded Atlantic hurricanes.[5]

Owing to their intensity, the strongest Atlantic hurricanes have all attained Category 5 classification. Hurricane Opal, the strongest Category 4 hurricane recorded, intensified to reach a minimum pressure of 916 mbar (hPa; 27.05 inHg),[36] a pressure typical of Category 5 hurricanes.[37] Nonetheless, the pressure remains too high to list Opal as one of the ten strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones.[5] Currently, Hurricane Wilma is the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded, after reaching an intensity of 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) in October 2005;[35] at the time, this also made Wilma the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide outside of the West Pacific,[38][39][40][41][42] where seven tropical cyclones have been recorded to intensify to lower pressures.[43] However, this was later superseded by Hurricane Patricia in 2015 in the east Pacific, which had a pressure reading of 872 mbar. Preceding Wilma is Hurricane Gilbert, which had also held the record for most intense Atlantic hurricane for 17 years.[44] The 1935 Labor Day hurricane, with a pressure of 892 mbar (hPa; 26.34 inHg), is the third strongest Atlantic hurricane and the strongest documented tropical cyclone prior to 1950.[5] Since the measurements taken during Wilma and Gilbert were documented using dropsonde, this pressure remains the lowest measured over land.[45]

Hurricane Rita is the fourth strongest Atlantic hurricane in terms of barometric pressure and one of three tropical cyclones from 2005 on the list, with the others being Wilma and Katrina at first and seventh, respectively.[5] However, with a barometric pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg), Rita is the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.[46] In between Rita and Katrina is Hurricane Allen. Allen's pressure was measured at 899 mbar. Hurricane Camille is the sixth strongest hurricane on record. Camille is the only storm to have been moved down the list due to post-storm analysis. Camille was originally recognized as the fifth strongest hurricane on record, but was dropped to the seventh strongest in 2014, with an estimated pressure at 905 mbars, tying it with Hurricanes Mitch, and Dean. Camille then was recategorized with a new pressure of 900 mbars. Currently, Mitch and Dean share intensities for the eighth strongest Atlantic hurricane at 905 mbar (hPa; 26.73 inHg).[45] Hurricane Maria is in tenth place for most intense Atlantic tropical cyclone, with a pressure as low as 908 mbar (hPa; 26.81 inHg).[47] In addition, the most intense Atlantic hurricane outside of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico is Hurricane Dorian of 2019, with a pressure of 910 mbar (hPa; 26.9 inHg).[48]

Many of the strongest recorded tropical cyclones weakened prior to their eventual landfall or demise. However, four of the storms remained intense enough at landfall to be considered some of the strongest landfalling hurricanes – four of the ten hurricanes on the list constitute four of the top ten most intense Atlantic landfalls in recorded history. The 1935 Labor Day hurricane made landfall at peak intensity, the most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall.[49] Hurricane Camille made landfall in Waveland, Mississippi with a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg), making it the second most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall.[50] Though it weakened slightly before its eventual landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, Hurricane Gilbert maintained a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg) at landfall, making its landfall the second strongest, tied with Camille. Similarly, Hurricane Dean made landfall on the peninsula, though it did so at peak intensity and with a higher barometric pressure; its landfall marked the fourth strongest in Atlantic hurricane history.[45]

  • Note: Dropsondes have only been GPS-based for use in eyewalls since 1997,[51] and the quantity of aircraft reconnaissance and surface observation stations has changed over time, such that values from storms in different periods may not be 100% consistent.

Most intense by minimum barometric pressureEdit

Most intense Atlantic hurricanes
Hurricane Season By peak pressure By pressure at landfall
mbar inHg mbar inHg
Wilma 2005 882 26.05
Gilbert 1988 888 26.22 900 26.58
"Labor Day" 1935 892 26.34 892 26.34
Rita 2005 895 26.43
Allen 1980 899 26.55
Camille 1969 900 26.58 900 26.58
Katrina 2005 902 26.64
Mitch 1998 905 26.72
Dean 2007 905 26.72 905 26.72
Maria 2017 908 26.81
"Cuba" 1924 910 26.87
Dorian 2019 910 26.87
Janet 1955 914 26.99
Irma 2017 914 26.99
"Cuba" 1932 918 27.10
Michael 2018 919 27.14
Note: Grey shading indicates that the pressure was not a record, only the top ten storms for each category are included here.

