Philippine Legion of Honor
The Philippine Legion of Honor (Filipino: Lehiyong Pandangal ng Pilipinas) was established by President Manuel Roxas, through Philippine Army Circular No. 60 dated July 3, 1947. The Philippine Legion of Honor was patterned after the Legion of Merit of the United States of America, and was meant to honor both civilians and members of the military, Filipino or foreign. Originally, like the U.S. Legion of Merit, the Philippine Legion of Honor only had four classes, known as degrees, with Legionnaire being the basic rank, and Chief Commander being the highest. With the reform of the Philippine system of orders and decorations in 2003, the Philippine Legion of Honor's classes were renamed "ranks" instead of "degrees", and the ranks expanded.
|Philippine Legion of Honor|
|Awarded by Philippines|
|Type||Single Grade Neck Order/Sash/Medal|
|Eligibility||Military Personnel, Diplomats, Heads of States & Government|
|Awarded for||Meritorious & Valuable Service|
|Next (higher)||civilian: Quezon Service Cross military: Gold Cross|
|Equivalent||civilian Order of Lakandula, Order of Sikatuna; foreign: Legion of Merit|
|Next (lower)||civilian: Order of National Artists, Order of National Social Scientists, Order of National Scientists, Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan, Order of Lakandula - Special Class of Champion for Life; military: Distinguished Service Star|
|Related||Legion of Merit|
Ribbons of Legionnaire degree
Today, the Philippine Legion of Honor is conferred upon a Filipino or foreign citizen in recognition of valuable and meritorious service in relation to the military affairs of the Republic of the Philippines. It is thus the primary order of military merit of the Republic of the Philippines.
To signify the importance of the civil service in military affairs in the preservation of the honor of the Republic of the Philippines and in nation building, the Philippine Legion of Honor is conferred on the anniversary of the declaration of Philippine Independence.
The Philippine Legion of Honor may be awarded by the Secretary of National Defense in the name and by authority of the President of the Philippines.
The civilian division of the Philippine Legion of Honor is composed of the following ranks:
- Chief Commander (CCLH) (Punong Komandante) - Conferred upon a civilian for life achievement in public service not otherwise qualifying for the Quezon Service Cross; or upon a former or incumbent Head of State and/or of government
- Grand Commander (GCLH) (Marangal na Komandante) – Conferred upon a civilian for singular acts of service with a tangible impact on the Philippine military sphere; or upon a Crown Prince, Vice President, Senate President, Speaker of the House, Chief Justice or the equivalent, foreign minister or other official of cabinet rank; or upon an Ambassador, Undersecretary, Assistant Secretary, or other person of a rank similar or equivalent to the foregoing for life achievement in the military field
- Grand Officer (GOLH) (Marangal na Pinuno) – Conferred upon a civilian for acts of exemplary merit benefiting the Republic of the Philippines; or upon a Chargé d'affaires, e.p., Minister, Minister Counselor, Consul General heading a consular post, Executive Director, or other person of a rank similar or equivalent to the foregoing
- Commander (CLH) (Komandante) – Conferred upon a civilian for acts of conspicuous merit benefiting the Republic of the Philippines; or upon a Chargé d'affaires, a.i., Counselor, First Secretary, Consul General in the consular section of an Embassy, Consular officer with a personal rank higher than Second Secretary, Director, or other person of a rank similar or equivalent to the foregoing
- Officer (OLH) (Pinuno) – Conferred upon a civilian for acts of commendable merit benefiting the Republic of the Philippines; or upon a Second Secretary, Consul, Assistant Director, or other person of a rank similar or equivalent to the foregoing
- Legionnaire (LLH) (Lehiyonaryo) – Conferred upon a civilian for acts of merit benefiting the Republic of the Philippines; or upon a Third Secretary, Vice Consul, Attaché, Principal Assistant, or other person of a rank similar or equivalent to the foregoing.
The Armed Forces of the Philippines has its own regulations governing the conferment of the Philippine Legion of Honor.
Chief Commander (CCLH)Edit
- Emilio Aguinaldo, 1957, former President of the Philippines
- Akihito, Emperor of Japan, 2002
- Jesus V. Ayala, 2011
- Gregorio Pio Catapang, 2015, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
- Emmanuel T. Bautista, 2014, Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines.
