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List of Atlantic hurricane records

Since the reliable record keeping of tropical cyclone data within the North Atlantic Ocean began in 1851,[1] there have been 1,574 systems of at least tropical storm intensity and 912 of at least hurricane intensity. Though a majority of these tropical depressions have fallen within climatological averages, prevailing atmospheric conditions occasionally lead to anomalous tropical systems which at times reach extremes in statistical record-keeping including in duration and intensity.[2] The scope of this list is limited to tropical cyclone records solely within the Atlantic Ocean and is subdivided by their reason for notability.

Tropical cyclogenesisEdit

Earliest/latest formations for each categoryEdit

 
Hurricane Alice was both the latest and earliest recorded hurricane to exist in any given calendar year.

Climatologically speaking, approximately 97 percent of tropical cyclones that form in the North Atlantic develop between the dates of June 1 and November 30 – dates which delimit the modern-day Atlantic hurricane season. Though the beginning of the annual hurricane season has historically remained the same, the official end of the hurricane season has shifted from its initial date of October 31. Regardless, on average once every few years a tropical cyclone develops outside the limits of the season;[3] as of June 2018 there have been 89 tropical cyclones in the off-season, with the most recent being Subtropical Storm Andrea (2019) in 2019.[1] The first tropical cyclone of the 1938 Atlantic hurricane season, which formed on January 3, became the earliest forming tropical storm and hurricane after reanalysis concluded on the storm in December 2012.[4] Hurricane Able in 1951 was initially thought to be the earliest forming major hurricane – a tropical cyclone with winds exceeding 115 mph (185 km/h)[nb 1] – however, following post-storm analysis it was determined that Able only reached Category 1 strength which made Hurricane Alma of 1966 the new record holder as it became a major hurricane on June 8.[1] Though it developed within the bounds of the Atlantic hurricane season,[3][1] Hurricane Audrey in 1957 was the earliest developing Category 4 hurricane on record after it reached the intensity on June 27.[6] However, reanalysis from 1956 to 1960 by NOAA downgraded Audrey to a Category 3, making Hurricane Dennis of 2005 the earliest Category 4 on record on July 8, 2005.[7] The earliest-forming Category 5 hurricane, Emily, reached the highest intensity on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale on July 17, 2005.[8]

Though the official end of the Atlantic hurricane season occurs on November 30, the dates of October 31 and November 15 have also historically marked the official end date for the hurricane season.[3] December, the only month of the year after the hurricane season, has featured the cyclogenesis of fourteen tropical cyclones.[1] Tropical Storm Zeta in 2005 was the latest tropical cyclone to attain tropical storm intensity as it did so on December 30. However, the second Hurricane Alice in 1954 was the latest forming tropical cyclone to attain hurricane intensity. Both Alice and Zeta were the only two storms to exist in two calendar years – the former from 1954 to 1955 and the latter from 2005 to 2006.[9] No storms have been recorded to exceed Category 1 hurricane intensity in December.[1] In 1999, Hurricane Lenny reached Category 4 intensity on November 17 as it took an unprecedented west to east track across the Caribbean; its intensity made it the latest developing Category 4 hurricane, though this was well within the bounds of the hurricane season.[10] Hurricane Hattie (October 27-November 1, 1961) was initially thought to have been the latest forming Category 5 hurricane ever documented,[11] though reanalysis indicated that a devastating hurricane in 1932 reached such an intensity at a later date.[1][4] Consequently, this made the hurricane the latest developing tropical cyclone to reach all four Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale classifications past Category 1 intensity.[1]

Earliest and latest forming Atlantic tropical cyclones by Saffir–Simpson classification
Earliest Formation Latest Formation
Category Year Storm Date Reached Notes Year Storm Date Reached Notes
Tropical storm 1938 Unnamed January 3 [1][nb 2] 200506 Tropical Storm Zeta December 30 [1]
Category 1 1938 Unnamed January 4 [1] 195455 Hurricane Alice December 31 [1]
Category 2 1908 Unnamed March 7 [1] 2016 Hurricane Otto November 24 [12][nb 3]
Category 3 1966 Hurricane Alma June 8 [1] 2016 Hurricane Otto November 24 [12]
Category 4 2005 Hurricane Dennis July 8 1999 Hurricane Lenny November 17 [1]
Category 5 2005 Hurricane Emily July 17 [8][13] 1932 1932 Cuba hurricane November 5 [1]

Earliest formation records by storm numberEdit

  Indicates a tie for the earliest/next earliest formation date
Earliest formation of north Atlantic tropical cyclones by storm number
Storm # Earliest Next earliest
Name Date of formation Name Date of formation
1 Unnamed January 3, 1938 Unnamed January 4, 1951
2 Unnamed May 17, 1887 Unnamed May 26, 1908
Beryl 00May 26, 2012
3 Colin June 5, 2016 Unnamed June 12, 1887
4 Danielle June 20, 2016 Debby June 23, 2012
5 Emily July 11, 2005 Danny July 16, 1997
6 Franklin July 21, 2005 Unnamed August 2, 1959
7 Gert July 24, 2005 Unnamed August 7, 1936
8 Harvey August 3, 2005 Unnamed August 15, 1936
9 Irene August 7, 2005 Unnamed August 20, 1936
10 Jose August 22, 2005 Jerry August 23, 1995
Joyce 00August 23, 2012
11 Katrina August 24, 2005 Unnamed August 28, 1936
Karen 00August 28, 1995
12 Luis August 29, 1995 Leslie August 30, 2012
13 Maria September 2, 2005 Michael September 4, 2012
Lee 00September 2, 2011
14 Nate September 5, 2005 Maria September 7, 2011
15 Ophelia September 7, 2005 (06z) Unnamed September 19, 1936
16 Philippe September 17, 2005 Ophelia September 21, 2011
17 Rita September 18, 2005 Philippe September 24, 2011
18 Stan October 2, 2005 Sebastien October 21, 1995
19 Unnamed October 4, 2005 Tony October 24, 2012
20 Tammy October 5, 2005 Unnamed November 15, 1933
21 Vince October 9, 2005 N/A
22 Wilma October 17, 2005 N/A
23 Alpha October 22, 2005 N/A
24 Beta October 27, 2005 N/A
25 Gamma November 18, 2005 N/A
26 Delta November 23, 2005 N/A
27 Epsilon November 29, 2005 N/A
28 Zeta December 30, 2005 N/A
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool

Note: Storms that originally form as a tropical depression will not be posted unless they reach tropical storm status (for example, Hurricane Michael in 2012 formed on September 3 as a tropical depression, but was not named until it reached tropical storm status, on September 4, thus putting Hurricane Michael on the list with the date September 4).

IntensityEdit

Most intenseEdit

Generally speaking, the intensity of a tropical cyclone is determined by either the storm's maximum sustained winds or lowest barometric pressure. The following table lists the most intense Atlantic hurricanes in terms of their lowest barometric pressure. In terms of wind speed, Allen from 1980 was the strongest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record, with maximum sustained winds of 190 mph (310 km/h). For many years, it was thought that Hurricane Camille also attained this intensity, but this conclusion was changed in 2014. The original measurements of Camille are suspect since wind speed instrumentation used at the time would likely be damaged by winds of such intensity.[14] Nonetheless, their central pressures are low enough to rank them among the strongest recorded Atlantic hurricanes.[1]

Owing to their intensity, the strongest Atlantic hurricanes have all attained Category 5 classification. Hurricane Opal, the strongest Category 4 hurricane recorded, intensified to reach a minimum pressure of 916 mbar (hPa; 27.05 inHg),[15] a pressure typical of Category 5 hurricanes.[16] Nonetheless, the pressure remains too high to list Opal as one of the ten strongest Atlantic tropical cyclones.[1] Currently, Hurricane Wilma is the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded, after reaching an intensity of 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) in October 2005;[14] this also made Wilma the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide outside of the West Pacific,[17][18][19][20][21] where seven tropical cyclones have been recorded to intensify to lower pressures.[22] However, this was later superseded by Hurricane Patricia in 2015 in the east Pacific, which had a pressure reading of 872 mbar. Preceding Wilma is Hurricane Gilbert, which had also held the record for most intense Atlantic hurricane for 17 years.[23] The 1935 Labor Day hurricane, with a pressure of 892 mbar (hPa; 26.34 inHg), is the third strongest Atlantic hurricane and the strongest documented tropical cyclone prior to 1950.[1] Since the measurements taken during Wilma and Gilbert were documented using dropsonde, this pressure remains the lowest measured over land.[24]

Hurricane Rita is the fourth strongest Atlantic hurricane in terms of barometric pressure and one of three tropical cyclones from 2005 on the list, with the others being Wilma and Katrina at first and seventh, respectively.[1] However, with a barometric pressure of 895 mbar (hPa; 26.43 inHg), Rita is the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico.[25] In between Rita and Katrina is Hurricane Allen. Allen's pressure was measured at 899 mbar. Hurricane Camille is the sixth strongest hurricane on record. Camille is the only storm to have been moved down the list due to post-storm analysis. Camille was originally recognized as the fifth strongest hurricane on record, but was dropped to the seventh strongest in 2014, with an estimated pressure at 905 mbars, tying it with Hurricanes Mitch, and Dean. Camille then was recategorized with a new pressure of 900 mbars. Currently, Mitch and Dean share intensities for the eighth strongest Atlantic hurricane at 905 mbar (hPa; 26.73 inHg).[24] Hurricane Maria is in tenth place for most intense Atlantic tropical cyclone, with a pressure as low as 908 mbar (hPa; 26.81 inHg).[26] In addition, the most intense Atlantic hurricane outside of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico is Hurricane Dorian of 2019, with a pressure of 910 mbar (hPa; 26.9 inHg).[27]

Many of the strongest recorded tropical cyclones weakened prior to their eventual landfall or demise. However, six of the storms remained intense enough at landfall to be considered some of the strongest landfalling hurricanes – six of the ten hurricanes on the list constitute six of the most intense Atlantic landfalls in recorded history. The 1935 Labor Day hurricane made landfall at peak intensity, the most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall.[28] Hurricane Camille made landfall in Waveland, Mississippi with a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg), making it the second most intense Atlantic hurricane landfall.[29] Though it weakened slightly before its eventual landfall on the Yucatán Peninsula, Hurricane Gilbert maintained a pressure of 900 mbar (hPa; 26.58 inHg) at landfall, making its landfall the second strongest, tied with Camille. Similarly, Hurricane Dean made landfall on the peninsula, though it did so at peak intensity and with a higher barometric pressure; its landfall marked the fourth strongest in Atlantic hurricane history.[24] Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico shortly after its peak intensity, with a pressure of 920 mbar (hPa; 27.17 inHg). In addition, despite being well past its peak intensity, Hurricane Katrina made landfall in Buras-Triumph, Louisiana with a pressure of 920 mbar (hPa; 27.17 inHg), thus making it the tenth-strongest landfall, tied with Maria.[30]

  • Note: Dropsondes have only been GPS-based for use in eyewalls since 1997,[31] and the quantity of aircraft reconnaissance and surface observation stations has changed over time, such that values from storms in different periods may not be 100% consistent.

Most intense by minimum barometric pressureEdit

Most intense Atlantic hurricanes
Hurricane Season By peak pressure By pressure at landfall
hPa inHg hPa inHg
Wilma 2005 882 26.05
Gilbert 1988 888 26.23 900 26.58
"Labor Day" 1935 892 26.34 892 26.34
Rita 2005 895 26.43
Allen 1980 899 26.55
Camille 1969 900 26.58 900 26.58
Katrina 2005 902 26.64
Mitch 1998 905 26.73
Dean 2007 905 26.73 905 26.73
Maria 2017 908 26.81
"Cuba" 1924 910 26.87
Dorian 2019 910 26.87
Janet 1955 914 26.99
Irma 2017 914 26.99
"Cuba" 1932 918 27.02
Michael 2018 919 27.14
Note: Grey shading indicates that the pressure was not a record, only the top ten storms for each category are included here.