Strongest by 1-minute sustained wind speedEdit

Strongest Atlantic hurricanes
Hurricane Season By peak sustained wind speed By wind speed at landfall
mph km/h mph km/h
Allen 1980 190 305
"Labor Day" 1935 185 295 185 295
Gilbert 1988 185 295 165 270
Dorian 2019 185 295 185 295
Wilma 2005 185 295
Mitch 1998 180 285
Rita 2005 180 285
Irma 2017 180 285 180 285
"Cuba" 1932 175 280 150 240
Janet 1955 175 280 175 280
Camille 1969 175 280 175 280
Anita 1977 175 280 175 280
David 1979 175 280 175 280
Andrew 1992 175 280 165 270
Katrina 2005 175 280
Dean 2007 175 280 175 280
Felix 2007 175 280 165 270
Maria 2017 175 280 165 270
Note: Grey shading indicates that the wind speed was not a record, only the highest ranking storms for each category are included here.

Most intense by monthEdit

Intensity is measured solely by central pressure.

Most intense Atlantic tropical cyclones by month
Month Storm Year Minimum pressure Maximum winds Category
January[nb 7] Alice 1955 ~980 mbar (hPa; 28.94 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1
February[nb 8] Groundhog"Groundhog Day" 1952 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg) 70 mph (110 km/h) Tropical storm
March[nb 9] One 1908 <991 mbar (hPa; 29.27 inHg) 100 mph (155 km/h) Category 2
April Arlene 2017 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg) 50 mph (85 km/h) Tropical storm
May Able 1951 973 mbar (hPa; 28.74 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1
June Audrey 1957 946 mbar (hPa; 27.94 inHg) 125 mph (205 km/h) Category 3
Alex 2010 110 mph (175 km/h) Category 2
July Emily 2005 929 mbar (hPa; 27.44 inHg) 160 mph (260 km/h) Category 5
August Allen 1980 899 mbar (hPa; 26.55 inHg) 190 mph (305 km/h) Category 5
September Gilbert 1988 888 mbar (hPa; 26.23 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
October Wilma 2005 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
November Cuba"Cuba" 1932 ≤915 mbar (hPa; 27.11 inHg) 175 mph (290 km/h) Category 5
December Nicole 1998 979 mbar (hPa; 28.91 inHg) 85 mph (140 km/h) Category 1

Hurricane Severity IndexEdit

Most severe landfalling Atlantic hurricanes in the United States
Based on size and intensity for total points on the Hurricane Severity Index[52]
Rank Hurricane Year Intensity Size Total
1 Carla 1961 17 25 42
2 Betsy 1965 15 25 40
3 Camille 1969 22 14 36
Opal 1995 11 25 36
Katrina 2005 13 23 36
6 Audrey 1957 17 16 33
Wilma 2005 12 21 33
8 Ivan 2004 12 20 32
9 Ike 2008 10 20 30
10 Andrew 1992 16 11 27

Fastest intensificationEdit

  • Fastest intensification from a tropical depression to a hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 12 hours
    Blanche 1969 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 85 mph (140 km/h) – from 0600 UTC to 1800 UTC August 11[5]
    Harvey 1981 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 80 mph (130 km/h) – from 1200 UTC September 12 to 0000 UTC September 13[5]
  • Fastest intensification from a tropical depression to a Category 5 hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 54 hours
    Wilma 2005 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 175 mph (280 km/h) – from 0000 UTC October 17 to 0600 UTC October 19[5]
    Maria 2017 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 160 mph (260 km/h) – from 1800 UTC September 16 to 0000 UTC September 19[53]
  • Fastest intensification from a tropical storm to a Category 5 hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 24 hours
    Wilma 2005 – 70 mph (110 km/h) to 175 mph (275 km/h) – from 0600 UTC October 18 to 0600 UTC October 19[5]
  • Maximum pressure drop in 12 hours – 83 mbar
    Wilma 2005 – 975 millibars (28.8 inHg) to 892 millibars (26.3 inHg) – from 1800 UTC October 18 to 0600 UTC October 19[5]
  • Maximum pressure drop in 24 hours – 97 mbar
    Wilma 2005 – 979 millibars (28.9 inHg) to 882 millibars (26.0 inHg) – from 1200 UTC October 18 to 1200 UTC October 19[5]

