Outline of tropical cyclones

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to tropical cyclones:

Tropical cyclonestorm system characterized by a large low-pressure center and numerous thunderstorms that produce strong winds and heavy rain. Tropical cyclones strengthen when water evaporated from the ocean is released as the saturated air rises, resulting in condensation of water vapor contained in the moist air. They are fueled by a different heat mechanism than other cyclonic windstorms such as nor'easters, European windstorms, and polar lows. The characteristic that separates tropical cyclones from other cyclonic systems is that at any height in the atmosphere, the center of a tropical cyclone will be warmer than its surroundings; a phenomenon called "warm core" storm systems.

Nature of tropical cyclonesEdit

Tropical cyclones can be described as all of the following:

  • Storm – disturbed state of an environment or astronomical body's atmosphere especially affecting its surface, and strongly implying severe weather. It may be marked by significant disruptions to normal conditions such as strong wind, hail, thunder and lightning (a thunderstorm), heavy precipitation (snowstorm, rainstorm), heavy freezing rain (ice storm), strong winds (tropical cyclone, windstorm), or wind transporting some substance through the atmosphere such as sand or debris.
  • Natural disaster – major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes. A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's resilience, or ability to recover.

Types of tropical cyclonesEdit

Cumulative graph of tropical cyclones in the eastern Pacific

Tropical cyclone observationsEdit

Saffir–Simpson scale
Category 1-minute maximum sustained winds
m/s knots (kn) mph km/h
5 ≥ 70 m/s ≥ 137 kn ≥ 157 mph ≥ 252 km/h
4 58–70 m/s 113–136 kn 130–156 mph 209–251 km/h
3 50–58 m/s 96–112 kn 111–129 mph 178–208 km/h
2 43–49 m/s 83–95 kn 96–110 mph 154–177 km/h
1 33–42 m/s 64–82 kn 74–95 mph 119–153 km/h
TS 18–32 m/s 34–63 kn 39–73 mph 63–118 km/h
TD ≤ 17 m/s ≤ 33 kn ≤ 38 mph ≤ 62 km/h


Tropical cyclone historyEdit

Tropical cyclone seasonsEdit

Specific tropical cyclonesEdit

See alsoEdit


External linksEdit

Regional Specialized Meteorological Centres
Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers