List of American guerrillas in the Philippines
After the invasion of the Philippines by the Japanese in 1941, several Americans, civilian and military, evaded capture or escaped imprisonment. This occurred on several islands in the archipelago. With the aid of the local Philippine population, these Americans survived. However, not content with just surviving and avoiding capture, these Americans formed resistance groups, which were soon recognized by the American military, and eventually supplied. Initially relegated to an intelligence gathering role, these groups eventually took a more active and aggressive role, such that they were an integral part of the American re-conquest of the country.
|Bernard L. Anderson||US Army Air Corps major. Formed Kalayaan Command in Tayabas Province that focused on intel work. Linked up with Alejo Santos in the Bulacan Military Area north of Manila.:26 Col. Jaime Manzano was his executive officer.:114 Commanded 7,000 men.:226|||
|Robert Arnold||Commanded military and guerrillas of the 15th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Army which operated in Ilocos Norte.:222–224 His thirty American soldiers joined forces with Walter Cushing's miners.:109 He later joined Capt. Guillermo Nakar's guerrilla outfit.:109|||
|George Norman Arnovick||Fought for the Filipino Guerrillas in World War II, born in Shanghai to an English family. George was later taken as a POW in a Japanese internment camp before later being rescued by the United States Military. Once George arrived in America he joined the Army Air Corp and later became the father of three children.|
|Robert V. Ball||Enlisted man on Mindanao, joined Col. Fertig's guerrilla group, sailed in May 1944 from Samar to Baler Bay on Luzon, and delivered a radio transmitter to Lapham.:157|||
|Joseph Barker||Captain,:29 26th Cavalry, Philippine Scouts, US Army. Commanded East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area under Thorp, with Edwin Ramsey as adjutant and Bernard Anderson as chief of staff.:36 After the capture of Thorp, took command of Luzon Guerrilla Force. Captured in Manila while disguised as a priest.:56 Bayoneted to death by the Kempeitai at Manila North Cemetery on 2 October 1943.:183|||
|George M. Barnett||Major, commanded the 2nd and 3rd Districts under Volckmann.|||
|Leon Beck||Escaped from the Bataan Death March to become a guerrilla.:222|||
|Henry Roy Bell||Professor, Silliman University. Major in the guerrilla forces on Negros island, head of the Free Government, printed the Victory News, and ran a radio transmitter which established contact with SWPA and Fertig.:76,78–80, 127 Many Silliman students, alumni, faculty members and ROTC officers joined the resistance forces numbering 10,811 men.:166 The Bell family was evacuated by the USS Narwhal (SS-167) on 7 February 1944.:155–160|||
|Donald Dunwoody Blackburn (1916-2008)||11th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Army (11th Division, USAFFE). Did not join USAFIP surrender; evaded Bataan Death March. Joined Russell Volckmann. Helped organize Igorot guerrillas. Commanded 11th Infantry Regiment, USAFIP-NL.|||
|John P. Boone||US Army corporal:11 and wartime guerrilla colonel who formed the Bataan Military District that conducted intel work and sabotage. Recipient, Distinguished Service Cross.|||
|William E. Bowen (1905-1944)||Technical Sergeant, 228th Signal Corps. Joined Troop C, 26th Cavalry Regiment retreating from Camp John Hay. Became guerrilla. Captured April 1943. MIA in Japanese prison ship torpedoed by US Navy.|||
|Robert V. Bowler||US Army officer. Guerrilla leader on Mindanáo.|
|James Patrick Boyd||US Army; guerrilla on Luzon.:20|||
|Alfred Bruce||Sergeant, Philippine Scouts, US Army. Guerrilla captain, 2nd Battalion, Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts, which operated in Zambales Mountains under Thorp.:14|||
|Parker Calvert||Major, commanded the 1st District under Volckmann.|||
|James W. Carrington||US Marine PFC, stationed on Corregidor. Captured after surrender of Corregidor. Escaped from Bilibid Prison, saved by Moises and Jesus Gonzales. Became Commandant of the Headquarters and Security Detachment of the East Central Luzon Guerrilla Army Forces; engaged the Japanese for which he later received the Army Distinguished Service Cross. Retired from USMC as captain in 1958. In 2008 Jesus Gonzales visited Carrington at Destrehan nursing home, 11 days before Carrington died.|||