Seasonal recordsEdit

From 1981 to 2010, there were on average 12.1 storms in the Atlantic Basin.[54] Each hurricane season may be impacted by an El Niño or La Niña which contributes to the number of storms in any given year, and a hurricane with a peak intensity of Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is classified as major. The most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history took place in 2020, when a total of 30 storms were counted. The storm count includes 13 hurricanes, of which 6 strengthened to major hurricane status. On the converse, the least active season in the modern satellite era took place in 1983 with just 4 named storms.

  • Note: The charts for post-1964 seasons are spread by a total margin of 10 storms from the given average of 12.1

1851–1964Edit

Most Atlantic hurricane seasons prior to the satellite era include 7 or fewer recorded tropical storms or hurricanes. As the usage of satellite data was not available until the mid-1960s, early storm counts are less reliable. Before the advent of the airplane or means of tracking storms, the ones recorded were storms that affected mainly populated areas. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated.[55] The following storms all date prior to 1965, and may or may not be fully factual due to a lack of complete information.

Most storms
Rank Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Notes
Hurricanes Major
1 1933 20 11 6 "Major" includes 2 Category 5 hurricanes.
2 1887 19 11 2
3 1936 17 7 1
4
(tie)
1949 16 7 3
1950 16 11 6 First year of officially named storms, 3/16 were unnamed.
1954 16 7 3 There was 1 unnumbered Tropical Depression
Fewest storms
Rank Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Notes
Hurricanes Major
1 1914 1 0 0 Fewest storms in recorded history, one of only two seasons to feature no hurricanes, the other being 1907.
2 1930 3 2 2 One of only 2 seasons with less than 4 total storms.
3
(tie)
1857 4 3 0 Earliest season documented by HURDAT to feature no major hurricanes.
1868 4 3 0 Re-analysis confirmed activity from "none known".
1883 4 3 2
1884 4 4 1
1890 4 2 1
1917 4 2 2
1925 4 2 0

1965–presentEdit

 
Hurricane Esther was the first to be "discovered" through satellite in 1961.

With the advent of the satellite came better and more accurate weather tracking. The first satellites sent into space to monitor the weather were known as Television Infrared Observation Satellites (TIROS). In 1961, Hurricane Esther was the first hurricane to be "discovered" through satellite readings. Although this modern invention was now available, the systems were initially not fully active enough to provide daily images of the storms.[56] Data for the North Atlantic region remained sparse as late as 1964 due to a lack of complete satellite coverage.[57]

 
2020 is the most active season in the modern satellite era.
Most storms
Rank Year Named
storms
Hurricanes Subtropical
storms
Hurricanes Major
1 2020 30 13 6 1
2 2005 28 15 7 1
3
(tie)
1995 19 11 5 0
2010 19 12 5 0
2011 19 7 4 0
2012 19 10 2 0
7
(tie)
1969 18 12 5 0
2019 18 6 3 2
 
1983 was the least active season in the modern satellite era.
Fewest storms
Rank Year Named
storms
Hurricanes Subtropical
storms
Hurricanes Major
1 1983 4 3 1 0
2
(tie)
1977 6 5 1 0
1982 6 2 1 1
1986 6 4 0 0
5
(tie)
1972 7 3 0 3
1987 7 3 1 0
1992 7 4 1 1
1994 7 3 0 0

Named storms by month of namingEdit

The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1 through November 30 each year, with peak activity occurring between August and October. Specifically, the height of the season is in early to mid September.[2] Tropical systems that form outside of these months are referred to as "off season", and account for roughly 3% of all storms that form in a given year.[2] All of the records included below are for the most storms that formed in a given month, as the threshold for "fewest" is zero for expected months. Cases where "fewest storms" are unusual include the months when the hurricane season is at its peak.