Strongest by 1-minute sustained wind speedEdit

Strongest Atlantic hurricanes
Hurricane Season By peak sustained wind speed By wind speed at landfall
mph km/h mph km/h
Allen 1980 190 305
"Labor Day" 1935 185 295 185 295
Gilbert 1988 185 295 165 270
Wilma 2005 185 295
Dorian 2019 185 295 185 295
Mitch 1998 180 285
Rita 2005 180 285
Irma 2017 185 295 185 295
"Cuba" 1932 175 280 165 270
Janet 1955 175 280 175 280
Carla 1961 175 280
Camille 1969 175 280 175 280
Anita 1977 175 280 175 280
David 1979 175 280 175 280
Andrew 1992 175 280 165 270
Katrina 2005 175 280
Dean 2007 175 280 165 270
Felix 2007 175 280 165 270
Maria 2017 175 280 165 270
Note: Grey shading indicates that the wind speed was not a record, only the highest ranking storms for each category are included here.

Most intense by monthEdit

Intensity is measured solely by central pressure.

Most intense Atlantic tropical cyclones by month
Month Storm Year Minimum pressure Maximum winds Category Notes
January Alice 1955 ~980 mbar (hPa; 28.94 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1 [nb 4]
February "Groundhog Day" 1952 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg) 70 mph (110 km/h) Tropical storm [nb 5]
March Unnamed 1908 <991 mbar (hPa; 29.27 inHg) 100 mph (155 km/h) Category 2 [nb 5]
April Arlene 2017 990 mbar (hPa; 29.23 inHg) 50 mph (85 km/h) Tropical storm
May Able 1951 973 mbar (hPa; 28.74 inHg) 90 mph (150 km/h) Category 1
June Audrey 1957 946 mbar (hPa; 27.94 inHg) 125 mph (205 km/h) Category 3 [nb 6]
Alex 2010 110 mph (175 km/h) Category 2
July Emily 2005 929 mbar (hPa; 27.44 inHg) 160 mph (260 km/h) Category 5
August Allen 1980 899 mbar (hPa; 26.55 inHg) 190 mph (305 km/h) Category 5
September Gilbert 1988 888 mbar (hPa; 26.23 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
October Wilma 2005 882 mbar (hPa; 26.05 inHg) 185 mph (295 km/h) Category 5
November "Cuba" 1932 ≤915 mbar (hPa; 27.11 inHg) 175 mph (290 km/h) Category 5
December Nicole 1998 979 mbar (hPa; 28.91 inHg) 85 mph (140 km/h) Category 1

Hurricane Severity IndexEdit

Most severe landfalling Atlantic hurricanes in the United States
Based on size and intensity for total points on the Hurricane Severity Index[32]
Rank Hurricane Year Intensity Size Total
1 Carla 1961 17 25 42
2 Betsy 1965 15 25 40
3 Camille 1969 22 14 36
Opal 1995 11 25 36
Katrina 2005 13 23 36
6 Audrey 1957 17 16 33
Wilma 2005 12 21 33
8 Ivan 2004 12 20 32
9 Ike 2008 10 20 30
10 Andrew 1992 16 11 27

Fastest intensificationEdit

  • Fastest intensification from a tropical depression to a hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 12 hours
    Blanche 1969 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 85 mph (140 km/h) – from 0600 UTC to 1800 UTC August 11[1]
    Harvey 1981 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 80 mph (130 km/h) – from 1200 UTC September 12 to 0000 UTC September 13[1]
  • Fastest intensification from a tropical depression to a Category 5 hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 54 hours
    Wilma 2005 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 170 mph (275 km/h) – from 0000 UTC October 17 to 0600 UTC October 19[1]
    Maria 2017 – 35 mph (55 km/h) to 160 mph (258 km/h) – from 1800 UTC September 16 to 0000 UTC September 19[33]
  • Fastest intensification from a tropical storm to a Category 5 hurricane (1-minute sustained surface winds) – 24 hours
    Wilma 2005 – 70 mph (110 km/h) to 170 mph (275 km/h) – from 0600 UTC October 18 to 0600 UTC October 19[1]
  • Maximum pressure drop in 12 hours – 83 mbar
    Wilma 2005 – 975 millibars (28.8 inHg) to 892 millibars (26.3 inHg) – from 1800 UTC October 18 to 0600 UTC October 19[1]
  • Maximum pressure drop in 24 hours – 97 mbar
    Wilma 2005 – 979 millibars (28.9 inHg) to 882 millibars (26.0 inHg) – from 1200 UTC October 18 to 1200 UTC October 19[1]