|Henry Clay Conner, Jr. (1918-2008)||US Army officers Conner and Anderson founded Squadron 155 (composed mainly of Aetas working for the Japanese air corps) that worked on collecting intel info. Conner's personal army consisted of several hundred Negritos.:94–95 He married the sister of the Negrito chief, Kodario Laxamana.:101|||
|James McCloud Cushing||Mining engineer and brother of Walter and Charles.:38 As combat officer of the guerrilla Cebu Area Command, he was commissioned lt. col. and officially recognized as commander of the 8th Military District by SWPA GHQ, Australia.:113 His "unit was disgraced" by Capt. Harry Fenton's "brutality and dissoluteness".:106|||
|Walter Mickey Cushing (September 12, 1907–October 2, 1943)||Civilian mining executive. Organised his miners and joined forces with Lt. Robert Arnold.:109 His brother, Lt. Charles Cushing, ran another guerrilla camp,:89 which included the gold miners Herb Swick and Enoch French,:55 as Barker's Pangasinan district commander, but as a Capt. in 1943, he surrendered after they imprisoned his wife.:36,55 French was later captured.:65 Walter moved in and out of Manila disguised as a priest, Father Navarro.:63 His men made one of the first guerrilla attacks on a Japanese convoy on 1 January 1942, which killed 60 and destroyed ten trucks with supplies, months before the Fall of Bataán.:30–31 After more impressive successes, he was commissioned captain by Col. Horan, and his group incorporated into Horan's 121st Infantry Regiment, Philippine Army.:31–32 He published The Echo of the Free North, based on news from San Francisco.:32 Bayoneted to death by the Kempeitai at Manila North Cemetery on 2 October 1943,:183 though Volckmann claims he was killed in a Japanese ambush at Jones, Isabela.:35–36|||
|Doyle Decker||Member of the 155th Provisional Guerrilla Battalion which operated in Central Luzón. Operated with Robert Mailheau and Frank Gyovai, under Lt. Clay Conner's command.:46,100–101,113|||
|Alvin J. Farretta||Guerrilla Capt. on Luzon, awarded the Distinguished Service Cross.:220|||
|Harry Fenton (1907 – 1 September 1943)||Administrative officer of the guerrilla Cebu Area Command.:104–113 His extreme repressive measures and punitive actions against suspected collaborators, fueled by fanatic hatred against the Japanese, led to his execution by Filipinos in 1943. Among the famous victims of his atrocities was the Mandaue Lawyer and Historian, Eugeniano Ouano Perez, who was killed personally by Fenton on January 17, 1943 due to incompetence. Eugeniano was born on January 7, 1901 in Mandaue City..|||
|Wendell W. Fertig||US Army colonel, overall guerrilla commander on Mindanáo, with 33,000 men.:226 His divisional commanders included Capt. Charles Hedges (108th plus Chief of Staff), James Grinstead (109th), Frank McGee (106th), Lt. Col. Robert Bowler (105th):7, 307 Capt. Ernest McClish (110th), and Capt. Clyde Childress (107th).:110 Fertig, with Aaron Bank, and Russell Volckmann, founded the US Army Special Forces.|||
|Richard R. Green||Civilian, along with Swick, escaped from Camp Holmes, and joined the USAFIP-NL in April 1943.:148|||
|Edward James Haggerty||Jesuit priest. Joined guerrillas on Mindanao.|||
|Jack Hawkins||Lieutenant, 4th Marine Regiment, Corregidor. Interned at Cabanatuan POW camp. Transferred to Davao Penal Colony, escaped, joined guerrillas on Mindanao.|||
|Albert Hendrickson||Signal Corps private who became a wartime guerrilla captain under Robert Lapham, commanding the Tarlac province.:26,60 Conducted the Itogon Mine Raid in October 1942.:166 Captured Tarlac City on 16 January 1945.:188|||
|John P. Horan||US Army colonel. Commander, John Hay Air Base.:80–81 Formed the 121st guerrilla regiment.:29 Surrendered after the Fall of Corregidor.:32|||
|Ray C. Hunt||Far East Air Force sergeant, Provisional Air Corps Regiment infantryman in the Battle of Bataan, and wartime guerrilla captain under Robert Lapham.:26,68|||