Number of named storm occurrences by month of naming
Month
Most Season
January 1[58] 1938, 1951, 1978, 2016
February 1[59] 1952[nb 10]
March 1[60] 1908[nb 10]
April 1[58] 1992, 2003, 2017
May 2[58] 1887, 2012, 2020
June 3[58] 1886, 1909, 1936, 1968
July 5[61] 2005, 2020
August 8[58] 2004, 2012
September 10[62] 2020
October 8[58] 1950
November 3[63] 1931, 1961, 2001, 2005, 2020
December 2[58] 1887, 2003

Most storms formed on a single dayEdit

According to the National Hurricane Center, three storms have formed on the same day only twice since the advent of modern record keeping, during the 1893 and 2020 seasons.

Most tropical / subtropical storms to form on a single day
Number Season Day Names
3
(tie)
1893 August 15 Four, Five, Six
2020 September 18 Wilfred, Alpha, Beta
Source: [64]

EffectsEdit

Costliest Atlantic hurricanesEdit

Hurricanes Katrina (left) and Harvey (right) both caused $125 billion in damage, more than any other tropical cyclone worldwide.
Costliest Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Damage[nb 11]
1 Katrina 2005 $125 billion
Harvey 2017
3 Maria 2017 $91.6 billion
4 Irma 2017 $77.2 billion
5 Sandy 2012 $68.7 billion
6 Ike 2008 $38 billion
7 Wilma 2005 $27.4 billion
8 Andrew 1992 $27.3 billion
9 Ivan 2004 $26.1 billion
10 Michael 2018 $25.5 billion

Deadliest Atlantic hurricanesEdit

 
Hurricane Mitch killed at least 11,374 people in Central America in October 1998.
Deadliest Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Fatalities
1 "Great Hurricane" 1780 22,000–27,501
2 Mitch 1998 11,374+
3 Fifi 1974 8,210–10,000
4 "Galveston" 1900 8,000–12,000
5 Flora 1963 7,193
6 "Pointe-à-Pitre" 1776 6,000+
7 "Okeechobee" 1928 4,112+
8 "Newfoundland" 1775 4,000–4,163
9 "Monterrey" 1909 4,000
10 "Dominican Republic" 1930 2,000–8,000
See also: List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes

Most tornadoes spawnedEdit

 
Tracks of the 50 mesocyclones and multiple tornado vortex signatures (denoted by inverted red triangles) identified by the NWS Office in Tallahassee Florida September 15–16, 2004.
Number of tornadoes spawned[65]
Rank Count Name Year
1 120 Hurricane Ivan 2004
2 115 Hurricane Beulah 1967
3 103[66] Hurricane Frances 2004
4 101 Hurricane Rita 2005
5 57 Hurricane Katrina 2005
6 54 Hurricane Harvey 2017
7 50 Tropical Storm Fay 2008
8 49 Hurricane Gustav 2008
9 47 Hurricane Georges 1998
10 (tie) 44 Hurricane Cindy 2005
Hurricane Florence 2018

Miscellaneous recordsEdit

Miscellaneous records
Record Value Name Season
Distance traveled 6,850 miles (11,020 km)[67] Hurricane Faith 1966
Highest forward speed 69 mph (111 km/h)[5][68] Tropical Storm Six 1961
Largest in diameter 1,150 miles (1,850 km)[69] Hurricane Sandy 2012
Longest duration (non consecutive) 28 days[5][70][71] "San Ciriaco" 1899
Longest duration (consecutive) 27.25 days[5][70][71] Ginger 1971
Longest duration (at category 5) 3.6 days[72] "Cuba" 1932