Seasonal recordsEdit

From 1981 to 2010, there were on average 12.1 storms in the Atlantic Basin.[34] Each hurricane season may be impacted by an El Niño or La Niña which contributes to the number of storms in any given year, and a hurricane with a peak intensity of Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is classified as major. The most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history took place in 2005, when a total of 28 storms were counted. The storm count includes 15 hurricanes, of which 7 strengthened to major hurricane status. On the converse, the least active season in the modern satellite era took place in 1983 with just 4 named storms.

  • Note: The charts for post-1964 seasons are spread by a total margin of 10 storms from the given average of 12.1

1851–1964Edit

Most Atlantic hurricane seasons prior to the satellite era include 7 or fewer recorded tropical storms or hurricanes. As the usage of satellite data was not available until the mid-1960s, early storm counts are less reliable. Before the advent of the airplane or means of tracking storms, the ones recorded were storms that effected mainly populated areas. An undercount bias of zero to six tropical cyclones per year between 1851 and 1885 and zero to four per year between 1886 and 1910 has been estimated.[35] The following storms all date prior to 1965, and may or may not be fully factual due to a lack of complete information.

Most storms
Total
storms
Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Notes
Hurricanes Major
20 1933 20 11 6 "Major" includes 2 Category 5 hurricanes.
19 1887 19 11 2
17 1936 17 7 1
16 1949 16 7 3
1950 16 11 6 First year of named storms, 3/16 were unnamed.
1954 16 7 3 There was 1 unnumbered Tropical Depression
Fewest storms
Total
storms
Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Notes
Hurricanes Major
1 1914 1 0 0 Fewest storms in recorded history.
3 1930 3 2 2 One of only 2 seasons with less than 4 total storms.
4 1857 4 3 0 Earliest season documented by HURDAT.
1868 4 3 0 Re-analysis confirmed activity from "none known".
1883 4 3 2
1884 4 4 1
1890 4 2 1
1917 4 2 2
1925 4 2 0

1965–presentEdit

 
Hurricane Esther was the first to be "discovered" through satellite in 1961.
 
1983 was the least active season in the modern satellite era.

With the advent of the satellite came better and more accurate weather tracking. The first satellites sent into space to monitor the weather were known as Television Infrared Observation Satellites (TIROS). In 1961, Hurricane Esther was the first hurricane to be "discovered" through satellite readings. Although this modern invention was now available, the systems were initially not fully active enough to provide daily images of the storms.[36] Data for the North Atlantic region remained sparse as late as 1964 due to a lack of complete satellite coverage.[37]

Most storms
Total
storms
Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Notes
Hurricanes Major
28 2005 28 15 7 1 subtropical storm
19 1995 19 11 5
2010 19 12 5
2011 19 7 4
2012 19 10 2
18 1969 18 12 5
17 2017 17 10 6
Fewest storms
Total
storms
Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Notes
Hurricanes Major
4 1983 4 3 1 Fewest confirmed storms.
6 1965 6 5 1
1977 6 5 1
1982 6 2 1 1 subtropical storm
1986 6 4 0
7 1972 7 3 0 3 subtropical storms
1987 7 3 1
1992 7 4 1 1 subtropical storm
1994 7 3 0

Named storms by monthEdit

The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1st to November 30th each year with the peak of the season being between August and October.[38] Tropical systems that form outside of these months are referred to as "off season", and account for roughly 3% of all storms that form in a given year.[38] All of the records included below are for the most storms that formed in a given month, as the threshold for "fewest" is zero for expected months. Cases where "fewest storms" are unusual include the months when the hurricane season is at its peak.