|Thomas S. Jones||US Army lt.:35 Sole survivor of Ralph Praeger's Troop C, 26th Cavalry Regiment, Philippine Scouts. Captured with Praeger.:151–152|||
|Dick Lang||PFC, US Army Air Corps. Maintenance crewman, 19th Bomber Group, Clark Field. Became guerrilla leader on Mindanáo.|||
|Robert Lapham||US Army Philippine Scouts lieutenant and wartime guerrilla major on Luzón of 14,191 men.:226 Commander of the Luzon Guerrilla Army Forces. Warned Gen. Krueger of impending massacre of prisoners at Cabanatuan POW camp. Recipient, Philippine Legion of Honor.|||
|Adolf Gustaaf Lembong||:67 The only Indonesian soldier ever to fight alongside the Filipinos during a major war. Captured by the Japanese in Indonesia, he was deported and sent to be imprisoned in the Philippines, but was able to escape in 1944. He joined a guerilla unit in Luzon, which fought the Japanese forces. For at least 2 years in captivity, he was able to master the Tagalog and English Language. After the war, he returned to Indonesia, only to die in 1950 during an uprising after post-independence from the Dutch Government.|||
|Frank R. Loyd|||
|Ralph McGuire||US Army captain and civilian engineer.:14–15 Commander of Western Luzon Guerrilla Area of Thorp's Luzon Guerrilla Force.:36 Killed April 1943 by Negritos.:54|||
|Harry McKenzie||Former mining superintendent and trusted subordinate of Lapham.:29,38–39|||
|Gyles Merrill||Col. guerrilla commander on West Luzón.:35 After leaving the camp run by William, Vernon and Catalina Fassoth, he was joined by Col. Peter Cayler, and Capt. George E. Crane, Capt. Kadel, Pvt. Leon Beck, Johnny Johns, and Raymond Herbert.:37,105|||
|Martin Moses and Arthur Noble||US Army lieutenant colonels in the 12th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Army and then the 11th Division, USAFFE:54 who escaped to Benguet after Fall of Bataán.:82–83 Organised United States Army Forces in the Philippines - Northern Luzon. Attacked Itogon Mines. Captured 3 June 1943, and executed three months later.:83|||
|Arthur Murphy||Head of intelligence under Volckmann.:181|||
|John O'Day||Former Brooklyn policeman who led a group of irregulars in Ilocos Norte, and feuded with Capt. Fermin Bueno's group.:109 Organized the 15th Infantry under Volckmann.:153|||
|Yay Panlilio||She was a journalist with the Philippines Herald before the war. Marcos Augustin's, Marking's 12,000 guerrillas,:226 mistress and "brains of the outfit" operating near Manila.:70 The Marking's guerrillas had fierce "feuds" with the Hunters guerrillas, led by Eleuterio "Terry" Adeviso, resulting in "gunfights, kidnapping, and even executions.":108–109|||
|Nicholas Daniel "Danny" Pociluyko||US Army Air Corps Staff Sgt/Crew Chief 14th Bomber Squadron. Was at Clark Airfield when bombed Dec 8, 1941 then sent to Mindanao Dec 25, 1941 to support military resistance. Refused General Sharp's May 9, 1942 order to surrender with Beverly "Ben" Farrens, Lowell "Bit" Holder, Bill Johnson, John Spruill, and 7 others. Listed as "missing" for 18 months and within 10 months only 6 of the original 14 were still alive. Later was joined by Donald "Herb" Wills who had jumped from POW ship and swam ashore. In July 1942 in Kapai, met civilian engineers Jordan Hamner and Athol Y."Chick" Smith, then risked his life to provide a cover story to help them pass through the territory of a local chief (Fugitives, 2001 by Bob Stahl). Commissioned in the field to 2nd then 1st Lieutenant under Fertig. Directed a radio station and was coast watcher on the Zamboanga peninsula at Dipolog and Illigan in the Lanao province, moved about through Kapai Valley. Discovered a deserted six-thousand foot civilian airfield and directed Filipino troops under his command to renovate for landing of US planes; known as "Nick's Tower". Was involved in several fire-fights against Japanese attempts to take the airfield. According to personal letters from "Ben" Farrens, saved the lives of several pilots, saved and repaired numerous planes, helped aid escapees from Davao POW camp, and rescued ship wrecked soldiers. His accurate reports of Japanese ships were credited for US forces to sink or disabling of several enemy vessels. Often met and was counseled by Jesuit priest Father J. Edward Haggerty, per Haggerty's letter to his family. Returned to US in 1945. Retired in 1960 as Major. Interned with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.|