Worldwide cyclone records set by Atlantic stormsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hurricanes reaching Category 3 (111 mph (179 km/h)) and higher on the 5-level Saffir–Simpson wind speed scale are considered major hurricanes.[4]
  2. ^ 1954's Hurricane Alice and 2005's Tropical Storm Zeta both formed on December 30; however, Alice became a tropical storm around 12:00 UTC, about six hours later than Zeta.[5]
  3. ^ 2012's Debby and 2020's Dolly both formed on June 23; however, Debby became a tropical storm around 12:00 UTC, about four hours before Dolly.
  4. ^ 2005's Maria and 2011's Lee both formed on September 2 and each became a tropical storm around 12:00 UTC.
  5. ^ 2011's Lee and 2005's Maria both formed on September 2 and each became a tropical storm around 12:00 UTC.
  6. ^ 2005's Ophelia and 2011's Nate both formed on September 7; however, Ophelia became a tropical storm around 06:00 UTC, about 12 hours before Nate.
  7. ^ Alice formed in December 1954 but reached its peak intensity in January 1955.
  8. ^ 1952's "Groundhog Day" storm is the strongest system in February by virtue of being the only active system on record during that month.
  9. ^ 1908's first storm is the strongest system in March by virtue of being the only active system on record during that month.
  10. ^ a b Highest number for month by virtue of being the only season on record to have a storm form during that month.
  11. ^ All damage figures are in United States dollars, and are not adjusted for inflation.

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Landsea, Chris; et al. (June 2013). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  4. ^ "Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale". Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. May 25, 2020.
  6. ^ "1957 – Hurricane Audrey". hurricanescience.org. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved September 3, 2013.
  7. ^ NHC Public Affairs (July 20, 2016). "Reanalysis of 1956 to 1960 Atlantic hurricane seasons completed: 10 new tropical storms discovered" (PDF). nhc.noaa.gov. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
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  12. ^ Courson, Paul (August 26, 2005). "NOAA: More hurricanes to come". CNN. Retrieved September 4, 2020.
  13. ^ Beven, John L.; Avila, Lixion A.; Blake, Eric S.; Brown, Daniel P.; Franklin, James L.; Knabb, Richard D.; Pasch, Richard J.; Rhome, Jamie R.; Stewart, Stacy R. (March 2008). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Monthly Weather Review Atlantic Hurricane Season Summary. 136 (3): 1109–1173. Bibcode:2008MWRv..136.1109B. doi:10.1175/2007MWR2074.1. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
  14. ^ a b Gray, Jennifer (June 2, 2020). "Cristobal becomes the earliest third Atlantic named storm on record". CNN. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
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  17. ^ a b c Bellafiore, Sean (August 21, 2020). "Tropical Depression 14 not yet a tropical storm, could threaten Central Texas". Waco, Texas: KWTX News. Retrieved August 28, 2020.
  18. ^ a b Cappucci, Matthew (September 1, 2020). "Tropical storm Nana nears formation in Caribbean as Atlantic hurricane season stays unusually active". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  19. ^ a b "Tropical Storm Omar, Record Earliest Fifteenth Storm, Tracking Well Off the U.S. East Coast". weather.com. The Weather Channel. September 1, 2020. Retrieved September 3, 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d Erdman, Jonathan (September 7, 2020). "Tropical Storm Paulette, Record Earliest 16th Storm, Forms in Eastern Atlantic While Tropical Storm Rene is Soon to Follow". weather.com. The Weather Channel. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
  21. ^ a b Niles, Nancy; Hauck, Grace; Aretakis, Rachel (September 12, 2020). "Tropical Storm Sally forms as it crosses South Florida; likely to strengthen into hurricane when it reaches Gulf". USA Today Network. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
  22. ^ a b Marchante, Michelle; Harris, Alex (September 14, 2020). "With newly formed Tropical Storm Teddy, NHC tracking five named systems at once". The Miami Herald. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  23. ^ a b Michals, Chris (September 14, 2020). "Sally takes aim at the Gulf Coast; only one name left for hurricane season". wsls.com. Roanoke, Virginia: WSLS-TV. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  24. ^ a b Fox 13 News (September 18, 2020). "Tropical Storm Wilfred forms in Atlantic, using final name on NHC's 2020 list". Tampa, Florida: WTVT. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  25. ^ a b Borenstein, Seth (September 18, 2020). "Running out of storm names, Atlantic season goes Greek". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Chattanooga, Tennessee. AP. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
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