Number of named storm occurrences by month
Month
Most Season
January 1 1938, 1951, 1978, 2016
February 1 1952
March 1 1908
April 1 1992, 2003, 2017
May 2 1887, 2012
June 3 1886, 1936, 1968
July 5 2005
August 8 2004, 2012
September 8 2002, 2010, 2019
October 8 1950
November 3 2005
December 2 1887, 2003
Based on data from: U.S. NOAA Coastal Service Center - Historical Hurricane Tracks Tool
† – Highest number for month by virtue of being only known season to see a storm form
* – Most recent occurrence

EffectsEdit

Costliest Atlantic hurricanesEdit

Hurricanes Katrina (left) and Harvey (right) both caused $125 billion in damage, more than any other tropical cyclone worldwide.
Costliest Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Damage[nb 7]
1 Katrina 2005 $125 billion
Harvey 2017
3 Maria 2017 $91.6 billion
4 Irma 2017 $77.2 billion
5 Sandy 2012 $68.7 billion
6 Ike 2008 $38 billion
7 Wilma 2005 $27.4 billion
8 Andrew 1992 $27.3 billion
9 Ivan 2004 $26.1 billion
10 Michael 2018 $25.1 billion

Deadliest Atlantic hurricanesEdit

 
Hurricane Mitch killed at least 11,374 people in Central America in October 1998.
Deadliest Atlantic hurricanes
Rank Hurricane Season Fatalities
1 "Great Hurricane" 1780 22,000–27,501
2 Mitch 1998 11,374+
3 Fifi 1974 8,210–10,000
4 "Galveston" 1900 8,000–12,000
5 Flora 1963 7,193
6 "Pointe-à-Pitre" 1776 6,000+
7 "Okeechobee" 1928 4,112+
8 "Newfoundland" 1775 4,000–4,163
9 "Monterrey" 1909 4,000
10 "Dominican Republic" 1930 2,000–8,000
See also: List of deadliest Atlantic hurricanes

Most tornadoes spawnedEdit

 
Hurricane Ivan spawned 120 tornadoes, more tornadoes than any other tropical cyclone on record.
Number of tornadoes spawned[39]
Rank Count Name Year
1 120 Hurricane Ivan 2004
2 115 Hurricane Beulah 1967
3 103[40] Hurricane Frances 2004
4 101 Hurricane Rita 2005
5 57 Hurricane Katrina 2005
6 54 Hurricane Harvey 2017
7 50 Tropical Storm Fay 2008
8 49 Hurricane Gustav 2008
9 47 Hurricane Georges 1998
10 44 Hurricane Cindy 2005

Miscellaneous recordsEdit

Miscellaneous records
Record Value Name Date
Distance traveled 6,850 miles (11,020 km)[41][42] Hurricane Faith 1966
Highest forward speed 69 mph (111 km/h)[1][43] Tropical Storm Six 1961
Largest in diameter 990 miles (1,590 km)[44][45] Hurricane Olga 2001
Longest duration (non consecutive) 28 days[1][46][47] "San Ciriaco" 1899
Longest duration (consecutive) 27.25 days[1][46][47] Ginger 1971
Longest duration (as a cat 5) 3.6 days[48] "Cuba" 1932