|Ralph B. Praeger||US Army captain. Commander, Troop C, 26th Cavalry Regiment, Philippine Scouts, that operated in northeastern Luzón.:34 Operated a radio transmitter, and formed a guerrilla force with two Lts., Thomas Jones and Warren A. Minton, that included his troop plus disbanded Philippine Army troops, which then raided Japanese airfields at Tuguegarao, Cagayan, and Aparri.:35 After the Fall of Bataán, joined his force with Gov. Marcelo Adduru's Cagayan-Apayao Forces. Northern Luzon commander under Thorp.:36 Captured in Apayao in July 1943;:226 executed in Manila, December 1944.|||
|Charles Putnam||Mining engineer who received an emergency commission as a capt., and then recruited guerrillas in the Lingayen Gulf area.:57|||
|Edwin Price Ramsey||US Army lieutenant and guerrilla leader on Luzón of 13,000-14,000 men.:226 Commanding a 27-man platoon, mostly of 'G' Troop, of the 26th Cavalry Regiment, Philippine Scouts, ordered the US Cavalry's last horse-mounted charge, 16 January 1942, in Moróng, Bataán. Commander of East Central Luzon Guerrilla Area. Took over Thorp's region after the capture of Thorp and Barker, which included Pierce Wade:56,111 Recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross and the Philippine Legion of Honor. Ramsey was succeeded by Col. Mario Pamintuan as commander of guerrilla forces in northwest Pampanga,:18 when Major Ramsey moved his central headquarters to the vicinity of Manila.:63|||
|Royal Reynolds||Major, Philippine Scouts, US Army. Commander, 3rd Battalion, Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts, which operated in Zambales Mountains.|
|Iliff David Richardson||US Navy ensign, wartime US Army major, guerrilla intelligence officer in the Visayan Islands, and chief-of-staff under guerrilla Colonel Ruperto Kangleon.|||
|Grafton Spencer||Private, commanded the 2nd Battalion of the 66th Infantry under Calvert, but killed by the Japanese in April 1944.:149|||
|Jack Spies||26th Cavalry Regiment captain who joined Claude Thorp's Luzon Guerrilla Force as commandeder of Southern Luzon.:35–36 Killed by Japanese.|||
|Joseph St. John||One of Richardson's guerrilla radio operators on Leyte.:170|||
|Hugh Straughn||US Army retired colonel. Organised Fil-American Irregular Troops (FAIT) which operated in Rizál. Executed by the Japanese August 1943.:63|||
|Herbert Swick||Civilian gold mining engineer who evaded the Japanese, and then joined the guerrillas in October 1942. Captured in early 1943, he escaped and joined the USAFIP-NL in April 1943.:553|||
|Claude A. Thorp||US Army Maj. Provost Marshall, Fort Stotsenburg.:13 Assigned by MacArthur to conduct intelligence operations in the Zambales Mountains during the Battle of Bataan. Formed Luzon Guerrilla Force after the fall of Bataán with his secretary and lover, Herminia Dizon or "Minang".:14 Captured on 29 October 1942, 30 km west of Tarlac (Nom de guerre was Crabtree),:68–72,134 along with his radioman Bill Brooks.:54 Bayoneted to death by the Kempeitai at Manila North Cemetery on 2 October 1943.:183|||
|Carlyle Townswick||Guerrilla on Mindanáo.|
|Russell William Volckmann||US Army officer, Philippine Commonwealth Army regimental officer in the Battle of Bataan. Escaped through Japanese lines with Blackburn. Became the commander of United States Army Forces in the Philippines - Northern Luzon, with 22,000 men by the end of the war.:226 He sought to bring the other guerrilla organizations on Luzón under his command, but was resisted by other commanders, notably Robert Lapham.:112–113 Korean War special operations officer. Post-war, authored US Army field manuals on guerrilla warfare. With Aaron Bank and Wendell Fertig, co-founder of the US Army Special Forces.|||
|Everett Warner||Major who operated a radio in Northern Luzon, but surrendered:35,140 after the Fall of Corregidor.:130|||
|Eddie Wright||Lt. col., 45th Infantry Regiment, Philippine Scouts, US Army. Organised Provisional Regiment of Philippine Scouts, Mountain Group Command, which operated in Zambales Mountains.|
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