- Chiang Kai-shek, 1949, President of the Republic of China
- Hillary Clinton, 2013, former United States Secretary of State
- Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1961, former President of the United States
- Francisco Franco, 1951, head of the Spanish state
- Daniel Inouye, United States Senator
- José P. Laurel, 1959, former President of the Philippines
- Ferdinand Marcos, 1972, former President of the Philippines
- Imelda Marcos, First Lady of the Philippines
- Douglas MacArthur, 1961, Philippine field marshal
- Sergio Osmeña, 1994, former President of the Philippines
- Fidel V. Ramos, former President of the Philippines
- Jesse M. Robredo, Secretary of the Interior and Local Government, given posthumously on August 28, 2012.
- Chino Roces, 1988, founder and owner of Associated Broadcasting Company and the Manila Times
- Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1947, former President of the United States (posthumous)
- Jaime L. Sin, 1992, Archbishop of Manila
- Achmad Sukarno, 1951, President of Indonesia
- Lorenzo M. Tañada, 1986, Senator of the Philippines
- Maxwell D. Taylor, 1955, U.S. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
- Claudio Teehankee, Sr., 1988, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
- Eduardo Año - 48th Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
Grand Commander (GCLH)Edit
- Jaime Augusto Zóbel de Ayala II, 2010
- Fernando Zóbel de Ayala, 2010
- Jaime Zóbel de Ayala, 2009
- Gilbert C. Teodoro, Jr., 2009, former Secretary of National Defense
- Emilio Yap, 2006
- Napoleon G. Rama, 2011, Constitutional Commissioner
Grand Officer (GOLH)Edit
- Benigno Aquino, Jr., 1954
- Eulogio Balao
- Sotero B. Cabahug, 1959
- Joseph J. Cappucci
- Tomas Confesor
- Carlos P. Romulo
- Gen. Alfredo M. Santos
- Lt. Gen. Cardozo Luna
- Bernard W. Kearney, 1959
- Jorge B. Vargas, 1960
- Juan Ponce Enrile, 1974 and 1986
- Nicanor Bartolome
- Washington SyCip, 1991
- Arturo C. Lomibao, 2006
- Harry B. Harris Jr, 2018
- Kearie Lee Berry, 1955
- Benigno S. Aquino, Jr., 1950
- Florentino Das, 11 May 1956 (for exceptional feat of traveling by sea using his homemade boat from Hawaii to Siargao island
- Manny Pacquiao, 2008 (Boxer, Philippine Army reservist)
- Justin David L. Pascual, 2017 (Philippine Air Force Reservist, Xavier School Citizen Advancement Training Commandant)
- Arnel Paciano D. Casanova, 1995, UP Law Student, (GRP Panel, Office of Presidential Adviser on Peace Process)
- The AFP Adjutant General, AFP Awards and Decorations Handbook, 1995, 1997, 2014, OTAG, p. 18-22.
- "Executive Order No. 236, September 19, 2003: Establishing the Honors Code of the Philippines to Create an Order of Precedence of Honors Conferred and For Other Purposes". Supreme Court E-Library. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "Briefer on the Philippine Legion of Honor". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Gov.ph. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- "Quezon Service Cross". Retrieved 2012-08-28.
- Edith Regalado (2 May 2011). "P-Noy confers Legion of Honor on Ayala". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 17 May 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Sinapit, Jaime (July 18, 2014). "New AFP chief Catapang vows to pursue transformation road map". Interaksyon. Archived from the original on 2014-07-20. Retrieved July 19, 2014.
- "Bulletin No. 11 from the Committee on Funeral Arrangements and Burial of the late Secretary Jesse M. Robredo". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Gov.ph. 1986-03-25. Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- Manila Bulletin, Legion of Honor Awarded to Don Jaime Zobel de Ayala
- "Florentino Das: A forgotten Filipino conqueror of the Pacific".
- Mananghaya, James (December 23, 2008). "Sergeant Pacquiao gets Legion of Honor". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- The AFP Adjutant General, AFP Awards and Decorations Handbook, 1995, 1997, 2014 OTAG.