Worldwide cyclone records set by Atlantic stormsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.[5]
  2. ^ The first storm of 1938 was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone reaching tropical storm intensity during the year. However, an unnamed tropical storm in 1951 was the earliest instance of a tropical cyclone to have peaked at tropical storm intensity; it did so on January 4.[1]
  3. ^ Hurricane Otto of 2016 was the latest instance of a tropical cyclone reaching Category 2 intensity during the year. However, a hurricane in 1879 was the latest instance of a tropical cyclone to have peaked at Category 2 intensity; it did so on November 20.[1]
  4. ^ Alice formed in December 1954 but persisted into January 1955.
  5. ^ a b These are the strongest systems in their respective months by virtue of being the only known systems.
  6. ^ Hurricanes Audrey (1957) and Alex (2010) had the same minimum pressure, though Audrey was a Category 3 hurricane at peak strength while Alex peaked as a high-end Category 2.
  7. ^ All damage figures are in United States dollars, and are not adjusted for inflation.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)" (Database). United States National Hurricane Center. May 10, 2019.
  2. ^ National Hurricane Center. "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  3. ^ a b c Dorst, Neal (January 21, 2010). "G1) When is hurricane season?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.6. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  4. ^ a b Landsea, Chris; et al. (June 2013). "Documentation of Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Changes in HURDAT" (TXT). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Hurricane Research Division. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  5. ^ Goldenburg, Stan (June 1, 2012). "A3) What is a super-typhoon? What is a major hurricane? What is an intense hurricane?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.5. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  6. ^ Hurricanes: Science and Society. "1957 – Hurricane Audrey". Storms in the 1950s. University of Rhode Island. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  7. ^ http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/news/20160720_pa_1956to1960Reanalysis.pdf
  8. ^ a b Franklin, James L.; Brown, Daniel P. (March 10, 2006). Hurricane Emily (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Report (Report). Miami, Florida: United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
  9. ^ Hurricane.com. "Atlantic Hurricane and Tropical Storm Records". Hurricane.com. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  10. ^ Chambers, Gillan (December 1999). "Late Hurricanes: a Message for the Regio". Environment and development in coastal regions and in small islands. Coast and Beach Stability in the Lesser Antilles. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  11. ^ Paolino, JJ; Myrie, Donovan (2011). "Category Five Notables". Stormfacts.net. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  12. ^ a b http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/data/tcr/AL162016_Otto.pdf
  13. ^ Beven, John L.; Avila, Lixion A.; Blake, Eric S.; Brown, Daniel P.; Franklin, James L.; Knabb, Richard D.; Pasch, Richard J.; Rhome, Jamie R.; Stewart, Stacy R. (March 2008). "Atlantic Hurricane Season of 2005" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. Monthly Weather Review Atlantic Hurricane Season Summary. 136 (3): 1109–1173. Bibcode:2008MWRv..136.1109B. doi:10.1175/2007MWR2074.1. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  14. ^ a b Landsea, Chris (April 21, 2010). "E1) Which is the most intense tropical cyclone on record?". Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ). 4.6. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  15. ^ Mayfield, Max (November 29, 1995). Hurricane Opal Preliminary Report (Preliminary Report). National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  16. ^ Louisiana Geographic Information Center. "The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale". Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  17. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division; Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "The Northeast and North Central Pacific hurricane database 1949–2017". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. A guide on how to read the database is available here.
  18. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Best Track Information for the North Indian Ocean 1990-2008". India Meteorological Department. 2009. Archived from the original (XLS) on 16 November 2009. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  19. ^ Royer, Stephane (7 February 2003). "Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Gafilo". Météo France. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  20. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Information for the Australian Region". Bureau of Meteorology. 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
  21. ^ MetService (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship.
  22. ^ "Western North Pacific Typhoon best track file 1951-2019". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  23. ^ Willoughby, H.E.; Masters, J. M.; Landsea, C. W. (December 1, 1989). "A Record Minimum Sea Level Pressure Observed in Hurricane Gilbert". Monthly Weather Review. 117 (12): 2824–2828. Bibcode:1989MWRv..117.2824W. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<2824:ARMSLP>2.0.CO;2.
  24. ^ a b c Franklin, James L. (January 31, 2008). "Hurricane Dean" (PDF). National Hurricane Center Tropical Cyclone Reports. Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  25. ^ National Weather Service (November 14, 2005). "Post Storm Data Acquisition – Hurricane Rita Peak Gust Analysis and Storm Surge Data" (PDF). United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
  26. ^ Brown, Daniel. "Hurricane Maria Intermediate Advisory Number 15A". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
  27. ^ Lixion A. Avila (September 1, 2019). "Hurricane Dorian Forecast Discussion Number 34". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  28. ^ Bob Henson (September 6, 2017). "Category 5 Irma Hits Leeward Islands at Peak Strength". Weather Underground. Retrieved September 6, 2017.
  29. ^ R.H. Simpson; Arnold L. Sugg (April 1970). "The Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1969" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review. 98 (4): 293. Bibcode:1970MWRv...98..293S. doi:10.1175/1520-0493-98.4.293. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  30. ^ Knabb, Richard D.; Rhome, Jamie R. "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina." National Hurricane Center. December 20, 2005.
  31. ^ https://www.eol.ucar.edu/observing_facilities/avaps-dropsonde-system
  32. ^ Hurricane Severity Index
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